Tempe, Arizona

Tempe (/tɛmˈp/ tem-PEE;[3]) is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States, with the Census Bureau reporting a 2020 population of 180,587. The city is named after the Vale of Tempe in Greece. Tempe is located in the East Valley section of metropolitan Phoenix; it is bordered by Phoenix and Guadalupe on the west, Scottsdale and the Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community on the north, Chandler on the south, and Mesa on the east. Tempe is also the location of the main campus of Arizona State University.

O'odham: Oidbaḍ
Tempe skyline as seen from Papago Park
Location of Tempe in Maricopa County, Arizona
Location in Arizona
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 33°24′46″N 111°56′35″W
Country United States
State Arizona
County Maricopa
IncorporatedOctober 15, 1892
Named forVale of Tempe
  BodyTempe City Council
  MayorCorey Woods (D)
  City40.15 sq mi (103.99 km2)
  Land39.94 sq mi (103.45 km2)
  Water0.21 sq mi (0.54 km2)
1,140–1,495 ft (347.47 – 455.68 m)
  RankUS: 143rd
  Density4,521.34/sq mi (1,745.72/km2)
4,574,531 (US: 12th)
Time zoneUTC−7 (MST (no DST))
ZIP code
85281–85285, 85287-85288[2]
Area codes480 and 602
FIPS code04-73000


Tempe c. 1870–1880

The Hohokam lived in this area and built canals to support their agriculture. They abandoned their settlements during the 15th century, with a few individuals and families remaining nearby.

Fort McDowell was established approximately 25 mi (40 km) northeast of present downtown Tempe on the upper Salt River in 1865 allowing for new towns to be built farther down the Salt River. US military service members and Hispanic workers were hired to grow food and animal feed to supply the fort, and less than a year later, had set up small camps near the river that were the first permanent communities in the Valley after the fall of the Hohokam. (Phoenix was settled shortly afterward, by 1867–68.) The two settlements were 'Hayden's Ferry', named after a ferry service operated by Charles T. Hayden, and 'San Pablo', and were located west and east of Hayden Butte respectively. The ferry became the key river crossing in the area. The Tempe Irrigating Canal Company was soon established by William Kirkland and James McKinney to provide water for alfalfa, wheat, barley, oats, and cotton.

Pioneer Darrell Duppa is credited with suggesting Tempe's name, adopted in 1879, after comparing the Salt River valley near a 300-foot (91 m)-tall butte, to the Vale of Tempe near Mount Olympus in Greece.[4]

Until the early 1960s, Tempe was a sundown town where African Americans were permitted to work but encouraged to live elsewhere.[5] In 1965, Warren and Carol Livingston were the first African Americans to buy property in Tempe.[6]

In 1885, the 13th Arizona Territorial Legislature chose Tempe for the site of the Territorial Normal School, which became Arizona Normal School, Arizona State Teachers College, Arizona State College and finally Arizona State University.

The Maricopa and Phoenix Railroad, built in 1887, crossed the Salt River at Tempe, linking the town to the nation's growing transportation system. The Tempe Land and Improvement Company was formed to sell lots in the booming town. Tempe became an economic hub for the surrounding agricultural area. The city incorporated in 1894.

The completion of Roosevelt Dam in 1911 guaranteed enough water to meet the growing needs of Valley farmers. On his way to dedicate the dam, former President Theodore Roosevelt applauded the accomplishments of the people of central Arizona and predicted that their towns would be prosperous cities in the future. Less than a year later, Arizona was admitted as the 48th state, and the Salt River Valley continued to develop.

In 1971, Tempe was hit by a rare F2 tornado that injured 41 people, the most injuries recorded from a tornado in Arizona, and caused damage in upwards of $3 million. One indirect fatality occurred when a man died from a heart attack during the storm.

In the 20th and 21st centuries, Tempe has expanded as a suburb of Phoenix, and as a center of education and commerce.


Tempe is an inner suburb, located between the core city of Phoenix and the rest of the East Valley. Due to this as well as being the home of the main campus of Arizona State University, Tempe has a fairly dense, urbanized development pattern in the northern part of the city especially in relation to the Valley Metro Line . Going south, development becomes less dense, consisting of single-family homes, strip malls and lower-density office parks.

The Salt River runs west through the northern part of Tempe; part of the river is dammed in two places to create Tempe Town Lake.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the landlocked city has a total area of 40.2 square miles (104 km2), of which 40.1 square miles (104 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) is water. The total area is 0.32% water, including Tempe Town Lake. The city of Tempe is bordered by Mesa to the east, Scottsdale and the Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community to the north, Phoenix and Guadalupe to the west, and Chandler to the south.

Tempe is generally flat, except for Tempe Butte or Hayden Butte (generally known as A-Mountain for Arizona State University's "A" logo located on its south face), located next to Sun Devil Stadium, Twin Buttes and Bell Butte on the western edge of Tempe, and the buttes within Papago Park at northwest corner of Tempe. Elevation ranges from 1,140 feet (350 m) at Tempe Town Lake to 1,495 feet (456 m) atop Hayden Butte.

Tempe cityscape from Tempe Town Lake


Tempe experiences a desert climate with a higher degree of diurnal temperature variation than neighboring Phoenix.

Climate data for Tempe, Arizona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 69
Average low °F (°C) 39
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.08
Source: The Weather Channel[7]


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
Downtown Tempe from Hayden Butte

As of the 2010 census, there were 161,719 people, 63,602 households, and 33,645 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,959.4 inhabitants per square mile (1,528.7/km2). There were 67,068 housing units at an average density of 1,674.1 per square mile (646.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 77.5% White, 5.9% Black or African American, 2.9% Native American, 5.7% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 8.5% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. 21.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 63,602 households, out of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.1% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 4.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.05.

In the city, 19.8% of the population was under the age of 18, 21.3% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, and 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $42,361, and the median income for a family was $55,237. Males had a median income of $36,406 versus $28,605 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,406. About 7.5% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.6% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over.


Hayden Ferry Lakeside development on the north end of Downtown Tempe

Tempe is the headquarters and executive office of one Fortune 500 company: DriveTime. Carvana, NortonLifeLock,[9] First Solar,[10][11] the Salt River Project, Circle K, and Fulton Homes are also headquartered in Tempe. Cold Stone Creamery was originally headquartered in Tempe and location #0001 is still in operation today at 3330 S McClintock Drive in Tempe. Tempe prides itself in assisting burgeoning businesses and has a variety of resources and programs available, such as FABRiC (Fashion and Business Resource Innovation Center) and BRiC (Business Resource and Innovation Center).[12] Tempe is also home to the first and largest campus of Arizona State University. It was the longtime host of the Fiesta Bowl, although the BCS game moved to University of Phoenix Stadium, located in Glendale, in 2007. It then began hosting the Insight Bowl which is now known as the Guaranteed Rate Bowl. As of 2018, there is no bowl game in Tempe because of renovations to Sun Devil Stadium. Edward Jones Investments and State Farm Insurance have regional headquarters in Tempe.[13]

Tempe houses several performance venues including Gammage Auditorium and the Tempe Center for the Arts.

Tempe Town Lake is home to many national and international events, such as Ironman Arizona and Rock n Roll Marathon. Gammage Auditorium was also the site of one of the three Presidential debates in 2004, and Super Bowl XXX was played at Sun Devil Stadium. Additionally, Tempe is the spring training host city of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim.

One of Arizona's largest shopping malls, Arizona Mills, sits near the border with the town of Guadalupe. The city was the location of the first IKEA branch in Arizona, also near the southern boundary. Tempe Marketplace, a large open air mall featuring live music and water and laser shows, is located just southeast of Tempe Town Lake. Tempe can boast an array of wholesalers and manufacturers. Mill Avenue, located just west of Hayden Butte, is a shopping and entertainment area in the city popular with pedestrians and students. With the completion of Tempe Town Lake, commercial and high-rise development along the reservoir quickly transformed the cityscape of Mill Avenue and the skyline of downtown Tempe.

Top employers

According to Tempe's Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the financial year ending June 2020,[14] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer Employees
1 Arizona State University 8,010
2 State Farm Insurance 6,550
3 Freedom Financial Network 2,300
4 JPMorgan Chase Bank National Association 2,220
5 ABM Industries Inc 2,000
6 City of Tempe 1,983
7 Honeywell 1,540
8 Total Events Management LLC 1,040
9 Wells Fargo 1,030
10 ADP Inc 1,000
10 Bank of the West 1,000

Arts and culture

Tempe Center for the Arts

Tempe Center for the Arts

Opened in September 2007, Tempe Center for the Arts (TCA) is a community crown jewel for performing and visual arts. The $65 million venue houses a state-of-the-art 600-seat theater, a 200-seat studio theater, a picturesque 200-seat multi-purpose space, a 3,500 square-foot art gallery.[15]

Tempe History Museum

The Tempe History Museum explores local history through collections, research services, exhibits, and programs.[16]

Public Art

The Tempe Public Art Program coordinates artists with building designers to install permanent and temporary public art projects. Since 1988, more than 50 projects have been commissioned by the Tempe's Community Services Division. The Art in Private Development ordinance of 1991 has helped add more than 60 privately owned pieces of art to the city, accessible by the public.[17]

Live music scene

Tempe enjoyed a thriving alternative music scene throughout the 1980s and '90s, producing acts including as the Gin Blossoms, Meat Puppets, Dead Hot Workshop, The Refreshments, Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers, Hans Olson, The Maine, and Injury Reserve. Historic dive-bar Yucca Tap Room, one of the last remaining 'small stage' venues that defined this era, continues to host nightly local live music.[18]

Tempe Music Walk

The Tempe Music Walk honors select bands, musicians and musical venues with plaques embedded in the sidewalk on Mill Avenue. Honorees are Walt Richardson, The Gin Blossoms, Hans Olson, and Long Wong's. [19]

Public libraries

Tempe Public Library is the local library.[20]


Many of the reasons people visit Tempe are places and events, such as P. F. Chang's Rock 'n' Roll Arizona Marathon & 1/2 Marathon, Tempe Marketplace, Arizona Mills, Mill Avenue, and Tempe Town Lake.[21][22]

The Tempe Tourism Office, located on Mill Avenue's downtown district, provides maps and additional information about hotels and upcoming city events.[23]

Historic properties

There are numerous properties in the city of Tempe which are considered to be historical and have been included either in the National Register of Historic Places.[24]


Sun Devil Stadium
Tempe Diablo Stadium

There is one major league professional sports team playing in Tempe: The Arizona Coyotes, who currently play their games at Mullett Arena.[25] Also, from 1988 to 2005, Sun Devil Stadium hosted the Arizona Cardinals (named the Phoenix Cardinals from 1988 to 1993) of the National Football League. They have since moved to State Farm Stadium in Glendale for games, but maintain their headquarters and training facility in Tempe. Many residents follow the teams in nearby Phoenix and Glendale. (For more information, read the sports section on the Phoenix page)[26]

The Arizona State University Sun Devils compete in football, basketball, baseball, as well as a number of other sports in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The Sun Devils football team plays their games at Sun Devil Stadium. Their nearest rival is the University of Arizona Wildcats, in Tucson. The two teams compete in the "Duel in the Desert" for control of the Territorial Cup. The Sun Devil Stadium had hosted the annual Fiesta Bowl, until the 2007 game moved to the new University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale.

The Los Angeles Angels have their spring training at Tempe Diablo Stadium. Tempe Diablo Stadium was built in 1968 and holds 9,785 people. The Angels moved to Tempe in 1993 from Palm Springs, California.

The Arizona Hotshots of the Alliance of American Football played their one season in Tempe in early 2019. The league folded before the season was completed.

Rugby union is a developing sport in Tempe as well as in the Phoenix metropolitan area. The multiple clubs, ranging from men's and women's clubs to collegiate and Under 19, are part of the Arizona Rugby Union.[27] Notable clubs are Arizona State University Rugby Football Club and the Tempe "Old Devils" Rugby Club.[28]

Parks and recreation

Tempe is home to many outdoor activities. Tempe Town Lake is a publicly accessible lake that is run by City of Tempe. The lake provides recreation activities to residents and tourists, but also helps protect the surrounding area from flooding. The City of Tempe estimated that 2.7 million people visited the lake in 2013.[29] Papago and South Mountain Parks offer hiking, mountain and road biking, rock climbing, disc golf, and equestrian activities. In the downtown area of Tempe (at ASU campus) the 300 foot tall Tempe Butte hosts several hiking and cycling trails. Tempe is also home to the annual Ironman Triathlon, which takes place in late November.


The city has had 33 mayors since 1894.

Tempe is in Arizona's 9th Congressional District, served by Representative Greg Stanton (D).


Tempe is served by multiple school districts. Most of Tempe is within the Tempe Elementary School District and the Tempe Union High School District; however, other portions are served by the Kyrene School District (K–8), Scottsdale Unified School District (K–12), and Mesa Public Schools (K–12). James Madison Preparatory School and Tempe Preparatory Academy are also located in the area.

Emmanuel Lutheran School is a Christian Pre-K–8 grade school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod in Tempe.[31]

Tempe also contains one of the state's three major universities, Arizona State University, the Maricopa County Community College District administrative offices and the headquarters of Rio Salado Community College. Arizona State University is known for its numerous studies and innovations, particularly in the field of science which include furthering the knowledge of certain cancers, business management research, and population science.[32][33][34] Tempe is also the home of several other schools, including the University of Phoenix, Brookline College, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Southwest Institute of Healing Arts, Bryan University and Lamson Junior College.


  • Tempe 11, a local access channel, found on Cox Cable Channel 11.[35]
  • KJZZ, an NPR station, is located in Tempe at Rio Salado College.
  • KBAQ, a 24/7 member-supported classical radio station, is the only such service in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Sun Sounds, a radio station for the blind, is also located there.
  • East Valley Tribune, a print newspaper, has offices in Tempe.
  • College Times, a weekly entertainment magazine serving the Phoenix metropolitan area and 20 Maricopa County colleges, including Arizona State University.



A Tempe station of Valley Metro light rail
Mill Avenue bridges over Tempe Town Lake at night

Tempe is one of the most densely populated cities in the state and serves as a crossroads for the area's largest communities.

Freeways make up the major transportation system for the Valley. Included in the system surrounding Tempe are Interstate 10 near the western edge as it traverses the Broadway Curve, Loop 202 crossing the northern side, Loop 101 following the eastern border, and U.S. Route 60 running east–west through the center of the city.

Valley Metro operates bus routes and the Valley Metro Rail system that serves Downtown Tempe and Arizona State University, providing service to Phoenix and Mesa. The City of Tempe operates a free neighborhood circulator service called Orbit involving five free shuttle routes near Arizona State University that operate on a regular basis seven days a week.[36] Three other FLASH (Free Local Area Shuttle) circulate in northern Tempe around the university. Tempe residents and commuters make extensive use of public transit and service is offered on a more frequent basis than elsewhere in the greater Phoenix valley, or in the entire state. Most Tempe buses offer 15 minute service during rush hour and 30 minute service throughout the rest of the day.

Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, located 2 miles (3.2 km) northwest of Tempe, provides extensive air service to points throughout North America and to London, England, and various cities in Hawaii.

Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport is located in Mesa, and offers air service to many additional destinations.

Tempe was the location of the world's first reported killing of a pedestrian by a self-driving car on 19 March 2018. An Uber car under software control was driving at 38 mph on a 35 mph limit road when it collided with 49-year-old Elaine Herzberg who was crossing the road.[37]

Tempe is developing the nation’s first zero-driving community called Culdesac Tempe set to open in 2023.[38][39]  The $170 million development project will contain 761 apartments, housing 1,000 residents and 16,000 square feet of retail, serving as a form of infill development in the city as it is being built on a vacant 17-acre lot.[38][39]  In this community, residents are contractually forbidden from parking a vehicle within a quarter mile radius of the area.[39] Prices to live in Culdesac Tempe are projected to be similar to rent prices in the rest of the area and discounted public transport services are included in the monthly rent to allow for residents to travel to other places.[38][39]

Notable people

Phillip Darrell Duppa is credited with giving Tempe its name.

Twin towns and sister cities

Tempe has eleven sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:[45]

Beaulieu-sur-Mer, Alpes-Maritimes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
Carlow, Carlow, Ireland
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany
Skopje, North Macedonia[46]
Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China
Timbuktu, Mali
Cuenca, Ecuador
Cuzco, Peru
Trollhättan, Sweden
Agra City, India

The newest sister city is Agra City, India, since 2016.[47]

See also


  1. "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
  2. "Tempe AZ ZIP Codes". zipdatamaps.com. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  3. "'Tempe' definition and pronunciation". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. merriamwebster.com. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
  4. Blanton, Shirley R. (2007). Tempe. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7385-4888-3.
  5. Mark, Jay (February 21, 2014). "Black history more readily available with curator's book". The Arizona Republic. Tucson, Arizona. p. Z10 via Newspapers.com. Blacks were slow to settle in Arizona. At the time of Tempe's founding in 1871, only 155 were recorded throughout the territory. ... For its first 90 years, Tempe was considered a 'sundown town' where Blacks were welcomed for agricultural and other daily labors. But they were encouraged to live elsewhere.
  6. "African American Contributions to Tempe History". Tempe History Museum. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  7. "Monthly Averages for Tempe, AZ". Weather.com. 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2010.
  8. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  9. "Identity Theft Protection From ID & Credit Fraud – LifeLock". Lifelock.com. Archived from the original on January 11, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  10. "Vertically Integrated Utility-Scale PV Power Solutions Provider – First Solar". Firstsolar.com. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  11. "Honeywell CEO resigns, will head Tempe-based First Solar". Azcentral.com. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  12. "Small Business | City of Tempe, AZ". www.tempe.gov. Retrieved 2019-05-08.
  13. "Headquarters & Campus Locations". Edward Jones Investments. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
  14. "Comprehensive Annual Financial Report". www.tempe.gov. Retrieved 2020-04-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. "Welcome | Tempe Center for the Arts".
  16. "Tempe History Museum | City of Tempe, AZ".
  17. "Tempe Public Art | City of Tempe, AZ".
  18. "The Danelle Project - Local Music Legacy".
  19. "Tempe Music Walk – City of Tempe Councilman Joel Navarro".
  20. "About Tempe Public Library". City of Tempe. Archived from the original on January 27, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
  21. "News from Tempe Convention & Visitors Bureau". Archive.constantcontact.com. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  22. "Downtown Tempe". Archived from the original on July 29, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
  23. "Tempe Tourism Tempe, AZ Tourism Office – Welcome to Tempe!". Tempe Tourism. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  24. "Arizona (AZ), Maricopa County". NationalRegisterofHistoricPlaces.com. American Dreams Inc. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  25. "Coyotes reach deal with ASU to play at new Sun Devil arena".
  26. "Arizona Cardinals Franchise". The Official Site of the Arizona Cardinals. Arizona Cardinals. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  27. "Arizona Rugby Union". Arizona Rugby Union. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  28. "Rugby, E.V. style: No wimps allowed". East Valley Tribune. September 21, 2004.
  29. "Tempe Town Lake". Tempe.gov. City of Tempe, Arizona. 2014. Archived from the original on October 5, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  30. Pineda, Paulina (10 March 2020). "Corey Woods unseats incumbent Mark Mitchell to win Tempe mayor's race". Arizona Republic. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  31. "Emmanuel Lutheran School".
  32. Truong, Danh; Fiorelli, Roberto; Barrientos, Eric S.; Melendez, Ernesto Luna; Sanai, Nader; Mehta, Shwetal; Nikkhah, Mehdi (15 April 2019). "A three-dimensional (3D) organotypic microfluidic model for glioma stem cells – Vascular interactions". Biomaterials. 198: 63–77. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.07.048. ISSN 0142-9612. PMC 6353712. PMID 30098794.
  33. Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; Neacsu, Ionela; Martin, Geoffrey (6 April 2019). "CEO Risk-Taking and Socioemotional Wealth: The Behavioral Agency Model, Family Control, and CEO Option Wealth". Journal of Management. 45 (4): 1713–1738. doi:10.1177/0149206317723711. ISSN 0149-2063. S2CID 148857590.
  34. Sheehan, Connor M. (30 March 2019). "Education and Health Conditions Among the Currently Incarcerated and the Non-incarcerated Populations". Population Research and Policy Review. 38 (1): 73–93. doi:10.1007/s11113-018-9496-y. ISSN 0167-5923. S2CID 158803018.
  35. "Tempe 11 | City of Tempe, AZ".
  36. "Neighborhood Circulator Expansion". Tempe.gov. City of Tempe, Arizona. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved July 23, 2008.
  37. "Self-driving Uber kills Arizona woman in first fatal crash". The Guardian. 19 March 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  38. Dougherty, Conor (2020-10-31). "The Capital of Sprawl Gets a Radically Car-Free Neighborhood". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-11-07.
  39. Bliss, Laura (September 8, 2021). "Developers Offer Mobility Services to Lure Car-Free Renters". Bloomberg News.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  40. "Jules Asner (Author of Whacked)". GoodReads.com. ...born Julie Ann White in Tempe, Arizona.... She began her career as an Elite model.
  41. Leatherman, Benjamin (August 6, 2014). "The 15 Biggest Rock Stars Who Live in Arizona". Phoenix New Times. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
  42. "Gabe Freeman profile". scout.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
  43. "HAYDEN, Carl Trumbull, (1877–1972)". United States Congress. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  44. "Pyle, John Howard (1906–1987)". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  45. "Our Sister Cities". TempeSisterCity.org. Archived from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  46. "Skopje – Twin towns & Sister cities". Official portal of City of Skopje. Grad Skopje. 2013. Archived from the original on October 24, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
  47. "Our Sister Cities". www.tempesistercities.org. Retrieved 2020-04-08.

Further reading

  • Smith, Jared. The African American Experience in Tempe (Tempe History Museum and African American Advisory Committee, 2013).
  • Sweeney, Jennifer. From" Open Country" to" Open Space": Park Planning, Rapid Growth and Community Identity in Tempe, Arizona, 1949–1975. (MA Thesis. Arizona State University, 2019), bibliography pp 121–140 online
  • Solliday, Scott. Tempe Post-World War II Context Study (December, 2001. Archived on City of Tempe Web site. online
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