Socotra or Soqotra (/səˈktrə, s-, ˈsɒkətrə/;[1] Arabic: سُقُطْرَىٰ Suquṭrā; Somali: Suqadara) is an island of the Republic of Yemen in the Indian Ocean,[2][3] under the de facto control of the UAE-backed Southern Transitional Council, a secessionist participant in Yemen’s ongoing civil war.[4] Lying between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea and near major shipping routes, Socotra is the largest of the four islands in the Socotra archipelago. Since 2013, the archipelago has constituted the Socotra Governorate.

Native name:
Landsat view of Socotra
Location within Yemen
Location within the Horn of Africa near Western Asia
LocationBetween the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea
Coordinates12°30′36″N 53°55′12″E
Total islands4
Major islandsSocotra, Abd al Kuri, Samhah, Darsah
Area3,796 km2 (1,466 sq mi)
Length132 km (82 mi)
Width50 km (31 mi)
Highest elevation1,503 m (4931 ft)
Highest pointMashanig, Hajhir Mountains
DistrictsHadibu (east)
Qulansiyah wa 'Abd-al-Kūrī (west)
Capital and largest cityHadibu (pop. 8,545)
Pop. density11.3/km2 (29.3/sq mi)
Ethnic groupspredominantly Soqotris; minority South Arabians,
Official nameSocotra Archipelago
Designated2008 (32nd session)
Reference no.1263
RegionArab States

The island of Socotra represents around 95% of the landmass of the Socotra archipelago. It lies 380 kilometres (205 nautical miles) south of the Arabian Peninsula,[5] but is considered to be part of Africa.[6] The island is isolated and home to a high number of endemic species. Up to a third of its plant life is endemic. It has been described as "the most alien-looking place on Earth."[7] The island measures 132 kilometres (82 mi) in length and 49.7 kilometres (30.9 mi) in width.[8] In 2008 Socotra was recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[9]

In 2018, the United Arab Emirates invaded Socotra and relieved Yemeni government soldiers of their duties.


Socotra is a Greek name that is derived from the name of a South Arabian tribe mentioned in Sabaic and Ḥaḑramitic inscriptions as Dhū-Śakūrid (S³krd).[10] Socotra may also be derived from Sanskrit "Dvīpa Sukhadara" which means "island of bliss".[11]


There was initially an Oldowan lithic culture in Socotra. Oldowan stone tools were found in the area around Hadibo by V.A. Zhukov, a member of the Russian Complex Expedition in 2008.[12][13][14]

Socotra appears as Dioskouridou (Διοσκουρίδου νῆσος), meaning "the island of the Dioscuri",[15] in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a first-century AD Greek navigation aid. A recent discovery of texts in several languages, including a wooden tablet in Palmyrene dated to the third century AD, indicate the diverse origins of those who used Socotra as a trading base in antiquity.[16]

In 2001, a group of Belgian speleologists of the Socotra Karst Project investigated a cave on the island of Socotra. There, they came across a large number of inscriptions, drawings and archaeological objects.[17][18] Further investigation showed that these had been left by sailors who visited the island between the first century BC and the sixth century AD. Most of the texts are written in the Indian Brāhmī script; there are also inscriptions in South Arabian, Ethiopic, Greek, Palmyrene and Bactrian scripts and languages. This corpus of nearly 250 texts and drawings constitutes one of the main sources for the investigation of Indian Ocean trade networks in that time period.[19]

A local tradition, based on the third-century apocryphal Acts of Thomas, holds that the inhabitants were converted to Christianity by Thomas the Apostle in AD 52. In 880, an Ethiopian expeditionary force conquered the island and an Oriental Orthodox bishop was consecrated. The Ethiopians were later dislodged by a large armada sent by Imam Al-Salt bin Malik of Oman.[20][21] In the tenth century, the Arab geographer Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani stated that, in his time, most of the inhabitants were Christian. Socotra is also mentioned in The Travels of Marco Polo; Marco Polo did not pass anywhere near the island, but recorded a report that "the inhabitants are baptised Christians and have an 'archbishop'" who, it is further explained, "has nothing to do with the Pope in Rome, but is subject to an archbishop who lives at Baghdad." They were Eastern Christians but also practised ancient magic rituals despite the warnings of their archbishop.[22]

Photo of local men from Socotra taken by Charles K. Moser, 1918[23]

In 1507, a Portuguese fleet commanded by Tristão da Cunha with Afonso de Albuquerque landed at the then capital of Suq and captured the port after a stiff battle. Their objective was to set a base in a strategic place on the route to India and to liberate the presumed friendly Christians from Islamic rule. The architect Tomás Fernandes started to build a fortress at Suq, the Forte de São Miguel de Socotorá. The lack of a proper harbour for wintering led to the loss of many moored Portuguese ships, the most important of which was the Santo António galleon under the command of captain Manuel Pais da Veiga.[24] The infertility of the land led to famine and sickness in the garrison, and the Portuguese abandoned the island in 1511.[25]

1893 map of the Bombay Presidency including Aden Province and Socotra

The Mahra sultans took control of Socotra in 1511, and the inhabitants were converted to Islam during their rule.[26] In 1737, however, Captain de la Garde-Jazier, commander of a French naval expedition heading for Mocha, was surprised to find Christian tribes living in the interior of Socotra during a five-week stopover on the island. He reported in a letter home that the tribesmen, "due to lack of missionaries, had only retained a faint knowledge of Christianity."[27]

In 1834, the East India Company stationed a garrison on Socotra, in the expectation that the Mahra sultan of Qishn and Socotra, who resided at Qishn on the mainland, would accept an offer to sell the island. The lack of good anchorages proved to be as much a problem for the British as the Portuguese, and there was nowhere for a coaling station to be used by the new steamship line on the Suez-Bombay route. Faced with the unexpected firm refusal of the sultan to sell, the British left in 1835. After the capture of Aden by the British in 1839, they lost all interest in acquiring Socotra.

In January 1876, in exchange for a payment of 3,000 thalers and a yearly subsidy, the sultan pledged "himself, his heirs and successors, never to cede, to sell, to mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British Government, the Island of Socotra or any of its dependencies." Additionally, he pledged to assist any European vessel that wrecked on the island and protect the crew, the passengers and the cargo, in exchange for a suitable reward.[28] In April 1886, the British government, concerned about reports that the German navy had been visiting various ports in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean to secure a naval base, decided to conclude a protectorate treaty with the sultan in which he promised this time to "refrain from entering into any correspondence, agreement, or treaty with any foreign nation or power, except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government", and give immediate notice to the British Resident at Aden of any attempt by another power to interfere with Socotra and its dependencies.[29] Apart from those obligations, this preemptive protectorate treaty, designed above all to seal off Socotra against competition from other colonial powers, left the sultan in control of the island. In 1897, the P&O ship Aden sank after being wrecked on a reef near Socotra, with the loss of 78 lives. As some of the cargo had been plundered by islanders, the sultan was reminded of his obligations under the agreement of 1876.[30]

From 17 December 1896 until 12 February 1897, the British explorers Theodore and Mabel Bent visited the island,[31] following on from the botanical visits of Bayley Balfour and Schweinfurth in the early 1880s. They were accompanied by a young Englishman, Ernest Bennett.

In October 1967, in the wake of the departure of the British from Aden and southern Arabia, the Mahra Sultanate, as well as the other states of the former Aden Protectorate, were abolished. On 30 November of the same year, Socotra became part of South Yemen. The attitude of the South Yemeni government to the Soviet Union enabled the Soviet Navy to use the archipelago as a supply and supporting base for its operations in the Indian Ocean from 1971 to the late 1980s.[32][33][34]

Since Yemeni unification in 1990, it has been a part of the Republic of Yemen.

In 2015, cyclone Chapala and cyclone Megh struck Socotra, causing severe damage to the island's infrastructure, homes, roads, and power. Due to the collective impacts of Chapala and Megh, various Gulf Cooperation Council states sent 43 planes with supplies to the island by 19 November.[35] The United Arab Emirates sent a ship and a plane, carrying 500 tons of food, 10 tons of blankets and tents, and 1,200 barrels of food.[36]

In 2016 the United Arab Emirates increased supplies delivered to Socotra, which had been largely abandoned and forgotten during the ongoing conflict. In October 2016, the 31st cargo aircraft landed in Socotra Airport containing two tons of aid.[37][38] At that time, the UAE also established a military base on the island as part of the Saudi-led intervention.[37]

In 2017, some Yemeni political factions accused the United Arab Emirates of looting, claiming that Emirati forces had ravaged the flora of the island.[39]

On January 29, 2018, the local Southern Transitional Council leadership on the archipelago declared their support for the STC during Hadi infighting in and around Aden.[40]

On April 30, 2018, the United Arab Emirates, as part of the ongoing Saudi-led intervention in Yemen, landed troops on the island and took control of Socotra Airport and seaport.[41][37] On May 14, 2018, Saudi troops were also deployed on the island and a deal was brokered between the United Arab Emirates and Yemen for a joint military training exercise and the return of administrative control of Socotra airport and seaport under Yemeni control.[42][43]

In May 2019, the Yemeni government accused the United Arab Emirates of landing around 100 separatist troops in Socotra, which the UAE denied, deepening a rift between the two nominal allies in Yemen's civil war.[44]

In February 2020, a regiment of the Yemeni Army stationed in Socotra rebelled and pledged allegiance to the UAE-backed separatist Southern Transitional Council in Socotra, renouncing the UN-backed government of Hadi.[45] The Southern Transitional Council seized control of the island in June 2020.[46]

On 2 March 2021, the UAE deployed military officials to the island. Around the same time, the Emirates also sent a ship carrying ammunition to the militias in Socotra. Confirming the information, an adviser to Yemeni Information Minister Muammar Al-Iryani, Mukhtar Al-Rahbi said it was a set up of military escalation in the region.[47]

Geography and climate

Halah Cave (Arabic: كهف حالة) in the east of the island is several hundred metres deep, with total darkness. Note the size of the stalagmites and stalactites compared to that of the 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in) man with the torch.
Dixam canyon

Socotra is one of the most isolated landforms on Earth of continental origin (i.e. not of volcanic origin). The archipelago was once part of the supercontinent of Gondwana and detached during the Miocene epoch, in the same set of rifting events that opened the Gulf of Aden to its northwest.[48]

The archipelago consists of the main island of Socotra (3,665 km2 or 1,415 sq mi), the three smaller islands of Abd al Kuri, Samhah and Darsa, as well as small rock outcrops like Ka'l Fir'awn and Sābūnīyah that are uninhabitable by humans but important for seabirds.[49]

The main island has three geographical terrains: the narrow coastal plains, a limestone plateau with karst topography and the Hajhir Mountains.[50] The mountains rise to 1,503 metres (4,931 ft).[51] The island is about 125 kilometres (78 mi) long and 45 kilometres (28 mi) north to south.[52]

The climate of Socotra is classified in the Köppen climate classification as BWh and BSh, meaning a hot desert climate bordering on a semi-desert climate with a mean annual temperature over 25 °C (77 °F). Yearly rainfall is light but is fairly spread throughout the year. Due to orographic lift provided by the interior mountains, especially during the northeast monsoon from October to December, the highest inland areas can average as much as 800 millimetres (31.50 in) per year and can receive over 250 millimetres (9.84 in) in a month during November and December.[53] The southwest monsoon season from June to September brings strong winds and high seas. For many centuries, the sailors of Gujarat called the maritime route near Socotra as “Sikotro Sinh”, meaning the lion of Socotra, that constantly roars—referring to the high seas near Socotra.

In an extremely unusual occurrence, the normally arid western side of Socotra received more than 410 millimetres (16.14 in) of rain from Cyclone Chapala in November 2015.[54] Cyclones don't affect the island that much, but in 2015 Cyclone Megh became the strongest, and only, major Cyclone to strike the island directly.

Climate data for Socotra
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.0
Average high °C (°F) 27.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.8
Average low °C (°F) 22.6
Record low °C (°F) 17.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 2.5
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.4 0.8 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.0 0.6 2.2 7.7 5.2 21.7
Average relative humidity (%) 70 68 67 66 62 60 58 57 62 69 72 73 65
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[55]

Flora and fauna

Endemic tree species Dracaena cinnabari
An 1890s photograph of endemic tree species Dendrosicyos socotranus, the cucumber tree, by Henry Ogg Forbes

Socotra is considered the jewel of biodiversity in the Arabian Sea.[56] In the 1990s, a team of United Nations biologists conducted a survey of the archipelago's flora and fauna. They counted nearly 700 endemic species, found nowhere else on earth; only New Zealand,[57] Hawaii, New Caledonia, and the Galápagos Islands have more impressive numbers.[58]

The long geological isolation of the Socotra archipelago and its fierce heat and drought have combined to create a unique and spectacular endemic flora. Botanical field surveys led by the Centre for Middle Eastern Plants, part of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, indicate that 307 out of the 825 (37%) plant species on Socotra are endemic, i.e., they are found nowhere else on Earth.[59] The entire flora of the Socotra Archipelago has been assessed for the IUCN Red List, with three Critically Endangered and 27 Endangered plant species recognised in 2004.[59]

One of the most striking of Socotra's plants is the dragon's blood tree (Dracaena cinnabari), which is a strange-looking, umbrella-shaped tree. Its red sap was thought to be the dragon's blood of the ancients, sought after as a dye, and today used as paint and varnish.[59] Also important in ancient times were Socotra's various endemic aloes, used medicinally, and for cosmetics. Other endemic plants include the giant succulent tree Dorstenia gigas; the cucumber tree, Dendrosicyos socotranus; the rare Socotran pomegranate (Punica protopunica), Aloe perryi, and Boswellia socotrana.[60]

The island group also has a rich fauna, including several endemic species of birds, such as the Socotra starling (Onychognathus frater), the Socotra sunbird (Nectarinia balfouri), Socotra bunting (Emberiza socotrana), Socotra cisticola (Cisticola haesitatus), Socotra sparrow (Passer insularis), Socotra golden-winged grosbeak (Rhynchostruthus socotranus), and a species in a monotypic genus, the Socotra warbler (Incana incana).[60] Many of the bird species are endangered by predation by non-native feral cats.[58] With only one endemic mammal, six endemic bird species and no amphibians, reptiles constitute the most relevant Socotran vertebrate fauna with 31 species. If one excludes the two recently introduced species, Hemidactylus robustus and Hemidactylus flaviviridis, all native species are endemic. There is a very high level of endemism at both species (29 of 31, 94%) and genus levels (5 of 12, 42%). At the species level, endemicity may be even higher, as phylogenetic studies have uncovered substantial hidden diversity.[61] The reptile species include skinks, legless lizards, and one species of chameleon, Chamaeleo monachus. There are many endemic invertebrates, including several spiders (such as the Socotra Island Blue Baboon tarantula Monocentropus balfouri) and three species of freshwater crabs in the Potamidae (Socotra pseudocardisoma and two species in Socotrapotamon).[62]

As with many isolated island systems, bats are the only mammals native to Socotra. The Socotran pipistrelle (Hypsugo lanzai) is the only species of bat, and mammal in general, thought to be endemic to the island.[63][64] In contrast, the coral reefs of Socotra are diverse, with many endemic species.[60] Socotra is also one of the homes of the brush-footed butterfly Bicyclus anynana.[65]

Over the two thousand years of human settlement on the islands, the environment has slowly but continuously changed, and, according to Jonathan Kingdon, "the animals and plants that remain represent a degraded fraction of what once existed."[60] The First century A.D Periplus of the Erythraean Sea states that the island had crocodiles and large lizards, and the present reptilian fauna appears to be greatly diminished since that time. Until a few centuries ago, there were rivers and wetlands on the island, greater stocks of the endemic trees, and abundant pasture. The Portuguese recorded the presence of water buffaloes in the early 17th century. Now there are sand gullies in place of rivers, and many native plants survive only where there is greater moisture or protection from roaming livestock.[60] The remaining Socotran fauna is greatly threatened by goats and other introduced species.

As a result of the 2015 Yemen civil war in mainland Yemen, Socotra became economically isolated, and fuel gas prices spiked, causing residents to turn to wood for heat. In December 2018, UAE sent cooking gas to Socotra residents to curb deforestation caused by the cutting down of trees for fuel.[66]

UNESCO recognition

The island was recognised by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as a world natural heritage site in July 2008. The European Union has supported such a move, calling on both UNESCO and the International Organisation of Protecting Environment to classify the island archipelago among the major environmental heritages.[9]


A fish market in Socotra
Socotran children

Most of the inhabitants are indigenous Soqotri people from Al-Mahrah tribe, who are of Southern Arabian descent from Al Mahrah Governorate,[67] and are said to be especially closely related with the Qara and Mahra groups of Southern Arabia.[68] Some of the inhabitants are African, descending from former slaves who settled on the island.[69]

Almost all inhabitants of Socotra, numbering about 50,000, live on the main island of the archipelago.[56] The principal city, Hadibu (with a population of 8,545 at the census of 2004); the second largest town, Qalansiyah (population 3,862); and Qād̨ub (population 929) are all located on the north coast of the island of Socotra.[70] Only about 450 people live on 'Abd-al-Kūrī and 100 on Samha; the island of Darsa and the islets of the archipelago are uninhabited.[71]


The island is home to the Semitic language Soqotri, which is related to such other Modern South Arabian languages on the Arabian mainland as Mehri, Harsusi, Bathari, Shehri, and Hobyot, which became the subject of European academic study in the nineteenth century.[72][73]

There is an ancient tradition of poetry and a poetry competition is held annually on the island.[74] The first attested Socotran poet is thought to be the ninth-century Fatima al-Suqutriyya, a popular figure in Socotran culture.[75]

Socotra Swahili is extinct.[76]


The islanders followed indigenous religions until 52 AD, when, according to local beliefs, Thomas the Apostle was shipwrecked there on his way to evangelize India.[77] He then supposedly constructed a church out of his ship's wreckage and baptized many Socotrans.[77] After this, Christianity became the main religion of the island.[77] They followed Nestorius, the Archbishop of Constantinople, who was later excommunicated for heresies. The Socotrans remained loyal to his teachings and joined the Assyrian church.[77] During the tenth century, Arab geographer Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani recorded during his visits that most of the islanders were Christian. Explorer Marco Polo wrote in his travelogue:

I give you my word that the people of this island are the most expert enchanters in the world. It is true that the archbishop does not approve of these enchantments and rebukes them for the practice. But this has no effect, because they say that their forefathers did these things of old.[78]

Christianity in Socotra went into decline when the Mahra sultanate took power in the 16th century, and the populace had become mostly Muslim by the time the Portuguese arrived later that century.[78] An 1884 edition of Nature, a science journal, writes that the disappearance of Christian churches and monuments can be accounted for by a Wahhabi excursion to the island in 1800.[79] Today the only remnants of Christianity are some cross engravings from the first century AD, a few Christian tombs, and some church ruins.[80]


The majority of male residents on Socotra are reported to be in the J* subclade of Y-DNA haplogroup J. Several of the female lineages, notably those in mtDNA haplogroup N, are unique to the island.[81]

Administrative divisions

The archipelago previously formed two districts of the Hadhramaut Governorate:

  • the district of Hidaybu, with a population of 32,285 and a district seat at Hadibu, consists of the eastern two-thirds of the main island of Socotra;
  • the district of Qalansiyah wa 'Abd-al-Kūrī, with a population of 10,557 and a district seat at Qulensya, consists of the minor islands of the archipelago (the island of 'Abd-al-Kūrī chief among them) and the western third of the main island.

In 2013, however, the archipelago was removed from the Hadramaut Governorate and created a governorate (Socotra Governorate) in its own right, consisting of the two above-mentioned districts.


The primary occupations of the people of Socotra have traditionally been fishing, bee keeping, animal husbandry, and the cultivation of dates.[82]

Monsoons long made the archipelago inaccessible from June to September each year. In July 1999, however, a new airport opened Socotra to the outside world all year round. There was regular service to and from Aden and Sana'a until the start of the civil war in 2015. All scheduled commercial flights made a technical stop at Riyan-Mukalla Airport. Socotra Airport is located about 12 kilometres (7+12 miles) west of the main city, Hadibu, and close to the third-largest town in the archipelago, Qād̨ub.[83] Diesel generators make electricity widely available in Socotra. A paved road runs along the north shore from Qulansiyah to Hadibu and then to the DiHamri area; and another paved road, from the northern coast to the south through the Dixsam Plateau.

According to 2012 and 2014 sources analysed by the American Enterprise Institute's Critical Threats Project, a Yemeni naval infantry brigade was stationed on Socotra at the time in a small barracks.[84]

Some residents raise cattle and goats. The chief export products of the island are dates, ghee, tobacco, and fish.

At the end of the 1990s, a United Nations Development Program was launched to provide a close survey of the island of Socotra.[85] The project called Socotra Governance and Biodiversity Project have listed following goals from 2009:

  • Local governance support
  • Development and implementation of mainstreaming tools
  • Strengthening non-governmental organizations' advocacy
  • Direction of biodiversity conservation benefits to the local people
  • Support to the fisheries sector and training of professionals

In February 2014, The Economist magazine reported that Socotra was being considered as a possible site for the Yemeni jihadist rehabilitation program.[86]


Public transport on Socotra is limited to a few minibuses; car hire usually means hiring a 4WD car and a driver.[87][88]

Transport is a delicate matter on Socotra as road construction is considered locally to be detrimental to the island and its ecosystem. In particular, damage has occurred via chemical pollution from road construction while new roads have resulted in habitat fragmentation.[89]

The only port on Socotra is 5 kilometres (3 miles) east of Hadibu. Ships connect the port with the Yemeni coastal city of Mukalla. According to information from the ports, the journey takes 2–3 days and the service is used mostly for cargo. The United Arab Emirates funded the modernization of the port on Socotra.[90]

Iranian companies were noted by a 2003 US diplomatic cable to have completed several projects in Yemen, including building the Socotra airport strip.[91] After cyclones hit Socotra in November 2015, the Emirates Red Crescent set up a lighting system and built a fence in the airport.[92]

Yemenia and Felix Airways flew from Socotra Airport to Sana'a and Aden via Riyan Airport. As of March 2015, due to ongoing civil war involving Saudi Arabia's Air Force, all flights to and from Socotra have been cancelled.[93]

However, during the deployment of Emirati troops and aid to the Island, multiple flight connections were made between Abu Dhabi and Hadibu as part of Emirati effort to provide Socotra residents with access to free healthcare and provide work opportunities.[94]


The airport for Socotra was built in 1999. Before this modest airport, the island could only be reached by a cargo ship. The ideal time to visit Socotra is from October to April; the remaining months usually have heavy monsoon rainfall, making it difficult to survive the weather for tourists; flights also usually get cancelled.[95] The island lacks any well-established hotels, although there are a few guesthouses for the travelers to stay during their short visits.[96] Due to the Yemeni Civil War that started in 2015, tourism to Socotra Island has been affected. The island received over 1,000 tourists each year until 2014.[97]

Tourism to the island has increased over the years as many operators have started offering trips to the island, which Gulf Today claimed “will become a dream destination despite the country’s conflict”. In May 2021, an advisor to the Ministry of Information Mukhar Al-Rahbi stated that the UAE is violating the island and has been planning to control it for years. It is running illegal trips for foreign tourists without taking any permission from the Yemeni government.[98] UAE operated a weekly direct flight (nonstop) from Abu Dhabi to Socotra Island every Tuesday via Air Arabia.

See also

  • Galápagos Islands, an archipelago of Ecuador which is also famous for its isolated geography and plant and animal species
  • Masirah Island, another island with a rugged terrain off the coast of the Arabian Peninsula


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Further reading

  • Agafonov, Vladimir (2007). "Temethel as the Brightest Element of Soqotran Folk Poetry". Folia Orientalia. 42/43 (2006/07): 241–249.
  • Agafonov, Vladimir (2013). Mehazelo – Cinderella of Socotra. ISBN 978-1482319224.
  • Biedermann, Zoltán (2006). Soqotra, Geschichte einer christlichen Insel im Indischen Ozean vom Altertum bis zur frühen Neuzeit. Maritime Asia 17 (in German). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05421-8.
  • Botting, Douglas (2006) [1958]. Island of the Dragon's Blood (2nd ed.). ISBN 978-1-904246-21-3.
  • Burdick, Alan (25 March 2007). "The Wonder Land of Socotra, Yemen". The New York Times.
  • Casson, Lionel (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04060-8.
  • Cheung, Catherine; DeVantier, Lyndon (2006). Van Damme, Kay (ed.). Socotra: A Natural History of the Islands and their People. Odyssey Books & Guides. ISBN 978-962-217-770-3.
  • Doe, D. Brian (1970). Field, Henry; Laird, Edith M. (eds.). Socotra: An Archaeological Reconnaissance in 1967. Miami: Field Research Projects.
  • Doe, D. Brian (1992). Socotra: Island of Tranquility. London: Immel.
  • Elie, Serge D. (2004). "Hadiboh: From Peripheral Village to Emerging City". Chroniques Yemenites. 12.
  • Elie, Serge D. (November 2006). "Soqotra: South Arabia's Strategic Gateway and Symbolic Playground". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 33 (2): 131–160. doi:10.1080/13530190600953278. ISSN 1353-0194. S2CID 129912477.
  • Elie, Serge D. (June 2007). The Waning of a Pastoralist Community: An Ethnographic Exploration of Soqotra as a Transitional Social Formation (D.Phil Dissertation thesis). University of Sussex.
  • Elie, Serge D. (2008). "The Waning of Soqotra's Pastoral Community: Political Incorporation as Social Transformation". Human Organization. 67 (3): 335–345. doi:10.17730/humo.67.3.lm86541uv4765823.
  • Elie, Serge D. (2009). "State-Community Relations in Yemen: Soqotra's Historical Formation as a Sub-National Polity". History and Anthropology. 20 (4): 363–393. doi:10.1080/02757200903166459. S2CID 111387231.
  • Elie, Serge D. (2010). "Soqotra: The Historical Formation of a Communal Polity". Chroniques Yéménites. 16 (16): 31–55. doi:10.4000/cy.1766.
  • Elie, Serge D. (2012). "Fieldwork in Soqotra: The Formation of a Practitioner's Sensibility". Practicing Anthropology. 34 (2): 30–34. doi:10.17730/praa.34.2.7279k63434142762.
  • Elie, Serge D. (2012). "Cultural Accommodation to State Incorporation: Language Replacement on Soqotra Island". Journal of Arabian Studies. 2 (1): 39–57. doi:10.1080/21534764.2012.686235. S2CID 144803493.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004) Ethnoflora of the Socotra Archipelago. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
  • Naumkin, V. V.; Sedov, A. V. (1993). "Monuments of Socotra". In Boussac, Marie-Françoise; Salles, Jean-François (eds.). Athens, Aden, Arikamedu: Essays on the interrelations between India, Arabia and the Eastern Mediterranean. Delhi: Manohar. pp. 193–250. ISBN 978-81-7304-079-5.
  • Peutz, Nathalie (2018). Islands of Heritage: Conservation and Transformation in Yemen. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9781503607156.
  • Schoff, Wilfred H. (1974) [1912]. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (2nd. ed.). New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation.
  • Zhukov, Valery A. (2014). The Results of Research of the Stone Age Sites in the Island of Socotra (Yemen) in 2008-2012 (in Russian). Moscow: Triada. ISBN 978-5-89282-591-7.
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