Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives

The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives, the lower house of the Parliament of Australia. The counterpart in the upper house is the President of the Senate. The office of Speaker was created by section 35 of the Constitution of Australia. The authors of the Constitution intended that the House of Representatives should as nearly as possible be modelled on the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

Speaker of the House of Representatives
Milton Dick
since 26 July 2022
StyleThe Honourable
(Formal and Diplomatic)
Mister/Madam Speaker
(Informal and within the House)
AppointerElected by the House of Representatives
Term lengthAt the pleasure of the House
Elected by the House at the start of each Parliament, and upon a vacancy
Constituting instrumentSection 35 of the Constitution of Australia
Inaugural holderSir Frederick Holder
9 May 1901
Formation9 July 1900
DeputySharon Claydon (since 26 July 2022)
Salary$369,700 (2019–20)[1]

The Speaker presides over House of Representatives debates, determining which members may speak. The Speaker is also responsible for maintaining order during debate, and may punish members who break the rules of the House.

The Speaker is currently Milton Dick, who was elected on 26 July 2022.


The Speaker is elected by the House of Representatives in a secret ballot, with an election held whenever the Office of the Speaker is vacant, as set out in Chapter 3 of the House of Representatives Standing and Sessional Orders. The Clerk of the Australian House of Representatives conducts the election. The MPs who move and second the nomination of the successful candidate "drag" them to the chair after their election, in accordance with a tradition carried over from Westminster.

Unlike the Speaker of the House of Commons in Britain, the Speaker generally remains an active member of their party. If a party member, the Speaker may continue to attend party meetings, and at general elections will stand as a party candidate. There were two exceptions to this: the first Speaker, Frederick Holder (1901) and Peter Slipper (2011), who resigned from their respective parties upon election as Speaker, and sat as independents.

A Speaker ceases to hold that office if, for any reason, they cease to be a member of the House. There is no convention in Australia that the Speaker should not be opposed in their seat, and three Speakers have been defeated at general elections: Littleton Groom (1929), Walter Nairn (1943) and William Aston (1972). Because the Speaker is always the nominee of the governing party, there is no expectation that a Speaker will continue in office following a change of government. While the Opposition usually nominates one of its own members for Speaker after a general election, this is understood to be a symbolic act, and party discipline is always followed in any ballot.

By reason of section 40 of the Constitution, while in the Chair, a Speaker does not have a deliberative vote, but if there is a tie in votes, the Speaker has a tiebreaker (or casting) vote.

Most Speakers have been senior backbenchers of the party holding office at the start of a new Parliament, or at the time of the death or resignation of an incumbent Speaker. Five Speakers have been former government ministers: William Watt, Littleton Groom, Archie Cameron, Ian Sinclair and Bronwyn Bishop; two have been former Parliamentary Secretaries: Stephen Martin and Tony Smith; and one both a former minister and a former Leader of the Opposition: Billy Snedden. Two were former state premiers: Holder and Watt. There is no convention in Australia that Speakers should resign from Parliament at the end of their term; two Speakers have become Cabinet ministers after having been Speaker: Norman Makin and Gordon Scholes.

Bronwyn Bishop was elected Speaker on 12 November 2013, as the Coalition's first female Speaker of the House and the third female Speaker, after Labor's Joan Child (1986–89) and Anna Burke (2012–13). The 43rd Parliament (2010–13) was the first Australian federal parliament to have had three Speakers: Harry Jenkins (elected September 2010), Peter Slipper (November 2011), and Anna Burke (October 2012).

All male Speakers have been addressed by members as "Mister Speaker" while in the Chair. Joan Child chose to be addressed as "Madam Speaker", as female Speakers are usually referred to in other parliaments. Anna Burke broke with this tradition and ruled that her official form of address is merely "Speaker."


The Speaker's chair in the House of Representatives

The Speaker's principal duty is to preside over the House and maintain order in the House, uphold Standing Orders (rules of procedure), rule on points of order, and protect the rights of backbench members.

Australian parliaments are notoriously rowdy, and the Speaker frequently exercises the disciplinary powers vested in them under Standing Orders. The Speaker may summarily order a Member to excuse themself from the House for one hour. For more serious offences, the Speaker may "name" a Member, saying "I name the Honourable Member for X," following the House's convention that Members are always referred to by their electorate. The House then votes on a motion to suspend the Member for 24 hours. (The House also had the power to permanently expel a Member, but this happened only once, in 1920: the member was Hugh Mahon. The House no longer has the power to expel a member from membership of the House under Section 8 of the Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987.[2])

The Speaker, in conjunction with the President of the Senate, also administers Parliament House, Canberra, with the assistance of an administrative staff in the Australian parliamentary departments. The Speaker has accountability obligations to the Parliament for the Department of the House of Representatives. Together with the President, the Speaker also had such accountability obligations to the Parliament in respect of the Department of Parliamentary Services.

A member of the House who wishes to resign would tender their resignation to the Speaker (but not to an Acting Speaker), or if there is no Speaker to the Governor-General. During the Joint Sitting of 1974 the Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives Jim Cope was the presiding officer.


While impartial, the Speaker does not usually quit the membership of their party like the Speaker of the House of Commons. Although the first Speaker, Sir Frederick Holder, resigned from the Free Trade Party upon taking the role in accordance with traditional Westminster convention, subsequent speakers did not follow this convention. The only other speaker to date who resigned from their party was Peter Slipper, chosen from the opposition, who resigned from the Liberal Party the day after his election to the chair.

On the other hand, the Speaker is not an active political figure like the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. They do not take part in debates in the House, do not vote in the House except in the (relatively infrequent) event of a tied vote, and do not speak in public on party-political issues (except at election time in their own constituency). They are expected to conduct the business of the House in an impartial manner, and generally do so.

There have been several memorable clashes between Speakers and the governments:

  • In 1929 Speaker Littleton Groom declined to come into the House and cast a vote in committee of the whole (what is now known as consideration in detail ) when his vote would have saved the Bruce government from defeat. As a result, he was expelled from the Nationalist Party and defeated in his constituency at the subsequent election.
  • In 1975 the Whitlam government refused to support Speaker Jim Cope when he named government minister Clyde Cameron for disrespect to the Chair: normally this would have resulted in the minister's suspension from the House. The Speaker resigned on the spot. This is the only occasion on which a Government failed to support a Speaker after a Member had been named.[3]
  • In 1982 Speaker Billy Snedden refused to insist that an opposition frontbencher, Bob Hawke, retract an allegation that the Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser, was a liar. Snedden stood his ground despite furious demands from government members that Hawke either be made to retract or be named.
  • In 2011, a Speaker survived being countermanded by the House. After a contentious debate on carbon pricing in which Speaker Harry Jenkins declared a "general warning" for all members, Liberal MP Bob Baldwin interjected and was named by the Speaker. The Government accordingly moved that he be suspended, but Baldwin was supported by the Coalition, independent MP Rob Oakeshott and WA Nationals MP Tony Crook. The resulting vote on suspending Baldwin for 24 hours failed 71–72. Convention would normally have required the Speaker to resign, but the House of Representatives immediately thereafter passed a motion of confidence in the Speaker, and as a consequence, Speaker Jenkins continued in office.[4][5][6][7]

Speakers of or from opposition parties

While speakers normally come from the governing party, there have been several exceptions.

Peter Slipper was a member of the Liberal Party when elected as Speaker, but resigned a day later. Slipper's elevation to the speakership occurred due to the hung parliament resulting from the 2010 election, which saw the ALP form a minority government.

In the previous hung parliament elected at the 1940 election, the United Australia Party's Walter Nairn continued as Speaker when the ALP formed a new government in the middle of the parliamentary term.

Opposition MP Carty Salmon initially served as speaker for the first federal Australian majority government, the Andrew Fisher Labor government, resulting from the 1910 election.

At the 1913 election, Labor's Charles McDonald was offered retention of the Speakership by the incoming one-seat-majority Commonwealth Liberal Party, but declined – later however, after Labor's return to government at the 1914 election, McDonald regained the Speakership until the subsequent election in 1917 despite the mid-term change to a Nationalist Party government.[8][9]


The speaker's salary is determined by the Remuneration Tribunal, an independent statutory body. As of 1 July 2019, the incumbent is entitled to a parliamentarian's base salary of A$211,250 plus an additional 75% loading, equating to a salary of approximately $369,700. Assuming they hold no other positions, the deputy speaker has a salary of $253,500 (20% loading), the second deputy speaker $238,700 (13% loading), and members of the speaker's panel $217,600 (3% loading).[1]

A member elected speaker is entitled to the title "The Honourable" while in office, which, with the approval of the King of Australia, may be retained for life. This privilege is usually only given to those who have served as speaker for at least three years. Harry Jenkins Jr. was the first speaker to ask that "The Honourable" title not be used in reference to him, while also making clear that he was not attempting to set a precedent for future speakers; he was simply not personally comfortable with the title.

Official dress

Sir Littleton Groom (Speaker 1926–1929) standing by the speaker's chair in Old Parliament House, Canberra, in the traditional speaker's garb

Following the Westminster tradition inherited from the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, the traditional dress of the Speaker includes components of Court dress such as a black silk lay-type gown (similar to a King's Counsel gown), a wing collar and a lace jabot or bands (another variation included a white bow tie with a lace jabot), bar jacket, and a full-bottomed wig. The wig available for use by the speaker was used by Herbert 'Doc' Evatt when he was a High Court Justice (1930–1940) and was donated to the Parliament by Evatt when he was elected to the House in 1951. The wig is currently on loan from the speaker's office to the Museum of Australian Democracy.[10] Another addition used by earlier speakers, though only for the most formal occasions, included court shoes and hose.

The dress of Speakers has often varied according to the party in power and the personal choice of the Speaker. All Labor Speakers have eschewed the traditional dress in favour of ordinary business attire as appropriate for a member of parliament, following the example set by their first Speaker, Charles McDonald. Most non-Labor Speakers before 2012 wore some variation of the traditional dress.

Billy Snedden (1976–1983) was the last Speaker to wear the full traditional attire of the Speaker, complete with the wig. On the election of the Howard Government in 1996, the new Speaker, Bob Halverson, chose to wear the Speaker's traditional attire upon his election in April 1996, but without the wig.[11] Speaker Ian Sinclair opted to wear a gown, albeit of a simpler academic style, during his brief term in 1998, a practice mirrored by his successors, Neil Andrew and David Hawker. Upon his election in late 2011, Peter Slipper went a step toward restoring the traditional dress by wearing a gown and bar jacket over his business attire. Slipper also took to wearing a white long tie or bow tie, in a variation from the lace jabot or bands.[10] For example, he wore a wing collar with white bow tie and bands on the occasion of his first formal procession into parliament.[12] Speaker Bronwyn Bishop, the first non-Labor woman to hold the post, opted for business attire with no gown after her election in 2013. Subsequent Coalition speakers, Tony Smith and Andrew Wallace, likewise opted for business attire.

List of speakers of the House of Representatives

The following is a list of speakers of the House of Representatives.[13]

# Name Party State Term start Term end Term in office
1Sir Frederick Holder IndependentSouth Australia9 May 190123 July 19098 years, 75 days
2Carty Salmon Commonwealth LiberalVictoria28 July 190919 February 1910206 days
3Charles McDonald LaborQueensland1 July 191023 April 19132 years, 296 days
4Elliot Johnson Commonwealth LiberalNew South Wales9 July 191330 July 19141 year, 21 days
(3)Charles McDonald LaborQueensland8 October 191426 March 19172 years, 169 days
(4)Sir Elliot Johnson NationalistNew South Wales14 June 19176 November 19225 years, 145 days
5William Watt NationalistVictoria28 February 19233 October 19252 years, 217 days
6Sir Littleton Groom NationalistQueensland13 January 192616 September 19293 years, 246 days
7Norman Makin LaborSouth Australia20 November 192927 November 19312 years, 7 days
8George Mackay United AustraliaQueensland17 February 19327 August 19342 years, 171 days
9George Bell United AustraliaTasmania23 October 193427 August 19405 years, 309 days
10Walter Nairn United AustraliaWestern Australia20 November 194021 June 19432 years, 213 days
11Sol Rosevear LaborNew South Wales22 June 194331 October 19496 years, 131 days
12Archie Cameron LiberalSouth Australia22 February 19509 August 19566 years, 169 days
13Sir Jack McLeay LiberalSouth Australia29 August 195631 October 196610 years, 63 days
14William Aston LiberalNew South Wales21 February 19672 November 19725 years, 255 days
15Jim Cope LaborNew South Wales27 February 197327 February 19752 years, 0 days
16Gordon Scholes LaborVictoria27 February 197511 November 1975257 days
17Sir Billy Snedden LiberalVictoria17 February 19764 February 19836 years, 352 days
18Harry Jenkins Sr. LaborVictoria21 April 198320 December 19852 years, 243 days
19Joan Child LaborVictoria11 February 198628 August 19893 years, 198 days
20Leo McLeay LaborNew South Wales29 August 19898 February 19933 years, 163 days
21Stephen Martin LaborNew South Wales4 May 199329 January 19962 years, 270 days
22Bob Halverson LiberalVictoria30 April 19963 March 19981 year, 307 days
23Ian Sinclair NationalNew South Wales4 March 199831 August 1998180 days
24Neil Andrew LiberalSouth Australia10 November 199831 August 20045 years, 295 days
25David Hawker LiberalVictoria16 November 200417 October 20072 years, 335 days
26Harry Jenkins Jr. LaborVictoria12 February 200824 November 20113 years, 285 days
27Peter Slipper IndependentQueensland24 November 20119 October 2012320 days
28Anna Burke LaborVictoria9 October 20125 August 2013300 days
29Bronwyn Bishop LiberalNew South Wales12 November 20132 August 20151 year, 263 days
30Tony Smith LiberalVictoria10 August 201523 November 20216 years, 105 days
31Andrew Wallace LiberalQueensland23 November 202111 April 2022139 days
32Milton Dick LaborQueensland26 July 2022Incumbent185 days

Assistants to the speaker

The House elects two of its members to serve as deputy speaker and second deputy speaker. The speaker also nominates a number of other MPs to assist with chairing proceedings of the House and Federation Chamber, who form the speaker's panel. In order for business to proceed, the House may choose any member to take the chair if the speaker is absent and the previously deputised members are unavailable; this is rare. Any member chairing the House in the absence of the speaker or deputy speakers is addressed as "Deputy Speaker". However, only the deputy and second deputy speakers can serve as "acting speaker", with the full powers of the position.[14]


The election of either the deputy speaker and second deputy speaker is held when the respective position is vacant. If both positions of deputy speaker and second deputy speaker are vacant (for example at the start of each parliament), then the elections for deputy speaker and second deputy speaker are conducted together in one election. The runner-up in such an election is then deemed to have been elected second deputy speaker.[15]

Until July 2019 (except for a short period between October 2012 and November 2013), standing order 13(c) of the House stated that only a non-government MP may be a second deputy speaker.[16] This comes from the usual convention that the deputy speaker is a government MP, and a non-government MP as the second deputy speaker would "allow people from opposing sides in the two roles of Deputy Speaker and Second Deputy Speaker", as quoted by Labor MP Anthony Albanese.[17] Since 1943, there were only two occasions when the deputy speaker was not held by a government MP, both during the 43rd Parliament when Labor was in minority government. The first occasion was at the start of the 43rd Parliament in September 2010, when Peter Slipper of the Liberal Party was nominated by Labor and defeated Bruce Scott of the National Party to be the deputy speaker.[18] Scott continued to be the second deputy speaker. In this occasion, both positions were held by non-government MPs.

The second occasion was on 9 October 2012, when Scott defeated Labor MP and nominee Steve Georganas and became the deputy speaker.[19] The following day, the House voted to remove standing order 13(c) to allow Georganas (government MP) to be elected as second deputy speaker.[17] Both Scott and Georganas stayed in their roles for the rest of the 43rd Parliament. Standing order 13(c) was reinstated at the start of the 44th Parliament in November 2013.[20]

Standing order 13(c) was altered on 4 July 2019 with bipartisan support.[21] The new standing order, current as of August 2022, states that if a government MP was elected as deputy speaker, then only a non-government MP may be elected as second deputy speaker. Likewise, if a non-government MP was elected as deputy speaker, then only a government MP may be elected as second deputy speaker.[22]

The deputy speakership election held on 10 February 2020 was unique in that the winner Llew O'Brien (nominated by Labor) and the runner-up Damian Drum (nominated by the Coalition government) were both government MPs.[23] As the election was only for the deputy speakership position (the second deputy speaker position was not vacant), Drum was not elected as second deputy speaker. Otherwise, this would have been against standing order 13(c).[22]

Deputy speaker

The position of deputy speaker was created in 1994 in place of the former position of "chairman of committees", which had existed since the first parliament in 1901. This coincided with the establishment of the Main Committee (now renamed the Federation Chamber).The deputy speaker has the same procedural powers as the speaker while in the chair, including signing messages from the House to the Senate. As well as deputising for the speaker, the deputy speaker chairs the Federation Chamber.[14]

Following the 2022 federal election, Sharon Claydon was elected as deputy speaker.

List of deputy speakers and chairmen of committees

The title of the office was originally "chairman of committees". This was changed to "deputy speaker and chairman of committees" on 3 November 1992 and to simply "deputy speaker" on 21 February 1994. The terms of deputy speakers technically coincide with terms of parliament, however for the purposes of the table below terms spanning multiple parliaments are deemed to be continuous. Prior to 10 July 1907 the chairman of committees was elected on a sessional basis.[24]

# Name Party State Term start Term end Term in office
1 John Chanter   Protectionist New South Wales 5 June 1901 22 October 1903 2 years, 139 days
2 Carty Salmon   Protectionist Victoria 17 March 1904 21 December 1905 1 year, 279 days
3 Charles McDonald   Labor Queensland 20 June 1906 19 February 1910 3 years, 244 days
4 Alexander Poynton   Labor South Australia 1 July 1910 23 April 1913 2 years, 296 days
5 James Fowler   Liberal Western Australia 9 July 1913 30 July 1914 1 year, 21 days
(1) John Chanter   Labor New South Wales 9 October 1914 6 November 1922 8 years, 28 days
  National Labor
6 Fred Bamford   Nationalist Queensland 28 February 1923 3 October 1925 2 years, 217 days
7 James Bayley   Nationalist Queensland 14 January 1926 16 September 1929 3 years, 245 days
8 Charles McGrath   Labor Victoria 20 November 1929 27 November 1931 2 years, 7 days
  United Australia
9 George Bell   United Australia Tasmania 17 February 1932 7 August 1934 2 years, 171 days
10 John Prowse   Country Western Australia 23 October 1934 21 June 1943 8 years, 241 days
11 Bill Riordan   Labor Queensland 22 June 1943 16 August 1946 3 years, 55 days
12 Joe Clark   Labor New South Wales 7 November 1946 31 October 1949 2 years, 358 days
13 Charles Adermann   Country Queensland 22 February 1950 14 October 1958 8 years, 234 days
14 George Bowden   Country Victoria 17 February 1959 7 March 1961 2 years, 18 days
15 Philip Lucock   Country New South Wales 8 March 1961 2 November 1972 11 years, 239 days
16 Gordon Scholes   Labor South Australia 28 February 1973 27 February 1975 1 year, 364 days
17 Joe Berinson   Labor Western Australia 27 February 1975 14 July 1975 137 days
18 Harry Jenkins Sr.   Labor Victoria 19 August 1975 11 November 1975 84 days
(15) Philip Lucock   National Country New South Wales 17 February 1976 10 November 1977 1 year, 266 days
19 Clarrie Millar   National Country Queensland 21 February 1978 4 February 1983 4 years, 348 days
20 Les Johnson   Labor New South Wales 21 April 1983 19 December 1983 242 days
21 Joan Child   Labor Victoria 28 February 1984 11 February 1986 1 year, 348 days
22 Leo McLeay   Labor New South Wales 11 February 1986 29 August 1989 3 years, 199 days
23 Ron Edwards   Labor Western Australia 29 August 1989 8 February 1993 3 years, 163 days
24 Harry Jenkins Jr.   Labor Victoria 4 May 1993 29 January 1996 2 years, 270 days
25 Garry Nehl   National New South Wales 30 April 1996 8 October 2001 5 years, 161 days
26 Ian Causley   National New South Wales 12 February 2002 17 October 2007 5 years, 247 days
27 Anna Burke   Labor Victoria 12 February 2008 19 July 2010 2 years, 157 days
28 Peter Slipper   Liberal Queensland 28 September 2010 24 November 2011 1 year, 57 days
(27) Anna Burke   Labor Victoria 24 November 2011 9 October 2012 320 days
29 Bruce Scott   National Queensland 9 October 2012 9 May 2016 3 years, 213 days
30 Mark Coulton   National New South Wales 30 August 2016 5 March 2018 1 year, 187 days
31 Kevin Hogan   National New South Wales 26 March 2018 10 February 2020 1 year, 321 days
32 Llew O'Brien   Liberal National Queensland 10 February 2020 11 April 2022 2 years, 60 days
33 Sharon Claydon   Labor New South Wales 26 July 2022 Incumbent 185 days

Second deputy speaker

The position of second deputy speaker was created in 1994, primarily as an assistant to the deputy speaker in the Federation Chamber.

List of second deputy speakers

The terms of second deputy speakers technically coincide with terms of parliament,[24] however for the purposes of the table below terms spanning multiple parliaments are deemed to be continuous.

# Name Party State Term start Term end Term in office
1 Allan Rocher   Liberal Western Australia 3 March 1994 29 January 1996 1 year, 332 days
2 Harry Jenkins Jr.   Labor Victoria 30 April 1996 17 October 2007 11 years, 170 days
3 Bruce Scott   National Queensland 12 February 2008 9 October 2012 4 years, 240 days
3 Steve Georganas   Labor South Australia 10 October 2012 5 August 2013 299 days
4 Rob Mitchell   Labor Victoria 12 November 2013 11 April 2022 8 years, 150 days
5 Ian Goodenough   Liberal Western Australia 26 July 2022 Incumbent 185 days

Speaker's panel

The speaker's panel consists of at least four MPs nominated by the speaker at the start of each parliament. The speaker may nominate additional members or revoke membership at any point during the parliament. Members of the panel are called on to chair meetings of the House at the request of the speaker, as well as meetings of the Federation Chamber at the request of the deputy speaker or second deputy speaker. A roster is maintained so that the chair can always be filled. Members of the panel will relinquish the chair to the speaker or deputy speaker "if disorder arises or if special circumstances apply".[25]

Historically, the speaker has nominated both government and opposition MPs to the speaker's panel. However, after the 2010 and 2013 elections opposition members refused to serve on the panel. The practice resumed later in the 2013–16 parliamentary term.[25]


  1. "Salary". Remuneration Tribunal. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  2. Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987, Section 8.
  3. Ian Harris, Clerk of the House of Representatives (ed.). "The Speaker, Deputy Speaker, and officers". House of Representatives Practice (PDF). Australian House of Representatives. p. 197. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  4. Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 31 May 2011, 5286–86.
  5. Shanahan, Dennis (1 June 2011). "Oakeshott nearly brings down the house". The Australian. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  6. "Coalition takes credit for saving Speaker". ABC News. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  7. Osbourne, Paul (31 May 2011). "Abbott averts Speaker crisis". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  8. "Appendix 2 Speakers of the House of Representatives". House of Representatives Practice Fifth Edition. Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
  9. Megalogenis, George (25 November 2011). "Rats prepared to ditch their parties to survive". The Australian. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
  10. Miller, Barbara (8 February 2012). "Pomp-seeker Slipper told to get on with job". ABC News. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  11. Commonwealth Hansard, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives Archived 23 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 30 April 1996, 7.
  12. Griffiths, Emma (14 February 2012). "New procession ushers in Slipper era". ABC News. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  13. "Historical Information". Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (22nd ed.). Parliament of Australia. 2011. p. 602.
  14. "Deputy Speaker". House of Representatives Practice (7th ed.). Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  15. "Second Deputy Speaker". House of Representatives Practice (7th ed.). Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  16. "Chapter 3. Election of Speaker and Deputies (as of 23 June 2004)". Parliament of Australia. Archived from the original on 28 February 2012.
  17. "House of Representatives Hansard (10 October 2012) - Standing Orders". Parliament of Australia. 10 October 2012.
  18. "Labor nominee Slipper elected Deputy Speaker". ABC News. Australia. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  19. "Bruce Scott elected Deputy Speaker". The Age. Australia. Australian Associated Press. 9 October 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  20. "House of Representatives Hansard (13 November 2013) - Standing Orders" (PDF). Parliament of Australia. 13 November 2013. p. 90-125.
  21. "House of Representatives Hansard (4 July 2019) - Standing Orders". Parliament of Australia. 4 July 2019.
  22. "House of Representatives Standing Orders - Chapter 3. Election of Speaker and Deputies (as of 4 July 2019)" (PDF). Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
  23. "Morrison government loses shock vote on deputy speaker". The Australian Financial Review. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  24. "Appendix 3—Deputy Speakers". House of Representatives Practice (7th ed.). Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  25. "Speaker's panel". House of Representatives Practice (7th ed.). Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 13 February 2020.

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