Sport in Indonesia

Sports in Indonesia are popular from both the participation and spectating aspect. Some popular sports in Indonesia are football, volleyball, basketball, badminton, and the native Indonesian martial art pencak silat.[1] Badminton is arguably Indonesia's most successful sport. Indonesia has won gold medals in badminton in every Olympic Games since the sport was first introduced to the Olympics in 1992, with the exception of the 2012 Summer Olympics. Indonesia became the first grand winner in Badminton Olympics back then 1992. Indonesia regularly participates in the Thomas Cup, Uber Cup, and Sudirman Cup badminton championships, then became the first nation in history to complete those three titles. Indonesia also regularly participates in regional multi-events sport, such as the Southeast Asian Games, Asian Games, and Olympic Games. Indonesia is one of the major sport powerhouses in the Southeast Asian region, winning the Southeast Asian Games 10 times since 1977.

2018 Asian Games opening ceremony in Jakarta.

Sporting events in Indonesia are organised by the Indonesian National Sport Committee (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia or KONI). The organisation, along with the Indonesian government, have set the National Sports Day on 9 September.[1] Indonesia hosts the Pekan Olahraga Nasional multi-sport event every four years. Athletes from all provinces of Indonesia participate in this event, with hosting tally are distributed among Indonesian provinces.

History

Nias' "leaping the stones" ritual.
Pacu jawi, traditional bull race of Tanah Datar, West Sumatra.

In traditional Indonesian culture, there is no actual concept for physical exercise as the counterpart of modern sport. Native Indonesians usually linked the physical activities to tribal practices; mainly for ritual, art, physical fitness and martial purposes. The war dances and ritual combat among Indonesian tribes are the earliest example of ritualised physical exercise in Indonesia. Some of native Indonesian rituals are resembling sport, such as lompat batu (leaping the stone) tradition among Nias male youth as part of coming of age ritual, that resembles hurdling and long jump in athletics. Also Madurese karapan sapi and Minang pacu jawi (bull racing) that are similar to chariot race. Dragon boat, canoe and kayak race are virtually everyday activities among Indonesians that lives on the bank of major rivers or on distant islands.

In the 9th century the images of archery, described as princely court activities among nobility in ancient Java, can be found on bas-reliefs of Javanese candis. Archery is suggested as one of Indonesia's classical sport, and one of its famous rendering came from Prambanan temple as part of Ramayana story and later rendered as one of the icon of the Jakarta's 1962 Asian Games, also as the symbol of Gelora Bung Karno Stadium.

Pencak silat is the example of Indonesian native martial art that turned into competitive combat sport. Several Indonesian dances demonstrated repetitive movements that similar to physical exercise. Indonesian traditional social dances such as poco-poco dance from North Sulawesi and sajojo from Papua are adopted as senam kesegaran jasmani (musical calisthenics) today popular across Indonesia.

The modern concept of sport was introduced during colonial Dutch East Indies period. During these times football and badminton has reached Indonesia and become popular sport among Indonesian people ever since. After Indonesian independence, National Sports Committee of Indonesia was established in 1946 to unite the various satellite sports associations that was created within the regencies, then sports facilities were constructed in Indonesia, such as Ikada Stadium (1951—1962). During Sukarno reign, there is a desire to utilise sport as the means for uniting Indonesian people, establishing national pride as well as promoting sports in Indonesia. As the result the Gelora Bung Karno Stadium surrounded by sporting complex facilities were constructed in 1962 to host the fourth Asian Games held in Jakarta. Today in international stage, Indonesia is successful in badminton and also has been one of the major multi-event sports powerhouse in Southeast Asia.

Many sports were imported, some were developed from native Indonesian traditional sports and became popular in Indonesia.

Football

Football has become one of the most popular sports in Indonesia since the country's independence, even though it had virtually no presence in the country before then. in Indonesia, this phenomenon is most often ascribed to general worldwide popularity of the sport, which carried over into Indonesia following its rapid urbanization. It is played widely, both professionally and as recreation. Indonesia Super League, the Indonesian domestic league is popular. Some of the major teams include: Persib Bandung, Persebaya Surabaya, PSM Makassar, PSMS Medan, Persija Jakarta, PSIS Semarang, Sriwijaya FC, Persipura Jayapura, Bali United and Arema Malang. The national body is the Football Association of Indonesia (PSSI).

The Indonesian football league started around 1930 in the Dutch colonial era. In 1993, PSSI combined the existing 2 amateur competitions to be a single professional competition for football clubs, known as the Indonesian Football League (Liga Indonesia). Starting from 2008-09 season onwards, the competition format changed into a more common system that also being used in most European football leagues. The name also changed into Indonesia Super League.

On the international stage, Indonesia experienced limited success despite being the first Asian team to qualify for the FIFA World Cup in 1938 as Dutch East Indies. In 1956, the football team played in the Olympics and played a hard-fought draw against USSR. On the continent level, Indonesia won the bronze medal once in football in the 1958 Asian Games. Indonesia's first appearance in Asian Cup was back in 1996. The Indonesian national team has always qualified for the Asian Cup in 2000, 2004 and 2007 AFC Asian Cup, however unable to move through next stage. Indonesia will host the 2023 FIFA U-20 World Cup after being awarded the competition over the South American countries of Brazil and Peru; the Indonesia Under-20 football team automatically qualified for the 2023 tournament as host.

Badminton

Taufik Hidayat, 2004 Olympic gold medalist in badminton men's singles.

Badminton is Indonesia's most successful sport, described by the New York Times as "part of the national identity".[2] Indonesia has won gold medals in badminton in every Olympic Games since the sport was first introduced to the Olympics in 1992, except in 2012. In 1992, it came from Alan Budikusuma in men's singles, and Susi Susanti in women's singles. In 1996, Ricky Subagja and Rexy Mainaky got the gold medal in men's doubles. In 2000, Candra Wijaya and Tony Gunawan won the gold medal in men's doubles. In 2004, Taufik Hidayat won a gold medal in men's singles. In 2008, Indonesia won a gold medal through men's doubles, Markis Kido and Hendra Setiawan. In 2016, Indonesia won a gold medal through mixed doubles, Liliyana Natsir and Tontowi Ahmad, In 2020, Indonesia won a gold medal through women doubles, Greysia Polii and Apriyani Rahayu.

Indonesian badminton athletes have played in various international badminton tournaments in Indonesia, China, Korea, Denmark, Malaysia, India, Japan, England and many other tournaments, including Summer Olympics ever since the sport was introduced as a demonstration sport in the 1972 Summer Olympics and its official introduction in the 1992 Summer Olympics. Rudy Hartono is an Indonesian legendary badminton player, who has succeeded to win All England titles seven times in a row.[3]

Out of all participating nations, Indonesia won the most games in the Thomas Cup (Men Nations Badminton Championship), winning 14 out of 24. In addition to that, Indonesia won the Uber Cup 3 times. (Women Nations Badminton Championship). and Won Sudirman Cup 1 Times. (Mixed Nations Badminton Championship). also held its own international badminton tournament, the most prestigious is Indonesia Open that has been held annually since 1982.

Basketball

Basketball is one of the most popular sports especially among Indonesian youth. Liga Bola Basket Nasional is the pre-eminent men's basketball league in Indonesia, competed by 10 clubs across the country. The competition started as Indonesian Basketball League (IBL) in 2003. In 2010, Perbasi appointed DBL Indonesia to handle the competition and changed the league's name to National Basketball League (NBL).[4]

Today, Indonesia and the Philippines are the major basketball powerhouses in Southeast Asia. The Indonesia national basketball team's biggest success has been gold at the 1996 Southeast Asian Basketball Championship.

Indonesia will host the official 2021 Asian Basketball Championship and most notably, the country will co-host the 2023 Basketball World Cup, together with the Philippines and Japan.[5] Although lately basketball has been proven as the most famous sport. Even their national team were able to be invited to several competitions. Several matches will be played in Jakarta.

Additionally, a whole basketball league is dedicated to junior and senior students throughout Indonesia. This league is called DBL, which stands for Development Basketball League.

E-sports

There is a significant competitive video game scene in Indonesia, with eSports tournaments for mobile games such as Vainglory being held in Jakarta.[6] The 2018 Asian Games, held in Indonesia, included a demonstration event for Esports.[7]

Pencak silat

Pencak Silat, an Indonesian martial art.

Silat is an Indonesian native martial art, and pencak silat is an umbrella term for the indigenous martial arts created in Indonesia.[8] The leading organisation of pencak silat in Indonesia is IPSI (Ikatan Pencak silat Indonesia meaning Organization for Indonesian pencak silat). The liaison body for international pencak silat is the International Pencak Silat Association or PERSILAT (Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antara Bangsa). There is many perguruan (schools) and styles of pencak silat in Indonesia.

Pencak silat has become one of sporting event in Pekan Olahraga Nasional and Southeast Asian Games with Indonesia as appear as one of the leading force in this sport. This martial art sport is also popular in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

Cycling

Indonesia host some international road cycling tours; such as the annual Tour de Indonesia, Tour de Singkarak and Tour de East Java. Inspired by European Tour de France, these tours is one of the esteemed cycling event in Southeast Asian region and has attracted local as well as foreign cycling teams. Tour d'Indonesia usually started in Jakarta, across inland Java all the way eastward to Bali, while Tour de Singkarak is held in West Sumatra touring around Lake Singkarak. In track cycling numbers, Indonesia is also one of the strongest in the region and often won gold medals in Southeast Asia Games. Indonesia have world class velodromes in Rawamangun, Jakarta; and Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan, hailed as one of the best velodrome in Southeast Asia.[9]

For non-athlete common Indonesians, riding bicycle is considered as the mode of transportation as well as a recreational and leisure sport. It is quite popular in Indonesia, especially during Car-Free Days in several cities. During weekends, especially around Saturday and Sunday morning, cyclist flocking Jakarta's main avenue such as Jalan Thamrin and Jalan Sudirman that is closed from cars, municipal authorities invited locals to have their sports and activities on the street. The Bike-to-Work community was established in Indonesia in 2005 to promote cycling as a cheap, healthy, and environment friendly mode of transportation to the workplace.

Extreme cycling, such as Mountain biking and urban Freestyle BMX is also popular among youth in main cities of Indonesia.

Boxing

Boxing is a popular combative sport spectacle in Indonesia. Some famous Indonesian boxers include Ellyas Pical, three times IBF Super flyweight champion; Nico Thomas, Muhammad Rachman, and Chris John.[10]

Sepak takraw

Sepak takraw spread from China to the Indonesian archipelago, the game is believed to have evolved from cuju, a game similar to association football that was used as military training.[11] In Indonesia, Sepak Takraw is also known as Sepak Raga in the local language in Indonesia. In Sulawesi, the traditional Bugis football game is called "Raga" (the player is called "Pa'Raga"). Some of the men playing the "Raga" circle in a group, the ball is passed from one to the other and the man who kicks the highest ball is the winner. "Raga" is also played for fun by demonstrating several tricks, such as kicking the ball and placing it on the player's head with the handle of the tengkolok bugis (Bugis headgear similar to a Malay tanjak).[12][13]

After Sepak takraw was developed into modern competitive sport in 1940s with exact rules and scoring systems, Indonesia has become one of major sepak takraw power in the region, competing against Thailand and Malaysian teams.

Surfing

Surfing in Indonesia is a small minority sport, we can find the most popular Indonesian surfers at Pangandaran, Banyuwangi, Lombok, and Bali. The most famous surfer from Indonesia right now is Dede Suryana.[14]

Sports leagues in Indonesia


Basketball

Futsal

Volleyball

  •  Men's Proliga
  •  Women's Proliga

Competitions

SEA Games 2011 opening ceremony in Palembang, South Sumatra.

The Pekan Olahraga Nasional (National Sports Week) are held every four years. Indonesia also participates in international sporting events such as the Olympic Games (see Indonesia at the Olympics). the Asian Games and the South East Asian Games (SEA Games). 2018 Asian Games was held at Jakarta, Palembang, and some other venues in the provinces of West Java and Banten.

Hosted Games

Year Event Host City Nations Start Date End Date Top Placed Team
1962 Asian Games Jakarta 17 24 August 4 September Japan
1979 Southeast Asian Games Jakarta 7 21 September 30 September Indonesia
1982 ASEAN University Games Jakarta 6 no data no data Indonesia
1986 FESPIC Games Surakarta 19 31 August 7 September Australia
1987 Southeast Asian Games Jakarta 8 9 September 20 September Indonesia
1990 ASEAN University Games Bandung 6 no data no data Indonesia
1997 Southeast Asian Games Jakarta 10 11 October 19 October Indonesia
2004 ASEAN University Games Surabaya 10 5 December 12 December Thailand
2008 Asian Beach Games Bali 41 18 October 26 October Indonesia
2011 Southeast Asian Games JakartaPalembang 11 11 November 22 November Indonesia
2011 ASEAN Para Games Surakarta 11 15 December 20 December Thailand
2012 ASEAN School Games Surabaya 7 28 June 6 July Thailand
2013 Islamic Solidarity Games Palembang 57 22 September 1 October Indonesia
2014 ASEAN University Games Palembang 11 11 December 21 December Indonesia
2018 Asian Games JakartaPalembang 45 18 August 2 September China
2018 Asian Para Games Jakarta 43 6 October 13 October China
2019 ASEAN School Games Semarang 10 17 July 25 July Indonesia
2022 ASEAN Para Games Surakarta 11 30 July 6 August Indonesia
2023 World Beach Games Bali 5 August 12 August
2024 ASEAN University Games Surabaya 11

All time medal count

Event Appearances Gold Silver Bronze Total
Summer Olympic Games 168141537
Summer Paralympic Games 11671427
Summer Deaflympic Games 30134
Summer Youth Olympic Games 30033
World Games 1154716
World Beach Games 10011
World Combat Games 22024
Military World Games 70134
World Martial Arts Masterships 24161333
IBSA World Games 10011
INAS Global Games 22215
Summer Universiade 30331420
Winter Universiade 10000
Islamic Solidarity Games 4567888222
Asian Games 1891120235446
Asian Winter Games 10000
Asian Para Games 3476374184
Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games 617174377
Asian Beach Games 6422853123
Asian Youth Games 21236
Asian Youth Para Games 336232382
Southeast Asian Games 231,8931,7941,8615,548
ASEAN Para Games 107025624401,704
ASEAN University Games* 20731
ASEAN School Games 11268319284871

Defunct

Event Appearances Gold Silver Bronze Total
Games of the New Emerging Forces* 221253581
Afro-Asian Games 10213
Pan Arab Games 10000
Far Eastern Championship Games 10000
FESPIC Games* 98311498295
FESPIC Youth Games 10213
Women's Islamic Games 22420650
  • For ASEAN University Games, Games of the New Emerging Forces, and FESPIC Games data is not complete.
  • at the Pan Arab Games Indonesia is an invitational country.
  • As 2022

Sport events in Indonesia

Year Event Sport Host Start Date End Date Status
1961 Thomas Cup Badminton Jakarta 1 June 11 June International
1967 Thomas Cup Badminton Jakarta 31 May 10 June International
1971 Asian Badminton Championships Badminton Jakarta 13 August 21 August Continental
1972 Badminton World Invitational Championships Badminton Jakarta International
1974 Badminton World Invitational Championships Badminton Jakarta International
1975 Uber Cup Badminton Jakarta 6 June International
1977 Asian Amateur Boxing Championships Boxing Jakarta Continental
1980 IBF World Championships Badminton Jakarta 27 May 1 June International
1982 World Pencak Silat Championships Pencak silat Jakarta International
1983 World Badminton Grand Prix Finals Badminton Jakarta International
1984 World Pencak Silat Championships Pencak silat Jakarta International
1986 Thomas & Uber Cup Badminton Jakarta 22 April 4 May International
1987 Asian Badminton Championships Badminton Semarang Continental
1988 Asian Basketball Club Championship Basketball Jakarta 27 May 1 June Continental
1988 Asian Invitational Badminton Championships Badminton Bandar Lampung Continental
1988 World Weightlifting Championships Weightlifting Jakarta International
1989 Sudirman Cup Badminton Jakarta 24 May 29 May International
1990 Asia-Oceania Korfball Championship Korfball Jakarta Continental
1992 IBF World Junior Championships Badminton Jakarta International
1993 ABC Championship Basketball Jakarta Continental
1994 Thomas & Uber Cup Badminton Jakarta International
1995 World Archery Championships Archery Jakarta International
1996 Grand Prix motorcycle racing Motorcycle racing Bogor International
1996 SEABA Championship Basketball Surabaya Regional
1997 Badminton World Cup Badminton Yogyakarta International
2000 World Pencak Silat Championships Pencak silat Jakarta International
2001 IFSC Climbing Asian Championships Sport climbing Jakarta Continental
2003 Asian Badminton Championships Badminton Jakarta Continental
2005 Asian Junior Badminton Championships Badminton Jakarta Continental
2007 AFC Asian Cup Association football Jakarta* Continental
2008 Asian Sailing Championship Sailing Denpasar Continental
2009 Asian Cycling Championships Cycling Tenggarong Continental
2009 Asian Archery Championships Archery Denpasar Continental
2010 AFF Championship Association football Jakarta* Regional
2011 SEABA Championship Basketball Jakarta 23 June 26 June Regional
2013 AFF U-19 Youth Championship Association football Sidoarjo and Gresik 9 September 22 September Regional
2013 IFSC Climbing Asian Youth Championships Sport climbing Surabaya 11 December 14 December Continental
2014 SEABA Cup Basketball Batam 21 May 23 May Regional
2014 ASEAN University Games Multi-sport event Palembang 11 December 21 December Regional
2015 Asian Baseball Cup Baseball Jakarta 3 May 8 May Continental
2015 BWF World Championships Badminton Jakarta 10 August 16 August International
2015 World Paragliding Accuracy Championships Paragliding Bogor 11 August 16 August International
2015 World Wushu Championships Wushu Jakarta 14 November 18 November International
2016 World Pencak Silat Championships Pencak silat Denpasar International
2017 Asian Men's Volleyball Championship Volleyball Gresik 24 July 1 August Continental
2017 BWF World Junior Championships Badminton Yogyakarta 9 October 22 October International
2018 Asian Men's Softball Championship Softball Jakarta Continental
2018 AFF Women's Championship Association football Palembang 30 June 13 July Regional
2018 AFF Futsal Club Championship Futsal Yogyakarta 15 July 21 July Regional
2018 AFF U-16 Youth Championship Association football Sidoarjo and Gresik 29 July 11 August Regional
2018 AFC Futsal Club Championship Futsal Yogyakarta 1 August 12 August Continental
2018 AFC U-19 Championship Association football Greater Jakarta 18 October 4 November Continental
2019 Asian Women's Softball Championship Softball Jakarta 1 May 7 May Continental
2019 Asian Table Tennis Championships Table tennis Yogyakarta 15 September 22 September Continental
2019 IFSC Climbing Asian Championships Sport climbing Bogor 6 November 10 November Continental
2019 QubicaAMF Bowling World Cup Bowling Palembang 16 November 24 November International
2021 Superbike World Championship Superbike Central Lombok 21 September 21 September International
2021 BWF World Tour Finals Badminton Badung 1 December 5 December International
2022 ISSF Grand Prix Shooting Jakarta 8 February 18 February International
2022 Men's AHF Cup Field Hockey Jakarta 11 March 20 March Continental
2022 MotoGP World Championship Motorcycle racing Central Lombok 20 March 20 March International
2022 Men's Hockey Asia Cup Field Hockey Jakarta 23 May 1 June Continental
2022 World Surf League Surfing Banyuwangi 28 May 6 June International
2022 AFF U-19 Youth Championship Association football Jakarta and Bekasi 2 July 15 July Regional
2022 FIBA Asia Cup Basketball Jakarta 12 July 24 July Continental
2022 AFF U-18 Women's Championship Association football Palembang 22 July 4 August Regional
2022 AFF U-16 Youth Championship Association football Yogyakarta 31 July 12 August Regional
2022 UCI Mountain Bike World Cup Cycling Palangkaraya 28 August 28 August International
2022 IFSC Climbing World Cup Sport climbing Jakarta 22 September 24 September International
2022 Karate1 Premier League Karate Jakarta 18 November 20 November International
2022 World Junior Wushu Championships Wushu Tangerang December December International
2023 ISSF World Cup Shooting Jakarta 28 January 8 February International
2023 Superbike World Championship Superbike Central Lombok 3 March 5 March International
2023 IFSC Climbing World Cup Sport climbing 6 May 7 May International
2023 Formula E World Championship Motorcycle racing Jakarta 3 June 4 June International
2023 FIFA U-20 World Cup Association football International
2023 World Beach Games Multi-sport event Bali* International
2023 FIBA Basketball World Cup Basketball Jakarta* International
2023 MotoGP World Championship Motorcycle racing Central Lombok International
  • 2007 AFC Asian Cup, AFF Championship, and 2023 FIBA Basketball World Cup Hosted with other country.

Indonesia Seven Summits Expedition

On 8 July 2011 08:35am local time four Indonesian students have reached the peak of the Mount McKinley. So, the mission to scale all of the Seven Summits in Indonesia Seven Summits Expedition have been accomplished. All of the four students are the first Indonesians getting the title of the Seven Summiteers.[15]

See also

References

  1. "Sports and Recreation". Archived from the original on 5 February 2006.
  2. Hill, James (7 August 2020). "When You Say Badminton, You Say Indonesia". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  3. "A- FIRSTS". 2 December 2008. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008.
  4. "IBL Becomes NBL" (in Indonesian). NBL Indonesia. 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  5. Nancy Gillen (20 December 2020). "Indonesia announced as host of FIBA Asia Cup in 2021". Inside the Games. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  6. "Indonesia's eSports scene heats up with Vainglory tournament in Jakarta". Digital News Asia. 25 August 2017. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  7. Duerden, John (16 August 2018). "Pencak silat and eSports: a guide to the most fascinating 2018 Asian Games events". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  8. Donn F. Draeger (1992). Weapons and fighting arts of Indonesia. Rutland, Vt. : Charles E. Tuttle Co. ISBN 978-0-8048-1716-5.
  9. "Viva Borneo.com, Velodrome Terbaik Se-Asia Tenggara". vivaborneo.com.
  10. Widazulfia, Fahmiranti (3 May 2015). "7 Boxing World Champions from Indonesia" (in Indonesian). Good News from Indonesia. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  11. "History of Football - The Origins". FIFA. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  12. "History of Sepak takraw - The Origins". Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  13. "Sepak Takraw yang Diperebutkan Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Thailand". Tirto.id. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  14. "TOP 5 INDONESIA SURFER ASIAN SURFING CHAMPION (ASC)". Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  15. Dipa, Arya. "Indonesian climbers accomplish mission over Seven Summits". thejakartapost.com. The Jakarta Post.
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