Tipu Sultan

Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu,[5] 1 December 1751 – 4 May 1799),[1][6] also known as the Tiger of Mysore,[7] was the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore based in South India. He was a pioneer of rocket artillery.[8][9][10] He introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, including a new coinage system and calendar,[11] and a new land revenue system, which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry.[12] He expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets and commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin. He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur and Siege of Srirangapatna.[13]

Tipu Sultan
Mir Fateh Ali Bahadur Tipu
Portrait of Tipu Sultan by an anonymous Indian artist in Mysore, c. 1790–1800
Sultan of Mysore
Reign10 December 1782 – 4 May 1799
Coronation29 December 1782
PredecessorHyder Ali
SuccessorKrishnaraja Wodeyar III (as Wodeyar ruler)
Born(1751-12-01)1 December 1751[1][2]
Devanahalli, present-day Bangalore, Karnataka
Died4 May 1799(1799-05-04) (aged 47)[2]
Srirangapatna, present-day Mandya, Karnataka
Srirangapatna, present-day Mandya, Karnataka
12°24′36″N 76°42′50″E
SpouseKhadija Zaman Begum and 2 or 3 others
IssueShezada Hyder Ali, Ghulam Muhammad Sultan Sahib and many others
Badshah Nasib-ud-Daulah Sultan Mir Fateh Ali Bahadur Saheb Tipu
FatherHyder Ali
MotherFatima Fakhr-un-Nisa
ReligionSunni Islam[3][4]

Tipu Sultan and his father used their French-trained army in alliance with the French in their struggle with the British,[14] and in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers: against the Marathas, Sira, and rulers of Malabar, Kodagu, Bednore, Carnatic, and Travancore. Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, had risen to power and Tipu succeeded him as the ruler of Mysore upon his death from cancer in 1782. He won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War. He negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them, ending the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

Tipu's conflicts with his neighbours included the Maratha–Mysore War, which ended with the signing of the Treaty of Gajendragad.[15] The treaty required that Tipu Sultan pay 4.8 million rupees as a one-time war cost to the Marathas, and an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees, in addition to returning all the territory captured by Hyder Ali.[16][17]

Tipu remained an implacable enemy of the British East India Company, sparking conflict with his attack on British-allied Travancore in 1789. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War, he was forced into the Treaty of Seringapatam, losing a number of previously conquered territories, including Malabar and Mangalore. He sent emissaries to foreign states, including the Ottoman Empire, Afghanistan, and France, in an attempt to rally opposition to the British.

In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, a combined force of British East India Company troops, supported by the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad defeated Tipu. He was killed on 4 May 1799 while defending his stronghold of Seringapatam.

Early years


Tippu's birthplace, Devanahalli.
Tipu Sultan confronts his opponents during the Siege of Srirangapatna.

Tipu Sultan was born on 10 November 1750 at Devanahalli,[1][2] in present-day Bangalore Rural district, about 33 km (21 mi) north of Bangalore city. He was named "Tipu Sultan" after the saint Tipu Mastan Aulia of Arcot. Being illiterate, Hyder was very particular in giving his eldest son a prince's education and a very early exposure to military and political affairs. From the age of 17 Tipu was given independent charge of important diplomatic and military missions. He was his father's right arm in the wars from which Hyder emerged as the most powerful ruler of southern India.[18]

Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, was a military officer in service to the Kingdom of Mysore who had become the de facto ruler of Mysore in 1761 while his mother Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa was the daughter of Mir Muin-ud-Din, the governor of the fort of Kadapa. Hyder Ali appointed able teachers to give Tipu an early education in subjects like Urdu, Persian, Arabic, Kannada, beary, Quran, Islamic jurisprudence, riding, shooting and fencing.[2][19][20][21]

Early military service

A flintlock blunderbuss, built for Tipu Sultan in Srirangapatna, 1793–94. Tipu Sultan used many Western craftsmen, and this gun reflects the most up-to-date technologies of the time.[22]

Tipu Sultan was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. At age 15, he accompanied his father against the British in the First Mysore War in 1766. He commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16. He also distinguished himself in the First Anglo-Maratha War of 1775–1779.[23]

Alexander Beatson, who published a volume on the Fourth Mysore War entitled View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun, described Tipu Sultan as follows: "His stature was about five feet eight inches; he had a short neck, square shoulders, and was rather corpulent: his limbs were small, particularly his feet and hands; he had large full eyes, small arched eyebrows, and an aquiline nose; his complexion was fair, and the general expression of his countenance, not void of dignity".[24]

Second Anglo-Mysore War

In 1779, the British captured the French-controlled port of Mahé, which Tipu had placed under his protection, providing some troops for its defence. In response, Hyder launched an invasion of the Carnatic, with the aim of driving the British out of Madras.[25] During this campaign in September 1780, Tipu Sultan was dispatched by Hyder Ali with 10,000 men and 18 guns to intercept Colonel Baillie who was on his way to join Sir Hector Munro. In the Battle of Pollilur, Tipu decisively defeated Baillie. Out of 360 Europeans, about 200 were captured alive, and the sepoys, who were about 3800 men, suffered very high casualties. Munro was moving south with a separate force to join Baillie, but on hearing the news of the defeat he was forced to retreat to Madras, abandoning his artillery in a water tank at Kanchipuram.[26]

Mural of the Battle of Pollilur on the walls of Tipu's summer palace, painted to celebrate his triumph over the British

Tipu Sultan defeated Colonel Braithwaite at Annagudi near Tanjore on 18 February 1782. Braithwaite's forces, consisting of 100 Europeans, 300 cavalry, 1400 sepoys and 10 field pieces, was the standard size of the colonial armies. Tipu Sultan seized all the guns and took the entire detachment prisoner. In December 1781 Tipu Sultan successfully seized Chittur from the British. Tipu Sultan had thus gained sufficient military experience by the time Hyder Ali died on Friday, 6 December 1782 – some historians put it at 2 or 3 days later or before, (Hijri date being 1 Muharram, 1197 as per some records in Persian – there may be a difference of 1 to 3 days due to the Lunar Calendar). Tipu Sultan realised that the British were a new kind of threat in India. He became the ruler of Mysore on Sunday, 22 December 1782 (The inscriptions in some of Tipu's regalia showing it as 20 Muharram, 1197 Hijri – Sunday), in a simple coronation ceremony. He then worked on to check the advances of the British by making alliances with the Marathas and the Mughals. The Second Mysore War came to an end with the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore.[27]

Ruler of the Mysore

Tipu Sultan seated on his throne (1800), by Anna Tonelli

In 1780, Tipu crowned himself Badshah or Emperor of Mysore, and struck coinage.

Tipu Sultan's summer palace at Srirangapatna, Karnataka

Conflicts with Maratha Confederacy

The Maratha Empire, under its new Peshwa Madhavrao I, regained most of Indian subcontinent, twice defeating Tipu's father, who was forced to accept Maratha Empire as the supreme power in 1764 and then in 1767. In 1767 Maratha Peshwa Madhavrao defeated both Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan and entered Srirangapatna, the capital of Mysore. Hyder Ali accepted the authority of Madhavrao who gave him the title of Nawab of Mysore.[28]

However Tipu Sultan wanted to escape from the treaty of Marathas and therefore tried to take some Maratha forts in Southern India, which were captured by Marathas in the previous war. Tipu also stopped the tribute to Marathas which was promised by Hyder Ali.[16] This brought Tipu in direct conflict with the Marathas, leading to Maratha–Mysore War[16] Conflicts between Mysore (under Tipu) and Marathas:

Conflict ended with Treaty of Gajendragad in March 1787, as per which Tipu returned all the territory captured by Hyder Ali to Maratha Empire.[16][17] Tipu agreed to pay four year arrears of tribute which his father Hyder Ali had agreed to pay to Maratha Empire (4.8 million rupees), The Marathas agreed to address Tipu sultan as "Nabob Tipu Sultan Futteh Ally Khan".[29]

Tipu would also release Kalopant and return Adoni, Kittur, and Nargund to their previous rulers. Badami would be ceded to the Marathas. Tipu would also pay an annual tribute of 12 lakhs, for an agreed period of 4 years to the Marathas. In return, Tipu Sultan would get all the region that he had captured during the war. This includes Gajendragarh and Dharwar.[30][31] In Fourth Anglo-Mysore War maratha empire presented its support to the East India Company.

The Invasion of Travancore by Sultanate of Mysore (1766–1790)

Tipu Sultan at the lines of Travancore.

In 1766, when Tipu Sultan was just 15 years old, he got the chance to apply his military training in battle for the first time, when he accompanied his father on an invasion of Malabar. After the incident- Siege of Tellicherry in Thalassery in North Malabar,[32] Hyder Ali started losing his territories in Malabar. Tipu came from Mysore to reinstate the authority over Malabar. After the Battle of the Nedumkotta (1789–90), due to the monsoon flood, the stiff resistance of the Travancore forces and news about the attack of British in Srirangapatnam he went back.[33]

Third Anglo-Mysore War

Cannon used by Tipu Sultan's forces at the battle of Srirangapatna 1799
Very small Cannon used by Tipu Sultan's forces now in Government Museum (Egmore), Chennai

In 1789, Tipu Sultan disputed the acquisition by Dharma Raja of Travancore of two Dutch-held fortresses in Cochin. In December 1789 he massed troops at Coimbatore, and on 28 December made an attack on the lines of Travancore, knowing that Travancore was (according to the Treaty of Mangalore) an ally of the British East India Company.[34] On account of the staunch resistance by the Travancore army, Tipu was unable to break through the Tranvancore lines and the Maharajah of Travancore appealed to the East India Company for help. In response, Lord Cornwallis mobilised company and British military forces, and formed alliances with the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad to oppose Tipu. In 1790 the company forces advanced, taking control of much of the Coimbatore district.[34] Tipu counter-attacked, regaining much of the territory, although the British continued to hold Coimbatore itself. He then descended into the Carnatic, eventually reaching Pondicherry, where he attempted without success to draw the French into the conflict.[34]

General Lord Cornwallis, receiving two of Tipu Sultan's sons as hostages in the year 1793.

In 1791 his opponents advanced on all fronts, with the main British force under Cornwallis taking Bangalore and threatening Srirangapatna. Tipu harassed the British supply and communication and embarked on a "scorched earth" policy of denying local resources to the British.[34] In this last effort he was successful, as the lack of provisions forced Cornwallis to withdraw to Bangalore rather than attempt a siege of Srirangapatna. Following the withdrawal, Tipu sent forces to Coimbatore, which they retook after a lengthy siege.[34]

The 1792 campaign was a failure for Tipu. The allied army was well-supplied, and Tipu was unable to prevent the junction of forces from Bangalore and Bombay before Srirangapatna.[34] After about two weeks of siege, Tipu opened negotiations for terms of surrender. In the ensuing treaty, he was forced to cede half his territories to the allies,[23] and deliver two of his sons as hostages until he paid in full three crores and thirty lakhs rupees fixed as war indemnity to the British for the campaign against him. He paid the amount in two instalments and got back his sons from Madras.[34]

Napoleon's attempt at a junction

Louis XVI receives the ambassadors of Tipu Sultan in 1788. Tipu Sultan is known to have sent many diplomatic missions to France, the Ottoman Empire, Sultanate of Oman, Zand Dynasty and Durrani Empire.[35]

In 1794, with the support of French Republican officers, Tipu allegedly helped found the Jacobin Club of Mysore for 'framing laws comfortable with the laws of the Republic'. He planted a Liberty Tree and declared himself Citizen Tipoo.[36] In a 2005 paper, historian Jean Boutier argued that the club's existence, and Tipu's involvement in it, was fabricated by the East India Company in order to justify British military intervention against Tipu.[37]

One of the motivations of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt was to establish a junction with India against the British. Bonaparte wished to establish a French presence in the Middle East, with the ultimate dream of linking with Tippoo Sahib.[38] Napoleon assured the French Directory that "as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions."[39] According to a 13 February 1798 report by Talleyrand: "Having occupied and fortified Egypt, we shall send a force of 15,000 men from Suez to India, to join the forces of Tipu-Sahib and drive away the English."[39] Napoleon was unsuccessful in this strategy, losing the Siege of Acre in 1799 and at the Battle of Abukir in 1801.[40]

Although I never supposed that he (Napoleon) possessed, allowing for some difference of education, the liberality of conduct and political views which were sometimes exhibited by old Hyder Ali, yet I did think he might have shown the same resolved and dogged spirit of resolution which induced Tipu Sahib to die manfully upon the breach of his capital city with his sabre clenched in his hand.

Sir Walter Scott, commenting on the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814


Fourth Anglo-Mysore War

The Last Effort and Fall of Tipu Sultan by Henry Singleton, c. 1800
File:Sir David Baird Discovering Body of Tipu Sultan
The spot in Srirangapatana where Tipu's body was found

Horatio Nelson defeated François-Paul Brueys D'Aigalliers at the Battle of the Nile in Egypt in 1798. Three armies marched into Mysore in 1799—one from Bombay and two British, one of which included Arthur Wellesley.[41] They besieged the capital Srirangapatna in the Fourth Mysore War.[42] There were more than 60,000 soldiers of the British East India Company, approximately 4,000 Europeans and the rest Indians; while Tipu Sultan's forces numbered only 30,000. The betrayal by Tipu Sultan's ministers in working with the British and weakening the walls to make an easy path for the British.[43][44] The death of Tipu Sultan lead British General Harris to exclaim "now india is ours".[45]

When the British broke through the city walls, French military advisers told Tipu Sultan[46] to escape via secret passages and to fight the rest of the wars from other forts, but he refused.[47]

Tipu Sultan was killed at the Hoally (Diddy) Gateway, which was located 300 yards (270 m) from the N.E. Angle of the Srirangapatna Fort.[48] He was buried the next afternoon at the Gumaz, next to the grave of his father. Many members of the British East India Company believed that Nawab of Carnatic Umdat Ul-Umra secretly provided assistance to Tipu Sultan during the war and sought his deposition after 1799. These five men include Mir Sadiq, Purnaiya, two military commanders Saiyed Saheb and Qamaruddin, and Mir Nadim, commandant of the fort of Seringapatam. The episode of treachery as narrated by Hasan starts with the disobedience of Tipu’s instructions.[49] When he died there were jubilant celebrations in Britain, with authors, playwrights and painters creating works to celebrate it.[50] The death of Tipu Sultan was celebrated with declaration of public holiday in Britain.[51]


Tipu introduced a new calendar, new coinage, and seven new government departments, during his reign, and made military innovations in the use of rocketry.

Mysorean rockets

Tipu Sultan organised his Rocket artillery brigades known as Cushoons, Tipu Sultan expanded the number of servicemen in the various Cushoons from 1500 to almost 5000. The Mysorean rockets utilised by Tipu Sultan, were later updated by the British and successively employed during the Napoleonic Wars.

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, the former President of India, in his Tipu Sultan Shaheed Memorial Lecture in Bangalore (30 November 1991), called Tipu Sultan the innovator of the world's first war rocket. Two of these rockets, captured by the British at Srirangapatna, were displayed in the Royal Artillery Museum in London. According to historian Dr Dulari Qureshi Tipu Sultan was a fierce warrior king and was so quick in his movement that it seemed to the enemy that he was fighting on many fronts at the same time.[43] Tipu managed to subdue all the petty kingdoms in the south. He was also one of the few Indian rulers to have defeated British armies.

Tipu Sultan's father had expanded on Mysore's use of rocketry, making critical innovations in the rockets themselves and the military logistics of their use. He deployed as many as 1,200 specialised troops in his army to operate rocket launchers. These men were skilled in operating the weapons and were trained to launch their rockets at an angle calculated from the diameter of the cylinder and the distance to the target. The rockets had twin side sharpened blades mounted on them, and when fired en masse, spun and wreaked significant damage against a large army. Tipu greatly expanded the use of rockets after Hyder's death, deploying as many as 5,000 rocketeers at a time.[52] The rockets deployed by Tipu during the Battle of Pollilur were much more advanced than those the British East India Company had previously seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missiles (up to 2 km range).[52][13]

British accounts describe the use of the rockets during the third and fourth wars.[53] During the climactic battle at Srirangapatna in 1799, British shells struck a magazine containing rockets, causing it to explode and send a towering cloud of black smoke with cascades of exploding white light rising up from the battlements. After Tipu's defeat in the fourth war the British captured a number of the Mysorean rockets. These became influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket, which was soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars.[13]

In 1786 Tipu Sultan, again following the lead of his father, decided to build a navy consisting of 20 battleships of 72 cannons and 20 frigates of 65 cannons. In the year 1790 he appointed Kamaluddin as his Mir Bahar and established massive dockyards at Jamalabad and Majidabad. Tipu Sultan's board of admiralty consisted of 11 commanders in service of a Mir Yam. A Mir Yam led 30 admirals and each one of them had two ships. Tipu Sultan ordered that the ships have copper-bottoms, an idea that increased the longevity of the ships and was introduced to Tipu by Admiral Suffren.[54]


Due to their perpetual battle engagements, Haidar and Tipu required a disciplined standing army. Thus, Rajputs, Muslims and Bedars were enrolled for full time service replacing the local militia called the Kandachar[55] force of agricultural origin which existed in the Mysore army earlier. The removal of the Vokkaligas from the local militia which had taken part in wars for centuries and the imposition of higher taxes on them in place of their quit rent led indirectly to the implementation of Ryotwari system. Now the Ryots could not rely upon slaves for their agricultural activities since their slaves were enrolled in the army in some places. Besides paying higher taxes they had to endure the additional responsibility of feeding the slaves and financing their marriages. This led to the weakening of the system of slavery in Mysore.[56]


The peak of Mysore's economic power was under Tipu Sultan in the late 18th century. Along with his father Hyder Ali, he embarked on an ambitious program of economic development, aiming to increase the wealth and revenue of Mysore.[57] Under his reign, Mysore overtook Bengal Subah as India's dominant economic power, with highly productive agriculture and textile manufacturing.[58] Mysore's average income was five times higher than subsistence level at the time.[59]

Tipu Sultan laid the foundation for the construction of the Kannambadi dam (present-day Krishna Raja Sagara or KRS dam) on the Kaveri river, as attested by an extant stone plaque bearing his name, but was unable to begin the construction.[60][61] The dam was later built and opened in 1938. It is a major source of drinking water for the people of Mysore and Bangalore.

The Mysore silk industry was first initiated during the reign of Tipu Sultan.[62] He sent an expert to Bengal Subah to study silk cultivation and processing, after which Mysore began developing polyvoltine silk.[12]

Road development

Tipu Sultan was considered as pioneer of road construction, especially in Malabar, as part of his campaigns, he connected most of the cities by roads.[63]

Foreign relations

Mughal Empire

Both Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan owed nominal allegiance to the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II; both were described as Nabobs by the British East India Company in all existing treaties. But unlike the Nawab of Carnatic, they did not acknowledge the overlordship of the Nizam of Hyderabad.[64]

Immediately after his coronation as Badshah, Tipu Sultan sought the investiture of the Mughal emperor. He earned the title "Nasib-ud-Daula" with the heavy heart of those loyal to Shah Alam II. Tipu was a selfdeclared "Sultan" this fact drew towards him the hostility of Nizam Ali Khan, the Nizam of Hyderabad, who clearly expressed his hostility by dissuading the Mughal emperor and laying claims on Mysore. Disheartened, Tipu Sultan began to establish contacts with other Muslim rulers of that period.[65]

Tipu Sultan was the master of his own diplomacy with foreign nations, in his quest to rid India of the East India Company and to ensure the international strength of France. Like his father before him he fought battles on behalf of foreign nations which were not in the best interests of Shah Alam II.

After Ghulam Qadir had Shah Alam II blinded on 10 August 1788, Tipu Sultan is believed to have broken into tears.[66]

Tipu Sultan's forces during the Siege of Srirangapatna.

After the Fall of Seringapatam in 1799, the blind emperor did remorse for Tipu, but maintained his confidence in the Nizam of Hyderabad, who had now made peace with the British.


After facing substantial threats from the Marathas, Tipu Sultan began to correspond with Zaman Shah Durrani, the ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire, so they could defeat the British and Marathas. Initially, Zaman Shah agreed to help Tipu, but the Persian attack on Afghanistan's Western border diverted its forces, and hence no help could be provided to Tipu.

Ottoman Empire

In 1787, Tipu Sultan sent an embassy to the Ottoman capital Constantinople, to the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid I requesting urgent assistance against the British East India Company. Tipu Sultan requested the Ottoman Sultan to send him troops and military experts. Furthermore, Tipu Sultan also requested permission from the Ottomans to contribute to the maintenance of the Islamic shrines in Mecca, Medina, Najaf and Karbala.

However, the Ottomans were themselves in crisis and still recuperating from the devastating Austro-Ottoman War and a new conflict with the Russian Empire had begun, for which Ottoman Turkey needed British alliance to keep off the Russians, hence it could not risk being hostile to the British in the Indian theatre.

Due to the Ottoman inability to organise a fleet in the Indian Ocean, Tipu Sultan's ambassadors returned home only with gifts from their Ottoman brothers.

Nevertheless, Tipu Sultan's correspondence with the Ottoman Empire and particularly its new Sultan Selim III continued till his final battle in the year 1799.[65]

Persia and Oman

Like his father before him, Tipu Sultan maintained friendly relations with Mohammad Ali Khan, ruler of the Zand Dynasty in Persia. Tipu Sultan also maintained correspondence with Hamad bin Said, the ruler of the Sultanate of Oman.[67]

Qing China

Tipu’s and Mysore’s tryst with silk began in the early 1780s when he received an ambassador from the Qing dynasty-ruled China at his court. The ambassador presented him with a silk cloth. Tipu was said to be enchanted by the item to such an extent that he resolved to introduce its production in his kingdom. He sent a return journey to China, which returned after twelve years.[68]

In his attempts to junction with Tipu Sultan, Napoleon annexed Ottoman Egypt in the year 1798.

Both Hyder Ali and Tipu sought an alliance with the French, the only European power still strong enough to challenge the British East India Company in the subcontinent. In 1782, Louis XVI concluded an alliance with the Peshwa Madhu Rao Narayan. This treaty enabled Bussy to move his troops to the Isle de France (now Mauritius). In the same year, French Admiral De Suffren ceremonially presented a portrait of Louis XVI to Haidar Ali and sought his alliance.[69]

Napoleon conquered Egypt in an attempt to link with Tipu Sultan. In February 1798, Napoleon wrote a letter to Tipu Sultan appreciating his efforts of resisting the British annexation and plans, but this letter never reached Tipu and was seized by a British spy in Muscat. The idea of a possible Tipu-Napoleon alliance alarmed the British Governor, General Sir Richard Wellesley (also known as Lord Wellesley), so much that he immediately started large scale preparations for a final battle against Tipu Sultan.

Judicial system

Tipu Sultan appointed judges from both communities for Hindu and Muslim subjects. Qadi for Muslims and Pandit for Hindus in each province. Upper courts also had similar systems.[70]

Moral Administration

Usage of liquor and prostitution were strictly prohibited in his administration.[71] Usage and agriculture of psychedelics, such as Cannabis, was also prohibited.[72]

Polyandry in Kerala was prohibited by Tipu Sultan. He passed a decree for all women to cover their breasts, which was not practised in Kerala in the previous era.[73][74]

Religious policy

On a personal level, Tipu was a devout Muslim, saying his prayers daily and paying special attention to mosques in the area.[75] Regular endowments were made during this period to about 156 Hindu temples,[76] including the famed Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangapatna.[77] Many sources mention the appointment of Hindu officers in Tipu's administration[78] and his land grants and endowments to Hindu temples,[79][80][81] which are cited as evidence for his religious tolerance.

His religious legacy has become a source of considerable controversy in India, with some groups (including Christians[82] and even Muslims) proclaiming him a great warrior for the faith or Ghazi[83][84] for both religious and political reasons.[77] Various sources describe the massacres,[85] imprisonment[86] and forced conversion[87] of Hindus (Kodavas of Coorg, Nairs of Malabar) and Christians (Catholics of Mangalore), the destruction of churches[88] and temples, and the clamping down on Muslims (Mappila of Kerala, the Mahdavia Muslims, the rulers of Savanur and the people of Hyderabad State), which are sometimes cited as evidence for his intolerance.

British accounts

Historians such as Brittlebank, Hasan, Chetty, Habib, and Saletare, amongst others, argue that controversial stories of Tipu Sultan's religious persecution of Hindus and Christians are largely derived from the work of early British authors (who were very much against Tipu Sultan's independence and harboured prejudice against the Sultan) such as James Kirkpatrick[89] and Mark Wilks,[90] whom they do not consider to be entirely reliable and likely fabricated.[91] A. S. Chetty argues that Wilks' account in particular cannot be trusted.[92]

Irfan Habib and Mohibbul Hasan argue that these early British authors had a strong vested interest in presenting Tipu Sultan as a tyrant from whom the British had liberated Mysore.[91][93] This assessment is echoed by Brittlebank in her recent work where she writes that Wilks and Kirkpatrick must be used with particular care as both authors had taken part in the wars against Tipu Sultan and were closely connected to the administrations of Lord Cornwallis and Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley.[94]

Relations with Hindus

Tipu Sultan's treasurer was Krishna Rao, Shamaiya Iyengar was his Minister of Post and Police, his brother Ranga Iyengar was also an officer, and Purnaiya held the very important post of "Mir Asaf". Moolchand and Sujan Rai were his chief agents at the Mughal court, and his chief "Peshkar", Suba Rao, was also a Hindu.[78]

The Editor of Mysore Gazette reports of correspondence between his court and temples, and his having donated jewellery and deeded land grants to several temples, which he was compelled to for forming alliances with Hindu rulers. Between 1782 and 1799 Tipu Sultan issued 34 "Sanads" (deeds) of endowment to temples in his domain, while also presenting many of them with gifts of silver and gold plate.[81]

The Srikanteswara Temple in Nanjangud still possesses a jeweled cup presented by the Sultan.[80] He also gave a greenish linga; to Ranganatha temple at Srirangapatna, he donated seven silver cups and a silver camphor burner. This temple was hardly a stone's throw from his palace from where he would listen with equal respect to the ringing of temple bells and the muezzin's call from the mosque; to the Lakshmikanta Temple at Kalale he gifted four cups, a plate and Spitoon in silver.[79][81]

During the Maratha–Mysore War in 1791, a group of Maratha horsemen under Raghunath Rao Patwardhan raided the temple and matha of Sringeri Shankaracharya. They wounded and killed many people, including Brahmins, plundered the monastery of all its valuable possessions, and desecrated the temple by displacing the image of goddess Sarada.[78]

The incumbent Shankaracharya petitioned Tipu Sultan for help. About 30 letters written in Kannada, which were exchanged between Tipu Sultan's court and the Sringeri Shankaracharya, were discovered in 1916 by the Director of Archaeology in Mysore. Tipu Sultan expressed his indignation and grief at the news of the raid:[78][95]

"People who have sinned against such a holy place are sure to suffer the consequences of their misdeeds at no distant date in this Kali age in accordance with the verse: "Hasadbhih kriyate karma rudadbhir-anubhuyate" (People do [evil] deeds smilingly but suffer the consequences crying)."[96]

He immediately ordered the Asaf of Bednur to supply the Swami with 200 rahatis (fanams) in cash and other gifts and articles. Tipu Sultan's interest in the Sringeri temple continued for many years, and he was still writing to the Swami in the 1790s.[97]

In light of this and other events, historian B. A. Saletare has described Tipu Sultan as a defender of the Hindu dharma, who also patronised other temples including one at Melkote, for which he issued a Kannada decree that the Shrivaishnava invocatory verses there should be recited in the traditional form.[98] The temple at Melkote still has gold and silver vessels with inscriptions indicating that they were presented by the Sultan. Tipu Sultan also presented four silver cups to the Lakshmikanta Temple at Kalale.[98] Tipu Sultan does seem to have repossessed unauthorised grants of land made to Brahmins and temples, but those which had proper sanads (certificates) were not. It was a normal practice for any ruler, Muslim or Hindu, on his accession or on the conquest of new territory.

Persecution of Kodavas outside Mysore

A soldier from Tipu Sultan's army, using his rocket as a flagstaff.

Tipu got Runmust Khan, the Nawab of Kurnool, to launch a surprise attack upon the Kodavas who were besieged by the invading Muslim army. 500 were killed and over 40,000 Kodavas fled to the woods and concealed themselves in the mountains.[99] Thousands of Kodavas were seized along with the Raja and held captive at Seringapatam.[87]

Mohibbul Hasan, Prof. Sheikh Ali, and other historians cast great doubt on the scale of the deportations and forced conversions in Coorg in particular. Hassan says that it is difficult to estimate the real number of Kodava captured by Tipu.[100]

In a letter to Runmust Khan, Tipu himself stated:[101]

"We proceeded with the utmost speed, and, at once, made prisoners of 40,000 occasion-seeking and sedition-exciting Kodavas, who alarmed at the approach of our victorious army, had slunk into woods, and concealed themselves in lofty mountains, inaccessible even to birds. Then carrying them away from their native country (the native place of sedition) we raised them to the honour of Islam, and incorporated them into our Ahmedy corps." [102]

The coinage system

The coinage of Tipu Sultan is one of most complex and fascinating series struck in India during the 18th century. Local South India coinage had been struck in the area that became Mysore since ancient times, with the first gold coinage introduced about the 11th century (the elephant pagoda), and other pagodas continuing through the following centuries. These pagoda were always in the South Indian style until the reign of Haidar Ali (1761–1782), who added pagodas with Persian legends, plus a few very rare gold mohurs and silver rupees, always in the name of the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II plus the Arabic letter "ح" as the first letter of his name. His successor, Tipu Sultan, continued to issue pagodas, mohurs and rupees, with legends that were completely new. As for copper, the new large paisa was commenced by Haidar Ali in AH1195, two years before his death, with the elephant on the obverse, the mint on the reverse, and was continued throughout the reign of Tipu Sultan, who added other denominations. Tipu Sultan introduced a set of new Persian names for the various denominations, which appear on all of the gold and silver coins and on some of the copper. They were:

Copper: Qutb "قطب" for the 1/8 paisa (Persian for the pole star) – Akhtar "اختر" for the 1/4 paisa (star) – Bahram "بهرام" for the 1/2 paisa (the planet Mars) – Zohra "زهره" for the paisa (the planet Venus) – either Othmani "عثمانی" for the double-paisa (the third caliph of the Rashidun) or Mushtari "مشتری" (the planet Jupiter).

Silver: Khizri "خضری" for the 1/32 rupee (Khizr the prophet) – Kazimi "کاظمی" for the 1/16 rupee (for Musa, the seventh Shi'ite Imam) – Ja'fari "جعفری" for the 1/8 rupee (Ja'far al-Sadiq, the sixth Shi'ite Imam) – Bâqiri "باقری" for the 1/4 rupee (Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Imam) – Abidi "عبیدی" for the 1/2 rupee (Ali Zain al-'Abidin, the fourth Imam) – Imami for the rupee (reference to the 12 Shi'ite Imams) – Haidari "حیدری" for the double-rupee (lion, for Ali b. Abi Talib, who was both the fourth caliph and the first Shi'ite Imam).

Gold: Faruqi "فاروقی" for the pagoda (Umar al-Faruq, the second caliph) – Sadîqi "صدیقی" for the double-pagoda (Abu Bakr al-Sadiq, the first caliph) – Ahmadi "احمدی" for the four-pagoda ( "most praised ", one of the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad). During his first 4 years, the large gold coin was the mohur, with an average weight of about 10.95g (AH1197-1200), replaced with the four-pagoda of 13.74g with the calendar change to the Mauludi "مولودی" system (AM1215-1219).

Coinage dating system

The denomination does not appear on the Hijri dated gold coins, but was added on all the Mauludi dated pieces.

At the beginning of his first year, Tipu Sultan abandoned the Hijri dating system and introduced the Mauludi system (from the Arabic word "walad ", which means "birth "), based on the solar year and the birth year of Muhammad (actually 571 AD, but for some perplexing reason reckoned as 572 by Tipu Sultan for his staff).

From the beginning of his reign, Tipu Sultan added the name of the Indian cyclic year on the large silver and gold coins, including this double-pagoda, together with his regnal year. Each of the names is Persian, though in several examples, the meaning of the names in India was different from the Iranian meaning (not indicated here). According to the Indian meanings, these are the cyclic years: Zaki "زکي" for cyclic 37, which corresponded to his year 1 ( "pure ") – Azâl "أزل" for 38 ( "eternity ", year 2) – Jalal "جَلال" for 39 ( "splendor ", year 3) – Dalv "دَلو" for 40 (the sign of Aquarius, year 4) – Shâ "شاه" for 41 ( "king ", year 5) – Sârâ "سارا" for 42 ( "fragrant ", year 6) – Sarâb "سراب" for 43 ( "mirage ", for year 7) – Shitâ "شتا" for 44 ( "winter ", year 8) – Zabarjad "زبرجد" for 45 ( "topaz ", year 9) – sahar "سَحَر" ( "dawn ", year 10) – Sâher "ساحِر" ( "magician ", year 11).[103]

Assessment and legacy

Among his many innovations, Tipu introduced new coin denominations and new coin types, including this handsome copper double paisa weighing over 23 gm. The coin on the left also contains the emblem of the Sultanate of Mysore.

Assessments of Tipu Sultan have often been passionate and divided. Successive Indian National Congress governments have often celebrated Tipu Sultan's memory and monuments and relics of his rule while the Bharatiya Janata Party has been largely critical. School and college textbooks in India officially recognize him as a "freedom-fighter" along with many other rulers of the 18th century who fought European powers.[104] The original copy of the Constitution of India bears a painting of Tipu Sultan.[105]

The 14th Indian president Ram Nath Kovind hailed Tipu Sultan in his address to the Karnataka Assembly on the occasion of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations of the state secretariat Vidhana Soudha saying “Tipu Sultan died a heroic death fighting the British. He was also a pioneer in the development and use of Mysore rockets in warfare. This technology was later adopted by the Europeans.“[106]

Tipu Sultan is also admired as a hero in Pakistan. Former Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan has said that he admires Tipu Sultan as a freedom fighter.[107]

Tipu also patronised art forms such as Ganjifa cards, effectively saving this art form.[108] Ganjifa card of Mysore have the GI Tag today.[109]

Sword and tiger

Tipu Sultan had lost his sword in a war with the Nairs of Travancore during the Battle of the Nedumkotta (1789), in which he was forced to withdraw due to the severe joint attack from the Travancore army and British army.[110] The Nair army under the leadership of Raja Kesavadas again defeated the army of Tipu near Aluva. The Maharaja, Dharma Raja, gave the famous sword to the Nawab of Arcot, from whom the sword was taken as a war trophy by the British after annexing Arcot and sent to London. The sword was on display at the Wallace Collection, No. 1 Manchester Square, London.

Tipu was commonly known as the Tiger of Mysore and adopted this animal as the symbol (bubri/babri)[111] of his rule.[112] It is said that Tipu Sultan was hunting in the forest with a French friend. They came face to face with a tiger there. The tiger first pounced on the French soldier and killed him. Tipu's gun did not work, and his dagger fell on the ground as the tiger jumped on him. He reached for the dagger, picked it up, and killed the tiger with it. That earned him the name "the Tiger of Mysore". He even had French engineers build a mechanical tiger for his palace.[113] The device, known as Tipu's Tiger, is on display in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.[114] Not only did Tipu place relics of tigers around his palace and domain, but also had the emblem of a tiger on his banners and some arms and weapons. Sometimes this tiger was very ornate and had inscriptions within the drawing, alluding to Tipu's faith – Islam.[115] Historian Alexander Beatson reported that "in his palace was found a great variety of curious swords, daggers, fusils, pistols, and blunderbusses; some were of exquisite workmanship, mounted with gold, or silver, and beautifully inlaid and ornamented with tigers' heads and stripes, or with Persian and Arabic verses".[116]

The last sword used by Tipu in his last battle, at Sri Rangapatnam, and the ring worn by him were taken by the British forces as war trophies. Till April 2004, they were kept on display at the British Museum London as gifts to the museum from Maj-Gen Augustus W.H. Meyrick and Nancy Dowager.[117] At an auction in London in April 2004, Vijay Mallya purchased the sword of Tipu Sultan and some other historical artefacts, and brought them back to India.[118]

In October 2013, another sword owned by Tipu Sultan and decorated with his babri (tiger stripe motif) surfaced and was auctioned by Sotheby's.[119] It was purchased for £98,500[120] by a telephone bidder.

Tipu Sultan Jayanti

In 2015, the Government of Karnataka, under the leadership of then Chief Minister Siddaramaiah from the Congress party, began to celebrate Tipu's birth anniversary as the "Tipu Sultan Jayanti".[121] The Congress regime declared it as an annual event to be celebrated on 20 November.[122] It was officially celebrated in Karnataka initially by the Minority Welfare department, and later by the Kannada & Culture department. However, on 29 July 2019, the next Chief Minister B. S. Yediyurappa, who belongs to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), ordered the celebrations cancelled, saying: "Legislators from Kodagu had highlighted incidents of violence during Tipu Jayanti."

Objecting against the cancellation of the celebrations, the previous Chief Minister Siddaramaiah said: "BJP has cancelled it because of their hatred towards minorities. It’s a big crime. He [Tipu] was a king of Mysore and fought against the British [as] a freedom fighter. It was during his time when the foundation was laid for the Krishna Raja Sagara dam. He also tried to improve industry, agriculture and trade". The previous year, not a single JD(S) leader, including the then chief minister HD Kumaraswamy, attended the event, turning it into a fiasco.[121]

The Lok Sabha Congress leader, Mallikarjun Kharge, also earlier criticized BJP and RSS for their opposition against holding the celebrations, and asked: "When RSS can celebrate Nathuram Godse, can't we celebrate Tipu Sultan?”[123]

In fiction


The mausoleum housing Tipu's tomb is another example of Islamic architecture. Tipu's flag is in the foreground.
The tomb of Tipu Sultan at Srirangapatna. Tipu's tomb is adjacent to his mother's and father's graves.

Tipu Sultan's paternal family line claims descent from Muhammad, hence why their name's contain Sayyid and Wal Sharif.

Tipu had several wives.[129] One of them, Sindh Sahiba, was quite renowned for her beauty and intelligence and whose grandson was Sahib Sindh Sultan also known as His Highness Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Ahmed Halim-az-Zaman Khan Sultan Sahib. Tipu's family was sent to Calcutta by the British. Many other descendants continue to live in Kolkata.

His sons were:

  1. Shahzada Sayyid Shareef Hyder Ali Khan Sultan (1771 – 30 July 1815)
  2. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Abdul Khaliq Khan Sultan (1782 – 12 September 1806)
  3. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhi-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1782 – 30 September 1811)
  4. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Mu'izz-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1783 – 30 March 1818)
  5. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Mi'raj-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1784?  ?)
  6. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Mu'in-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1784?  ?)
  7. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Yasin Khan Sultan (1784 – 15 March 1849)
  8. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Subhan Khan Sultan (1785 – 27 September 1845)
  9. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Shukrullah Khan Sultan (1785 – 25 September 1830)
  10. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Sarwar-ud-din Khan Sultan (1790 – 20 October 1833)
  11. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Nizam-ud-din Khan Sultan (1791 – 20 October 1791)
  12. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Jamal-ud-din Khan Sultan (1795 – 13 November 1842)
  13. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Munir-ud-din Khan Sultan (1795 – 1 December 1837)
  14. Shahzada Sir Sayyid walShareef Ghulam Muhammad Sultan Sahib, KCSI (March 1795 – 11 August 1872)
  15. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Ghulam Ahmad Khan Sultan (1796 – 11 April 1824)
  16. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Hashmath Ali Khan Sultan (expired at birth)

See also


  1. "Rewriting History: How I Discovered the True Birth Date of Tipu Sultan". News18. 19 July 2021. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  2. Hasan 2005, p. 6.
  3. Potter, L. (5 January 2009). The Persian Gulf in History. ISBN 9780230618459.
  4. Hardiman, David (March 2021). Noncooperation in India: Nonviolent Strategy and Protest, 1920-22. ISBN 978-0-19-758056-1.
  5. "Tipu Sultan's 216th death anniversary: 7 unknown facts you should know about the Tiger of Mysore : Listicles: Microfacts". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 4 May 2015. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  6. Olikara, Nidhin G. (28 August 2021). "New light on Tipu Sultan". Frontline. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  7. Cavendish, Richard (4 May 1999). "Tipu Sultan killed at Seringapatam". History Today. 49 (5). Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  8. Colley, Linda (2000). "Going Native, Telling Tales: Captivity, Collaborations and Empire". Past & Present (168): 190. ISSN 0031-2746. JSTOR 651308.
  9. Dalrymple, p. 243
  10. Jamil, Arish. "Why Mysore? The Idealistic and Materialistic Factors Behind Tipu Sultan's War Rocket Success" (PDF). Emory Endeavors in World History - Volume 5. Emory College of Arts and Science. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  11. Hasan 2005, p. 399.
  12. Datta, R.K. (2007). Global Silk Industry: A Complete Source Book. APH Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 978-81-313-0087-9.
  13. Narasimha, Roddam (27 July 2011). "Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750–1850 A.D." (PDF). National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.
  14. Roy 2011, p. 77.
  15. Hasan 2005, pp. 105–107.
  16. Naravane, M. S. (2006). Battles of the Honourable East India Company: Making of the Raj. APH Publishing. ISBN 9788131300343.
  17. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1995). Anglo-Maratha Relations, 1785-96. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 9788171547890.
  18. "The history of South India is relatively unknown: Rajmohan Gandhi". Business Standard India. 9 December 2018.
  19. Haroon, Anwar (June 2013). Kingdom of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. p. 95. ISBN 9781483615349.
  20. Wenger, Estefania (March 2017). Tipu Sultan: A Biography. p. 4. ISBN 9789386367440.
  21. "The Sultan of Mysore – Tipu Sultan". Karnataka.com. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  22. Exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  23. Chisholm 1911.
  24. Beatson, Alexander (1800). "Appendix No. XXXIII". A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun. London: G. & W. Nichol. pp. ci–civ. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013.
  25. Fortescue, John William (1902). A history of the British army, Volume 3. Macmillan. pp. 431–432.
  26. "The Tiger and The Thistle – Tipu Sultan and the Scots in India". nationalgalleries.org. Archived from the original on 11 November 2006.
  27. Parliament, Great Britain (1817). The Parliamentary History of England from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803. T.C. Hansard.
  28. Roy 2011, p. 72.
  29. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1995). Anglo-Maratha Relations, 1785–96. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 9788171547890.
  30. Hasan 2005, p. 105.
  31. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1994). Anglo-Maratha Relations, 1785-96. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-789-0.
  32. Dictionary of Indian biography. London S. Sonnenschein. 1906.
  33. "Tipu Sultan – Personalities". Karnataka.com. 10 November 2016.
  34. Wenger, Estefania (1 March 2017). Tipu Sultan: A Biography. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 978-93-86367-44-0.
  35. "Islamic Voice". islamicvoice.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  36. Roychoudhury, Upendrakishore (April 2004). White Mughals. Penguin Books India. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-14-303046-1.
  37. Boutier, Jean (2005). "Les "lettres de créances" du corsaire Ripaud. Un "club jacobin" à Srirangapatnam (Inde), mai-juin 1797". Les Indes Savantes.
  38. Watson, William E. (2003). Tricolor and Crescent. ISBN 9780275974701.
  39. Amini, Iradj (January 1999). Napoleon and Persia. ISBN 9780934211581.
  40. Karsh, Efraim; Karsh, Inari (2001). Empires of the Sand. ISBN 9780674005419.
  41. Francis, P. Sempa. "Wellington in India: A Great Commander in Embryo". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  42. The Parliamentary Register; Or, History of the Proceedings and Debates of the [House of Lords and House of Commons]-J. Almon, 1793
  43. Zachariah, Mini Pant (7 November 2010). "Tipu's legend lives on". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  44. Sunderlal, Pandit (2018). How India Lost Her Freedom. SAGE Publications. p. 364. ISBN 978-93-5280-642-3. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
  45. Mohammad Moienuddin (2000). Sunset at Srirangapatam: After the Death of Tipu Sultan. Sangam Books. ISBN 978-0-86311-850-0. OCLC 48995204.
  46. "Tipu Sultan: Here're lesser known facts about 'Tiger of Mysore'". The Siasat Daily. 2 November 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  47. "Tipu, the Citizen-Sultan and the Myth of a Jacobin Club in India". The Wire.
  48. "View of the Hoally Gateway, where Tipu Sultan was killed, Seringapatam (Mysore)". British Library Online Gallery. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
  49. Rafiq, Ayesha (20 November 2018). "A Revaluation of tales of concerning Tipu Sultan's defeat". Daily Times. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  50. Brittlebank, Kate (22 July 2016). "Seven things you may not have known about Tipu Sultan, India's first freedom fighter". Scroll.in. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022.
  51. Anjali Sengupta (1984). Cameos of Twelve European Women in India, 1757-1857. Ṛddhi-India. p. 11. OCLC 13531696.
  52. "Over 5,000 'war rockets' of Tipu Sultan unearthed". Deccan Herald. 28 July 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  53. "How the Mysorean rocket helped Tipu Sultan's military might gain new heights". 5 August 2018.
  54. Roy 2011, p. 22.
  55. Mysore Hatti Gopal (1960). The Finances Of The Mysore State 1799 - 1831. Orient Longmans. p. 255. These were armed militia who served as police officers , helped in the collection of revenue and often garrisoned small forts . They resembled the sibundi in the Company ' s territories . In Mysore they were divided into the huzur kandachar or those who were in the capital and about the Maharaja , and the taluq kandachar or those in the taluqs , the latter being far more numerous than the former.
  56. R. Gopal, ed. (2010). Tipu Sultan: The Tiger of Mysore. Mysore: Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Karnataka. p. 279. OCLC 813417527. Since Haidar and Tipu were perpetually engaged in battles , they formed a disciplined standing army . Thus , instead of the local militia called the Kandachar force of agricultural origin which existed in the Mysore army earlier, Haidar and Tipu enrolled to their army forces the able tribal men , Muslims and Rajputs on full time service. In this way, Haidar and Tipu removed the Vokkaligas of the agricultural base from the local militia which took part in wars for centuries and in place of their quit rent , they imposed higher taxes and thus became indirectly responsible for implementation of Ryotwari system. The Ryots were not liberated from the shackles of Kandachar service; the slaves who were with them were enrolled in the army in some places. As a result, the Ryots removed from the military service could not even rely upon slaves for their agricultural activities. Hence these ryots had to endure the greater responsibility of feeding the slaves and of financing their marriages besides paying the higher taxes. So in the plains of Mysore the system of slavery was loosened.
  57. Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 207, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0
  58. Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, pp. 38, 271, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0
  59. Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 45, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0
  60. "Tiger of Mysore: Saviour or savage?". Deccan Chronicle. 4 August 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  61. Shekhar, Divya (10 November 2017). "How Tipu Sultan was the original tech innovator". The Economic Times. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  62. Hunter, William Wilson, Sir (1886). The Indian empire : its peoples, history, and products. Trubner, London. p. 512. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  63. Edgar, Thurston. The Madras presidency, with Mysore, Coorg and the associated states. Ch-19: Cambridge, University press. p. 185. Retrieved 9 May 2020.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  64. Brittlebank 1999.
  65. Özcan, Azmi (1997). Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain, 1877–1924. ISBN 978-90-04-10632-1.
  66. Kausar, Kabir (1980). Secret correspondence of Tipu Sultan. Light and Life Publishers. plight.
  67. Bhacker, Mohmed Reda (1992). Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: The Roots of British Domination. ISBN 978-0-415-07997-6.
  68. "A sultan's silken dreams". www.downtoearth.org.in. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  69. "Tipu Sultan and the Scots in India". The Tiger and The Thistle. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  70. Panikkar, K.N (1991). "Men of Valour and Vision". Social Scientist. 19 (8): 110. doi:10.2307/3517708. JSTOR 3517708.
  71. Sastri, K.N.V (1943). Moral Laws under Tipu Sultan. Indian History Congress. p. 269. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  72. Naik, B. Shreedhara. The society and politics in South Kanara 1500 A D to 1800 A D (PDF). p. 211. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  73. Miller, Rolland E (27 April 2015). Mappila Muslim Culture. p. 34. ISBN 9781438456027. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  74. Sastri, K.N.V (1943). Moral Laws under Tipu Sultan. Indian History Congress. p. 270. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  75. Yadav, Bhupendra (1990). "Tipu Sultan: Giving 'The Devil' His Due". Economic and Political Weekly. 25 (52): 2835–2837. JSTOR 4397149.
  76. A. Subbaraya Chetty "Tipu's endowments to Hindus and Hindu institutions" in Confronting Colonialism
  77. Pande, B. N. (1996). Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan: Evaluation of Their Religious Policies. University of Michigan. ISBN 9788185220383.
  78. Hasan 2005, pp. 357–358.
  79. Confronting Colonialism, p. 118
  80. A. Subbaraya Chetty, "Tipu's endowments to Hindus", pp. 111–115 in Confronting Colonialism.
  81. Hasan 2005, p. 360.
  82. The Chaldean Syrian Church of the East. ISPCK. 1983. p. 30.
  83. Brittlebank 1999, pp. 1–3.
  84. Valath, V. V. K. (1981). Keralathile Sthacharithrangal – Thrissur Jilla (in Malayalam). Kerala Sahithya Academy. pp. 74–79.
  85. Goel, Sita Ram (1993). Tipu Sultan: Villain Or Hero? : an Anthology. Voice of India. ISBN 978-81-85990-08-8.
  86. Farias, Kranti K. (1999), The Christian Impact on South Kanara, Church History Association of India, p. 76
  87. Cariappa, M. P.; Cariappa, Ponnamma (1981), The Coorgs and their Origins, Aakar Books, p. 48, OCLC 641505186
  88. Sarasvati's Children Archived 6 December 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Joe Lobo
  89. Kirkpatrick, W. (1811) Select Letters of Tipu Sultan, London
  90. Wilks, M. (1930) Report on the Interior Administration, Resources and Expenditure of the Government of Mysore under the System prescribed by the Order of the Governor-General in Council dated 4 September 1799, Bangalore 1864, and Historical Sketches of the South of India in an Attempt to Trace the History of Mysore, 2 vols, ed. M. Hammick, Mysore.
  91. Habib, Irfan (2001). "War and Peace. Tipu Sultan's Account of the last Phase of the Second War with the English, 1783-4", p. 5 in State and Diplomacy Under Tipu Sultan: Documents and Essays, Manohar Publishers and Distributors, ISBN 81-85229-52-X
  92. A. Subbaraya Chetty "Tipu's endowments to Hindus and Hindu institutions", p. 111 in Confronting Colonialism
  93. Hasan 2005, p. 368.
  94. Brittlebank 1999, pp. 2–12.
  95. Sampath, Vikram (31 January 2014). "Why we love to hate Tipu Sultan". livemint.com/.
  96. Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department 1916 pp 10–11, 73–6
  97. Hasan 2005, p. 359.
  98. Saletare, B.A. "Tipu Sultan as Defender of the Hindu Dharma", pp. 116–8 in Confronting Colonialism
  99. Prabhu 1999, p. 223.
  100. Hasan 2005, p. 79.
  101. Sen, Surendranath (1930). Studies in Indian history. University of Calcutta. p. 157.
  102. Sultan, Tipu (1811). Select letters of Tippoo Sultan to various public functionaries. London: Black. p. 228.
  103. "CoinArchives.com Lot Viewer". www.coinarchives.com. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  104. Moudgal, Sandeep (1 November 2019). "Tipu Sultan history lessons can't be erased, says textbook committee chairman". The Times of India.
  105. Ramdas, Inayat (27 January 2016). "Bet You Didn't Know All This About the Indian Constitution!". TheQuint. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  106. Aji, Sowmya (26 October 2017). "President Ram Nath Kovind hails Tipu Sultan, sparks war of words between Congress and BJP". The Economic Times.
  107. "Pakistan PM Imran pays tribute to Tipu Sultan on his death anniversary". The Hindu. 5 May 2019.
  108. "Untitled". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  109. "Geographical Indications".
  110. "The swords of Tipu Sultan". The Hindu. 3 May 2011. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011.
  111. "Tipu Sultan and the tiger motif". The Seringapatnam Times. Toshkhana : wordpress. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  112. Brittlebank, K. (1995). "Sakti and Barakat: The ∀ Power of Tipu's Tiger. An Examination of the Tiger Emblem of Tipu Sultan of Mysore". Modern Asian Studies. 29 (2): 257–269. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00012725. JSTOR 312813. S2CID 145790819.
  113. James, Lawrence (2000). Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India. MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-312-26382-9. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  114. "Tippoo's Tiger". Victoria & Albert Museum. 11 April 2004. Archived from the original on 25 August 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  115. "Tiger Motif". Macquarie University Library. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  116. Beatson, Alexander (1800). A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun. London: G. & W. Nichol. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013.
  117. "Ring and sword of Tipu Sultan". Exploring the museum. The British Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  118. Beary, Habib (7 April 2004). "Tipu's sword back in Indian hands". BBC.
  119. Sinha, Kounteya (4 October 2013). "Another Tipu Sultan sword surfaces, to be auctioned". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  120. Nag, Ashoke (21 October 2013). "Tipu Sultan memorabilia goes under hammer at Sotheby's 'The Arts of Imperial India' auction". The Economic Times. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  121. "BJP govt orders cancellation of Tipu Sultan Jayanti". Deccan Herald. 30 July 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  122. "Tipu Sultan Birth Anniversary: Life And Works of the 18th Century Ruler". NDTV. NDTV. 20 November 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  123. Upadhya, Harish (31 October 2016). "Karnataka Prepares To Celebrate Tipu Sultan Jayanti, BJP Threatens Stir Karnataka". NDTV. NDTV. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  124. The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Tiger of Mysore, by G. A. Henty. gutenberg.org. 12 July 2006.
  125. "Tipu Sultan (1959)". BFI.
  126. Swaminathan, Chitra. "The return of the Sultan". Online edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-05-20. Archived from the original on 4 August 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  127. Khosla, G. D. (1977). "Review of The Sword of Tipu Sultan". India International Centre Quarterly. 4 (2): 214–216. ISSN 0376-9771. JSTOR 23001501.
  128. George, K. M. (1992). Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology: Surveys and poems. Vol. 2. Sahitya Akademi. p. 217. ISBN 978-81-7201-324-0.
  129. Howes, Jennifer (October 2021). "Tipu Sultan's female entourage under East India Company rule". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 31 (4): 855–874. doi:10.1017/S135618632000067X. ISSN 1356-1863. S2CID 229455847.

Cited sources

  • Brittlebank, Kate (1999). Tipu Sultan's Search for Legitimacy. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-563977-3. OCLC 246448596.
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Tippoo Sahib" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 1005.
  • Dalrymple, William (2019). The Anarchy: The Relentless Rise of the East India Company (Hardcover). New York: Bloomsbury publishing. ISBN 978-1-63557-395-4.
  • Habib, Irfan, ed. (2002). Confronting Colonialism: Resistance and Modernization Under Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan (Anthem South Asian Studies). Anthem Press. ISBN 1-84331-024-4.
  • Hasan, Mohibbul (2005), History of Tipu Sultan, Aakar Books, ISBN 978-81-87879-57-2
  • Prabhu, Alan Machado (1999). Sarasvati's Children: A History of the Mangalorean Christians. I.J.A. Publications. ISBN 978-81-86778-25-8.
  • Roy, Kaushik (2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.

Further reading

  • Balakrishna, Sandeep, Tipu Sultan, The Tyrant of Mysore, Rare Publications
  • Sen, Surendra Nath (1930), Studies in Indian History, University of Calcutta, OCLC 578119748
  • Subramanian, K. R (1928), The Maratha Rajas of Tanjore, self-published, OCLC 249773661
  • William, Logan (1887), Malabar Manual, ISBN 978-81-206-0446-9
  • Grose, John Henry; Charmichael; ), John Carmichael (of the East India Company) (1777), A Voyage to the East Indies{{citation}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  • Thompson, Rev. E. W. (1990) [1923]. The last siege of Seringapatam. Mysore City: Wesleyan Mission. ISBN 978-8120606029.
  • Agha, Shamsu. Tipu Sultan", "Mirza Ghalib in London";, "Flight Delayed", Paperback, ISBN 0-901974-42-0
  • Ali, B Sheik. Tipu Sultan, Nyasanal Buk Trast
  • Amjad, Sayyid. 'Ali Ashahri, Savanih Tipu Sultan, Himaliyah Buk Ha®us
  • Banglori, Mahmud Khan Mahmud. Sahifah-yi Tipu Sultan, Himālayah Pablishing Hā'ūs,
  • Bhagwan, Gidwami S (1976). The Sword of Tipu Sultan: a historical novel about the life and legend of Tipu Sultan of India. Allied Publishers. OCLC 173807200. A fictionalised account of Tipu's life.
  • Buddle, Anne. Tigers Round the Throne, Zamana Gallery, ISBN 1-869933-02-8
  • Campbell, Richard Hamilton. Tippoo Sultan: The fall of Srirangapattana and the restoration of the Hindu raj, Govt. Press
  • Chinnian, P. Tipu Sultan the Great, Siva Publications
  • Hashimi, Sajjad. Tipu Sultan, Publisher: Maktabah-yi Urdu Da®ijast
  • Home, Robert. Select Views in Mysore: The Country of Tipu Sultan from Drawings Taken on the Spot by Mr. Home, Asian Educational Services, India, ISBN 81-206-1512-3
  • Kareem, C.K (1973). Kerala Under Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan. Kerala History Association: distributors, Paico Pub. House.
  • V.M. Korath, P. Parameswaran, Ravi Varma, Nandagopal R Menon, S.R. Goel & P.C.N. Raja: Tipu Sultan: Villain or hero? : an anthology. (1993). ISBN 9788185990088
  • Mohibbul Hasan. Tipu Sultan's Mission to Constantinople, Aakar Books, ISBN 81-87879-56-4
  • Moienuddin, Mohammad. Sunset at Srirangapatam: After the death of Tipu Sultan, Orient Longman, ISBN 81-250-1919-7
  • Pande, B. N. Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan: Evaluation of their religious policies (IOS series), Institute of Objective Studies
  • Sil, Narasingha P. "Tipu Sultan: A Re-Vision," Calcutta Historical Journal' (2008) 28#1 pp 1–23. historiography
  • Strandberg, Samuel. Tipu Sultan: The Tiger of Mysore: or, to fight against the odds, AB Samuel Travel, ISBN 91-630-7333-1
  • Taylor, George. Coins of Tipu Sultan, Asian Educational Services, India, ISBN 81-206-0503-9
  • Wigington, Robin. Firearms of Tipu Sultan, 1783–99, J. Taylor Book Ventures, ISBN 1-871224-13-6
  • Ashfaq Ahmed Mathur – "SALTANATH-E-KHUDADAT" and a book by Allama Iqbal ahmed (RH) "Daana e Raaz Diyaar e Dakan mein"
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.