State of East Indonesia

The State of East Indonesia (Indonesian: Negara Indonesia Timur, old spelling: Negara Indonesia Timoer, Dutch: Oost-Indonesië) was a post–World War II state formed in the eastern half of Dutch East Indies. Established in December 1946, it became part of the United States of Indonesia in 1949 at the end of the Indonesian National Revolution, and was dissolved in 1950 with the end of the USI. It comprised all the islands to the east of Borneo (Celebes and the Moluccas, with their offshore islands) and of Java (Bali and the Lesser Sunda Islands).

State of the Great East
(24–27 December 1946)
Negara Timur Raya

State of East Indonesia
(27 December 1946 – 17 August 1950)
Negara Indonesia Timur
Oost-Indonesië
1946–1950
Flag
Coat of Arms
Location of East Indonesia within the United States of Indonesia
StatusDutch-sponsored state (1946–1948)
Constituent state of the United States of Indonesia (1949–1950)
CapitalMakassar
GovernmentParliamentary Republic
President 
 1946–1950
Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati
Prime Minister 
 1946
Nadjamuddin Daeng Malewa (First)
 1950
Martinus Putuhena (Last)
Legislature
Provisional Senate
Provisional Representative Body
Historical eraAftermath of World War II
Indonesian National Revolution
 Denpasar Conference
24 December 1946
 Part of the United States of Indonesia
27 December 1949
 Makassar Uprising
5–21 April 1950
 Joined Indonesia
17 August 1950
Area
1946349,088 km2 (134,784 sq mi)
Population
 1946
10,290,000
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Great East
Republic of Indonesia
Today part ofIndonesia

History

The Dutch authorities, after various changes to the administration of the eastern islands of the East Indies, established the Great East region in 1938.[1] Four years later, the Japanese invaded, and this area was placed under the control of the Imperial Japanese Navy.[2] Following the Japanese surrender and the Indonesian declaration of independence in August 1945, Indonesian republicans began fighting to secure Indonesian independence from Dutch colonial control. However, Dutch administrators backed by Australian troops arrived in the area previously controlled by the Japanese Navy, and prevented republicans from establishing an administration.[3]

From 16 to 25 July 1946, the Dutch organized a conference in the town of Malino on Celebes (Sulawesi) as part of their attempt to arrange a federal solution for Indonesia. The Malino Conference resulted in plans to form a state in Borneo and another for eastern Indonesia (then called the 'Great East'),[4] areas where the Dutch held both de facto and de jure control.[5] Later that year, Republic of Indonesia agreed to the principle of a federal Indonesia with the Linggadjati Agreement of 15 November.[6][7] The Denpasar Conference of 18–24 December was held to work out the details of a state which to be called the State of the Great East (Indonesian: Negara Timoer Besar).[8][9][10] That state was established on 24 December and, on 27 December, renamed the State of East Indonesia (Negara Indonesia Timoer or 'NIT', which opponents joked it stood for negara ikoet toean or 'state which goes along with the master', i.e. the Dutch[2]). Nevertheless, it was recognized by the Republic of Indonesia as a state within the United States of Indonesia on 19 January 1948.[11]

With the realization of the United States of Indonesia on 27 December 1949, East Indonesia became a constituent state of the new federation. In much of Indonesia, the federal USI was seen as an illegitimate regime foisted on the islands by the Dutch, and many of the federal states began to merge with the Republic of Indonesia.[12] However many in East Indonesia, with its non-Javanese population and sizable number of Christians, opposed moves toward a unitary state.[12] At the same time, East Indonesia already had to deal with the Twaalfde Provincie ('Twelfth Province') or TWAPRO secessionist movement in Minahasa in 1948, among others.[13]

The formation of East Indonesia's last cabinet in May 1950 with the intention of dissolving the state into the Republic of Indonesia led to open rebellion in the largely Christian Moluccas and the proclamation of an independent Republic of the South Moluccas (RMS).[12] The USI was dissolved on 17 August 1950 and the rebellion in the Moluccas was crushed in November of the same year.[12]

Government

The Denpasar Conference of 18–24 December 1946 approved the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia (Peratoeran Pembentoekan Negara Indonesia Timoer) which supplemented the 1927 Dutch colonial law and established the provisional governmental framework of the new state until a constitution could be approved. Although the draft constitution was passed by the legislative on 1 March 1949, it was never adopted and the 1946 regulations remained in place until the state was dissolved.[14][15] The state was to have an executive president who would appoint a cabinet and a legislature. A number of powers were explicitly reserved for the future United States of Indonesia, of which East Indonesia would be a constituent member.[16]

President

President Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati of the State of East Indonesia and his wife, Gilberte Vincent, during a visit to North Celebes in 1948

Balinese nobleman Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati was elected president at the Denpasar Conference that established the state, and held that position for the duration of the state's existence (24 December 1946 – 17 August 1950). Soekawati would at times went on overseas visit, during which the chair of the Provisional Representative Body would serve as acting president.[17][18]

NameTitleTerm of officeDuration
Term start Term end
Tjokorda Gde Raka SoekawatiPresident24 December 1946[19]17 August 1950[lower-alpha 1]3 years, 7 months and 24 days
Mohammad Kaharoeddin III of Sumbawa Acting President 11 August 1947[20] 24 September 1947[21] 1 month and 13 days
Husain Puang Limboro Acting President 3 May 1950[22] 17 August 1950[lower-alpha 2] 3 months and 14 days

Legislature

The Provisional Representative Body for the State of East Indonesia (Dewan Perwakilan Sementara Negara Indonesia Timoer), initially consisting of the 70 participants of the Denpasar Conference, opened its first session on 22 April 1947 in the presence of Lieutenant Governor General of the Dutch East Indies Hubertus van Mook. On 20 February 1950 the Provisional Representative Body of East Indonesia was disbanded after election, and replaced by the People's Representative Council of East Indonesia. The newly formed People's Representative Council was later disbanded following the dissolution of East Indonesia.

In May 1949, a Provisional Senate was established, tasked initially with deliberating proposed constitution for East Indonesia. The Provisional Senate was later disbanded following the dissolution of East Indonesia, before any promulgation of the proposed constitution.[23][24]

Prime ministers and cabinets

The First Nadjamoedin Daeng Malewa cabinet of East Indonesia, which was installed at 4 o'clock in the afternoon of 13 January 1947 in the former building of the Council of Indies in Batavia.

The state had a parliamentary cabinet led by a prime minister, who was appointed by the president. However, much real power remained with the Dutch East Indies authorities.[25]

#Name CabinetTerm of office Duration
Term start Term end
1Nadjamuddin Daeng Malewa Daeng Malewa I cabinet13 January 19472 June 1947 8 months and 28 days
Daeng Malewa II cabinet 2 June 194711 October 1947
2Semuel Jusof Warouw Warouw cabinet11 October 194715 December 1947 2 months and 4 days
3Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung Anak Agung I cabinet15 December 194712 January 1949 2 years and 12 days
Anak Agung II cabinet 12 January 194927 December 1949
4Jan Engelbert Tatengkeng Tatengkeng cabinet27 December 194914 March 1950 2 months and 15 days
5Patuan Doli Diapari Diapari cabinet14 March 195010 May 1950 1 month and 26 days
6Martinus Putuhena Putuhena cabinet, or 'liquidation' cabinet10 May 195016 August 1950 3 months and 6 days

Administrative divisions

The State of East Indonesia was initially divided into five residencies of the Great East which were in turn divided into districts (afdeling) and subdistricts (onderafdeling), an administrative structure inherited from the Dutch.[26] Within the residencies were 13 autonomous regions.[27] These regions, listed in Article 14 of the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia (Peratoeran Pembentoekan Negara Indonesia Timoer), were South Celebes, Minahasa, Sangihe and Talaud, North Celebes, Central Celebes, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Timor and surrounding islands, South Moluccas, and North Moluccas.[27]

The residencies were to be eliminated after the construction of functioning administration in the 13 regions.[27] Complicating this structure was the fact that:

More than 75% of the State of East Indonesia comprised autonomous regions, in total 115 autonomous regional governments under the rule of rajas (swaprajas). The position of these autonomous governmental heads was regulated by what were called korte verklaring (short-term declarations) and lange kontrakten (long-term contracts); these were actually intended as a recognition by the Dutch Indies Government of the special position of the rajas, whose power to govern the autonomous regions was handed down from one generation to the next.[28]

The Autonomous Region Regulation of 1938 gave the swaprajas wide de jure autonomy but most of the rajas were puppets of Dutch administrators.[28] The State of East Indonesia sought to curtail the power of these raja-ruled regions, but the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia obliged the state to recognise their special status.[29]

The remaining area of the state not part of the swaprajas comprised directly governed regions (rechtstreeks bestuurd gebied).[30] Directly governed areas included Minahasa, the South Moluccas, Gorontalo, the districts of Macassar and Bonthain, and Lombok.[30]

Residencies and autonomous regions

The regions of the State of East Indonesia

The following were the residencies and their autonomous regions.[27]

Residencies under

Dutch East Indies

Autonomous regions to be created

under East Indonesia

North Celebes (Soelawesi Oetara) North Celebes
Central Celebes
Minahasa
Sangihe and Talaud
South Celebes (Soelawesi Selatan) South Celebes
Bali and Lombok Bali
Lombok
The Moluccas (Maloekoe) North Moluccas
South Moluccas
Timor Timor and surroundings
Flores
Sumbawa
Sumba

Notable people

  • Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati, president
  • Nadjamuddin Daeng Malewa, first prime minister
  • Semuel Jusof Warouw, second prime minister
  • Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung, third prime minister
  • Jan Engelbert Tatengkeng, fourth prime minister
  • Patuan Doli Diapari, fifth prime minister
  • Martinus Putuhena, sixth prime minister
  • Eliza Urbanus Pupella, representative of South Moluccas
  • Muhammad Kaharuddin III member of the USI Senate
  • Tadjuddin Noor chair of the NIT legislature, later member of the Senate
  • Melkias Agustinus Pellaupessy, Speaker of Senate
  • Arnold Mononutu, member of provisional parliament
  • Julius Tahija, representative to United States of Indonesia in Batavia.
  • Gabriel Manek, member of provisional parliament

See also

Notes

  1. Date of the dissolution of the State of East Indonesia.
  2. Following the conclusion of a conference between the Federal Government and the states, president Soekawati did not return to Makassar immediately; Instead, the Putuhena cabinet was inaugurated by acting president Limboro on 10 May 1950. See Anak Agung (1995), p. 774.

References

  1. Cribb 2000, pp. 130–131.
  2. Ricklefs 2001, p. 276.
  3. Ricklefs 2001, p. 348.
  4. Anak Agung 1995, p. 107.
  5. Anak Agung 1995, p. 97.
  6. Anak Agung 1995, p. 112.
  7. Reid 1974, p. 96.
  8. Anak Agung 1995, p. 117.
  9. Putra Agung 2007, p. 37.
  10. Kahin 1952, p. 364.
  11. Anak Agung 1995, pp. 346–347.
  12. Ricklefs 2001, p. 285.
  13. Anak Agung 1995, p. 770-771.
  14. de Jong 1994, pp. 1–2.
  15. Schiller 1955, pp. 97–98.
  16. Anak Agung 1995, p. 163.
  17. Anak Agung 1995, p. 131.
  18. Anak Agung 1995, p. 120.
  19. Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia 1981, p. 122
  20. Anak Agung 1995, p. 273.
  21. Anak Agung 1995, p. 306.
  22. Anak Agung 1995, p. 772-773.
  23. Anak Agung 1995, pp. 153, 591–592.
  24. Wehl 1948, p. 164.
  25. Anak Agung 1995, p. 146.
  26. Anak Agung 1995, p. 147.
  27. Anak Agung 1995, p. 180.
  28. Anak Agung 1995, p. 121.
  29. Anak Agung 1995, p. 166.
  30. Anak Agung 1995, p. 181.

Sources

  • Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung (1996) [1995]. From the Formation of the State of East Indonesia Towards the Establishment of the United States of Indonesia. Translated by Owens, Linda. Yayasan Obor. ISBN 979-461-216-2.
  • Bastiaans, W.Ch.J. (1950). Personalia van Staatkundige Eenheden (Regering en Volksvertegenwoordiging) in Indonesie. Djakarta: Kementerian Penerangan.
  • Cribb, Robert (2000). Historical Atlas of Indonesia. Curzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-0985-1.
  • de Jong, Christiaan G.F. (1994), translated by Daalder-Broekman, Truus, "Religion and state in Negara Indonesia Timur. The question of religion in the Parliament of the State of East Indonesia in 1949, illustrated by the situation on Bali" (PDF), Documentatieblad voor de Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Zending en Overzeese Kerken (Journal for the History of Dutch Mission and Overseas Churches, 1/2
  • Kahin, George McTurnan (1952), Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia, Cornell University Press
  • Putra Agung. "Yayasan Masyarakat Sejarawan Indonesia". Jurnal sejarah: pemikiran, rekonstruksi, persepsi. 13 (2007) ISSN 1858-2117. (in Indonesian)
  • Reid, Anthony J.S (1974), The Indonesian National Revolution, 1945 1950, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Longman, ISBN 0-582-71047-2
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (2001) [1981]. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300 (3rd ed.). Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-230-54685-1.
  • Schiller, A. Arthur (1955). The Formation of Federal Indonesia. W. van Hoeve Ltd.
  • Wehl, David (1948). The Birth of Indonesia. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.

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