# Unitary transformation

In mathematics, a **unitary transformation** is a transformation that preserves the inner product: the inner product of two vectors before the transformation is equal to their inner product after the transformation.

## Formal definition

More precisely, a **unitary transformation** is an isomorphism between two inner product spaces (such as Hilbert spaces). In other words, a *unitary transformation* is a bijective function

between two inner product spaces, and such that

## Properties

A unitary transformation is an isometry, as one can see by setting in this formula.

## Unitary operator

In the case when and are the same space, a unitary transformation is an automorphism of that Hilbert space, and then it is also called a unitary operator.

## Antiunitary transformation

A closely related notion is that of **antiunitary transformation**, which is a bijective function

between two complex Hilbert spaces such that

for all and in , where the horizontal bar represents the complex conjugate.

## See also

- Antiunitary
- Orthogonal transformation
- Time reversal
- Unitary group
- Unitary operator
- Unitary matrix
- Wigner's theorem
- Unitary transformations in quantum mechanics