Royal arms of England

The royal arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form[1] at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.[2] In the popular mind they have come to symbolise the nation of England, although according to heraldic usage nations do not bear arms, only persons and corporations do (however in Western Europe, especially in today's France, arms can be territorial civil emblems).[3] The blazon of the arms of Plantagenet is: Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langued azure,[4][5] signifying three identical gold lions (also known as leopards) with blue tongues and claws, walking past but facing the observer, arranged in a column on a red background. Although the tincture azure of tongue and claws is not cited in many blazons, they are historically a distinguishing feature of the arms of England. This coat, designed in the High Middle Ages, has been variously combined with those of the Kings of France, Scotland, a symbol of Ireland, the House of Nassau and the Kingdom of Hanover, according to dynastic and other political changes occurring in England, but has not altered since it took a fixed form in the reign of Richard I of England (1189–1199), the second Plantagenet king.

Royal arms of England
(Arms of Plantagenet)
ArmigerMonarchs of England
AdoptedLate 12th century
BlazonGules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langued azure
MottoDieu et mon droit
Order(s)Order of the Garter

Although in England the official blazon refers to "lions", French heralds historically used the term "leopard" to represent the lion passant guardant, and hence the arms of England, no doubt, are more correctly blazoned, "leopards". Without doubt the same animal was intended, but different names were given according to the animal's pose; in later times the name lion was given to both.[6]

Royal emblems depicting lions were first used by Danish Vikings,[7] Saxons (Lions were adopted in Germanic tradition around the 5th century,[8] they were re-interpreted in a Christian context in the western kingdoms of Gaul and Northern Italy in the 6th and 7th centuries) and Normans.[9][10][11] Later, with Plantagenets a formal and consistent English heraldry system emerged at the end of the 12th century. The earliest surviving representation of an escutcheon, or shield, displaying three lions is that on the Great Seal of King Richard I (1189–1199), which initially displayed one or two lions rampant, but in 1198 was permanently altered to depict three lions passant, perhaps representing Richard I's principal three positions as King of the English, Duke of Normandy, and Duke of Aquitaine.[5][9][10][11] In 1340, Edward III of England laid claim to the throne of France, and thus adopted the national emblem of France which he quartered with his paternal arms, the royal arms of England.[9] He placed the French arms in the 1st and 4th quarters. This quartering was adjusted, abandoned and restored intermittently throughout the Middle Ages as the relationship between England and France changed. When the French king altered his arms from semée of fleur-de-lys, to only three, the English quartering eventually followed suit. After the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland entered a personal union, the arms of England and Scotland were marshalled (combined) in what has now become the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom.[12] It appears in a similar capacity to represent England in the arms of Canada and on the Late Queen's Personal Canadian Flag.[13] The coat of three lions continues to represent England on several coins of the pound sterling, forms the basis of several emblems of English national sports teams[14][15] (although with altered tinctures) and endures as one of the most recognisable national symbols of England.[3]

When the royal arms take the form of an heraldic flag, it is variously known as the Royal Banner of England,[16] the Banner of the Royal Arms,[17] the Banner of the King (Queen) of England,[18][19] or by the misnomer the Royal Standard of England.[note 1] This royal banner differs from England's national flag, the St George's Cross, in that it does not represent any particular area or land, but rather symbolises the sovereignty vested in the rulers thereof.[4]



The second Great Seal of King Richard the Lionheart (1189–1199) was the first royal emblem of England to feature three lions
The three lions passants guardants or attributed to William I and his successors Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, John and Henry III by Matthew Paris in Historia Anglorum and Chronica Majora in the 1250s.

The first documented use of royal arms dates from the reign of Richard I (1189–1199). Much later antiquarians would retrospectively invent attributed arms for earlier kings, but their reigns pre-dated the systematisation of hereditary English heraldry that only occurred in the second half of the 12th century.[9] Lions may have been used as a badge by members of the Norman dynasty: a late-12th century chronicler reports that in 1128, Henry I of England knighted his son-in-law, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, and gave him a gold lion badge. The memorial enamel created to decorate Geoffrey's tomb depicts a blue coat of arms bearing gold lions. His youngest son, William FitzEmpress, used an equestrian seal showing a coat with a single lion rampant,[21] while the eldest son, Henry II (1133–1189) used a lion as his emblem, and based on the arms used by his sons and other relatives, he may have used a coat of arms with a single lion or two lions, though no direct testimony of this has been found.[22] His children experimented with different combinations of lions on their arms. Richard I (1189–1199) used a single lion rampant, or perhaps two lions affrontés, on his first Great Seal of England,[5] but later used three lions passant in his 1198 Great Seal. The arms bear a striking resemblance to the family arms of the Hohenstaufen Emperors adopted at nearly the same time, which Richard would have been acquainted with from his travels, and would show his personal alliance with them.[23][24] Richard's brother John had used a seal during the reigns of his father and elder brother that showed two lions passant,[21][22] but his adoption of his brother's three-lion arms on his succession established this as the lasting design of the royal arms of England.[5][22]


In 1340, following the extinction of the House of Capet, Edward III claimed the French throne. In addition to initiating the Hundred Years' War, Edward III expressed his claim in heraldic form by quartering the royal arms of England with the arms of France. This quartering continued until 1801, with intervals in 1360–1369 and 1420–1422.[5]

Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, the throne of England was inherited by the Scottish House of Stuart, resulting in the Union of the Crowns: the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland were united in a personal union under James VI and I.[25] As a consequence, the royal arms of England and Scotland were combined in the king's new personal arms. Nevertheless, although referencing the personal union with Scotland and Ireland, the royal arms of England remained distinct from the royal arms of Scotland, until the two realms were joined in a political union in 1707, leading to a unified royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom.[12]

Kingdom of England
(Under personal union with the Kingdom of Scotland from 1603 to 1707)
Escutcheon Period Description
1189–1198The arms of Richard I are only known from two armorial seals, and hence the tinctures can not be determined. His First Great Seal showed one lion on half of the shield. It is debated whether this was meant to represent two lions combatant or a single lion, and if the latter, whether the direction in which the lion is facing is relevant or simply an artistic liberty. A simple lion rampant is most likely.[26]
The arms on the second Great Seal of Richard I, used by his successors until 1340: Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or.[5][9]
Edward III adopted the arms of France Azure semé of fleurs de lys or (powdering of fleurs-de-lis on a blue field) – representing his claim to the French throne - and quartered the royal arms of England.
1395–1399Richard II adopted the attributed arms of King Edward the Confessor and impaling the royal arms of England, denoting a mystical union.
1406–1422Henry IV abandoned the attributed arms of King Edward the Confessor, and reduced the fleurs-de-lis to three, in imitation of Charles V of France.[9][27]
Henry VI adopted the arms of France and impaling the arms of England, symbolising the dual monarchy, with France shown in the dexter position of greater honour.
Edward IV restored the arms of Henry IV.[27]
1554–1558Mary I and Philip impaled their arms. Philip's arms were: A. arms quarterly Castile and Leon, B. per pale Aragon and Aragon-Sicily, the whole enté en point Granada; in base quarterly Austria, Burgundy ancient, Burgundy modern and Brabant, with an escutcheon (in the nombril point) per pale Flanders and Tyrol.[9][27] Although Queen Mary I's father, King Henry VIII, assumed the title of King of Ireland and this was further conferred upon King Philip, the arms were not altered to feature the Kingdom of Ireland.
As sovereigns of Milan, Mary and Philip added an escutcheon of the Duchy of Milan used since the time of the Sforza: It presented the Biscione, an azure serpent in the act of consuming a human, showing in argent and quartering with the Imperial eagle (the earlier single-headed) on a shield or. The order in what are shown the English and French arms on English quarters is altered respect the usual due to French Claims to the Duchy.[28]
1558–1603Elizabeth I restored the arms of Henry IV.[9]
James I inherited the English throne in 1603, establishing a union with Scotland, and quartered the royal arms of England with those of Scotland. The royal arms of Ireland was added to represent the Kingdom of Ireland. Last used by Anne, this was the final version of the royal arms of England before being subsumed into the royal arms of Great Britain.[9][27]
1689–1694James II was deposed and replaced with his daughter Mary II and son-in-law and nephew William III. As co-monarchs, they impaled their arms, with the husband's arms taking the dexter half of greatest honour, as heraldic custom dictates. William bore the royal arms with the addition of an inescutcheon of Nassau (the royal house to which William belonged): Azure billetty or, a lion rampant of the last armed and langued gules, while Mary bore the royal arms undifferenced.[29]
1694–1702After the death of Mary II, William III reigned alone, and used his arms only.[9]
1702–1707Anne inherited the throne upon the death of William III, and the royal arms returned to the 1603 version.[9]

Union with Scotland and Ireland

The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom as used by King Charles III from 2022 contains that of England in the first and fourth quarters
Royal standard of George III post-Acts of Union 1800, made of hand-sewn wool bunting.

On 1 May 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to form that of Great Britain; this was reflected by impaling their arms in a single quarter. The claim to the French throne continued, albeit passively, until it was mooted by the French Revolution and the formation of the French First Republic in 1792.[5] During the peace negotiations at the Conference of Lille, from July to November 1797, the French delegates demanded that the King of Great Britain abandon the title of King of France as a condition of peace. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Under King George III of the United Kingdom, a proclamation of 1 January 1801 set the royal style and titles and modified the royal arms, removing the French quarter and putting the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland on the same structural level, with the dynastic arms of Hanover moved to an inescutcheon.[5]

Kingdom of Great Britain (and later, of Great Britain and Ireland)
Escutcheon Period Description
1707–1714The impaled arms of England and Scotland reflecting their merging into one kingdom of "Great Britain".
1714–1801The English and Scottish lions in the 4th quarter were replaced with a set of arms showing the origins of the House of Hanover as a result of the Act of Settlement.
1801–1816The arms showing the status of the constituent realms of the United Kingdom: England, Scotland and Ireland. The Hanoverian dynastic arms were moved to an inescutcheon with an electoral bonnet.
1816–1837The arms showing Hanover raised to the status of a kingdom after the Napoleonic wars.
1837–1952The Hanoverian dynastic arms were dropped on the accession of Queen Victoria. As Hanover followed the Salic law, she could not accede to the throne of Hanover.
1952–presentAfter Queen Elizabeth II acceded to the throne in 1952, the Irish harp was changed to a simpler design, similar to the Trinity College harp, but not exactly the same. The Trinity College harp is used on the President of Ireland’s flag.


English heraldry flourished as a working art up to around the 17th century, when it assumed a mainly ceremonial role.[5] The royal arms of England continued to embody information relating to English history.[5] Although the Acts of Union 1707 placed England within the Kingdom of Great Britain, prompting new, British royal arms, the royal arms of England are still used occasionally in an official capacity,[30] and has continued to endure as one of the national symbols of England,[3] and has a variety of active uses. For instance, the coats of arms of both The Football Association[14][31] and the England and Wales Cricket Board[32] have a design featuring three lions passant, based on the historic royal arms of England. In 1997 (and again in 2002), the Royal Mint issued a British one pound (£1) coin featuring three lions passant to represent England.[33] To celebrate St George's Day, in 2001, Royal Mail issued first– and second-class postage stamps with the royal crest of England (a crowned lion), and the royal arms of England (three lions passant) respectively.[34]

Crest, supporters and other parts of the achievement

Various accessories to the escutcheon (shield) were added and modified by successive English monarchs. These included a crest (with mantling, helm and crown); supporters (with a compartment); a motto; and the insignia of an order of knighthood. These various components made up the full achievement of arms.[27]

Royal crest

The original royal crest as introduced by Edward III, borne upon a chapeau and with a red mantling lined in ermine. The steel helm has gold embellishments.

The first addition to the shield was in the form of a crest borne above the shield. It was during the reign of Edward III that the crest began to be widely used in English heraldry. The first representation of a royal crest was in Edward's third Great Seal, which showed a helm above the arms, and thereon a gold lion passant guardant standing upon a chapeau, and bearing a royal crown on its head.[36] The design underwent minor variations until it took on its present form in the reign of Henry VIII: "The Royal Crown proper, thereon a lion statant guardant Or, royally crowned also proper".[36]

The exact form of crown used in the crest varied over time. Until the reign of Henry VI it was usually shown as an open circlet adorned with fleurs-de-lys or stylised leaves. On Henry's first seal for foreign affairs the design was altered with the circlet decorated by alternating crosses formy and fleurs-de-lys. From the reign of Edward IV the crown bore a single arch, altered to a double arch by Henry VII. The design varied in details until the late 17th century, but since that time has consisted of a jewelled circlet, above which are alternating crosses formy and fleurs-de-lys. From this spring two arches decorated with pearls, and at their intersection an orb surmounted by a cross formy.[36] A cap of crimson velvet is shown within the crown, with the cap's ermine lining appearing at the base of the crown in lieu of a torse.[36] The shape of the arches of the crown has been represented differently at different times, and can help to date a depiction of the crest.[36]

The helm on which the crest was borne was originally a simple steel design, sometimes with gold embellishments. In the reign of Elizabeth I a pattern of helm unique to the royal arms was introduced. This is a gold helm with a barred visor, facing the viewer.[37] The decorative mantling (a stylised cloth cloak that hangs from the helm) was originally of red cloth lined with ermine, but was altered to cloth of gold lined ermine by Elizabeth.[37]


The supporters of the royal arms of England, such as the dragon and greyhound seen here at King's College, Cambridge, can identify specific monarchs and assist with dating ancient buildings.[27]

Animal supporters, standing on either side of the shield to hold and guard it, first appeared in English heraldry in the 15th century. Originally, they were not regarded as an integral part of arms, and were subject to frequent change. Various animals were sporadically shown supporting the royal arms of England, but it was only with the reign of Edward IV that their use became consistent. Supporters fell under the regulation of the Kings of Arms in the Tudor period. The heralds of that time also prochronistically created supporters for earlier monarchs, and although these attributed supporters were never used by the monarchs concerned, they were later used to signify them on public buildings or monuments completed after their deaths, for instance at St. George's Chapel, in Windsor Castle.[38][39]

The boar adopted by Richard III prompted William Collingbourne's quip "The Rat, the Cat, and Lovell the Dog, Rule all England under the Hog",[note 2][27] and William Shakespeare's derision in Richard III.[note 3][40] The red dragon, a symbol of the Tudor dynasty, was added upon the accession of Henry VII, and used by Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.[27] After the Union of the Crowns, the supporters of the arms of the British monarch became—and have remained—the Lion and the Unicorn, representing England and Scotland respectively.[27]

Garter and motto

Edward III founded the Order of the Garter in about 1348. Since then, the full achievement of the royal arms has included a representation of the Garter, encircling the shield. This is a blue circlet with gold buckle and edging, bearing the order's Old French motto Honi soit qui mal y pense ("Shame be to him who thinks evil of it") in gold capital letters.[37]

A motto, placed on a scroll below the royal arms of England, seems to have first been adopted by Henry IV in the early 15th century. His motto was Souverayne ("sovereign").[37] His son, Henry V adopted the motto Dieu et mon droit ("God and my right"). While this motto has been exclusively used since the accession of George I in 1714, and continues to form part of the royal arms of the United Kingdom, other mottoes were used by certain monarchs in the intervening period.[37] Veritas temporis filia ("truth is the daughter of time") was the motto of Mary I (1553–1558), Semper Eadem ("always the same") was used by Elizabeth I (1558–1603) and Anne (1702–1714), James I (1603–1625) sometimes used Beati pacifici ("blessed are the peacemakers"), while William III (1689–1702) used the motto of the House of Orange: Je maintiendrai ("I will maintain").[37]

Royal banner of England

The royal arms of England featuring as the royal banner

The royal banner of England is the English banner of arms and so has always borne the royal arms of England—the personal arms of England's reigning monarch. When displayed in war or battle, this banner signalled that the sovereign was present in person.[20] Because the royal banner depicted the royal arms of England, its design and composition changed throughout the Middle Ages.[20] It is variously known as the royal banner of England, the banner of the royal arms,[17] the banner of the king of England, or by the misnomer of the royal standard of England; Arthur Charles Fox-Davies explains that it is "a misnomer to term the banner of the royal arms the Royal Standard", because "the term standard properly refers to the long tapering flag used in battle, by which an overlord mustered his retainers in battle".[17] The archaeologist and antiquarian Charles Boutell also makes this distinction.[20] This royal banner differs from England's national flag, St George's Cross, in that it does not represent any particular area or land, but rather symbolises the sovereignty vested in the rulers thereof.[4]

In other banners

Other bearers of the Royal Arms of England outside of the Royal Family

Several families depicted below here and officially entitled to bear the Lions of England, either through descent through the male line (illegitimate), or through the female line (e.g. the Dukes of Norfolk and their descendants).

The House of Hanover stopped bearing the arms of England, and the United Kingdom, when they succeeded as Dukes of Brunswick in the German Empire. The Duke of Brunswick was generally understood to have lost the right to bear the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, under which they also lost their British Royal Duchy, the Dukedom of Cumberland and Teviotdale as well as their place in the line of succession to the British throne. However, after being deposed/abdicating in 1918 with the rest of the German princes, they resumed using the arms of the Kingdom of Hanover, which included the Arms of the United Kingdom. Their right to do so is not undisputed. However, as they reside outside the United Kingdom, there is no generally accepted international legal recourse.

The Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha are a similar situation, having been also been deprived of their British tile, Duke of Albany, and place in the succession in 1917.

Other roles and manifestations

The arms of Faversham Town Council is an example of the royal arms of England modified into a distinct civic emblem.[42][43]

Several ancient English towns displayed the royal arms of England upon their seals and, when it occurred to them to adopt insignia of their own, used the royal arms, albeit with modification, as their inspiration.[43] For instance, in the arms of New Romney, the field is changed from red to blue.[43] Hereford changes the lions from gold to silver, and in the 17th century was granted a blue border charged with silver saltires in allusion to its siege by a Scottish army during the English Civil War.[43] The town council of Faversham changes only the hindquarters of the three lions to silver.[42] Berkshire County Council bore arms with two golden lions in reference to its royal patronage and the Norman kings' influence upon the early history of Berkshire.[43]

The royal arms of England features on the tabard, the distinctive traditional garment of English officers of arms.[44] These garments were worn by heralds when performing their original duties—making royal or state proclamations and announcing tournaments. Since 1484 they have been part of the Royal Household.[45] Tabards featuring the royal arms continue to be worn at several traditional ceremonies, such as the annual procession and service of the Order of the Garter at Windsor Castle, the State Opening of Parliament at the Palace of Westminster, the coronation of the British monarch at Westminster Abbey, and state funerals in the United Kingdom.[44]

The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is used in Imperial College London's coat of arms depicting the close historic link of the university with the Royal Family.[46] The university was born out of Queen Victoria and Prince Consort Albert vision of an area of culture and science in London, now called Albertopolis. [47] King Edward VII granted the college the arms in 1908 by royal warrant.[46]

See also


  1. In A Complete Guide to Heraldry (1909), Arthur Charles Fox-Davies explains:
    It is a misnomer to term the banner of the Royal Arms the Royal Standard. The term standard properly refers to the long tapering flag used in battle, by which an overlord mustered his retainers in battle.[17]
    The archaeologist and antiquarian Charles Boutell also makes this distinction.[20]
  2. This was a pun on Richard III (the Hog) and three of his staunchest supporters, Richard Ratcliffe (the Rat), William Catesby (the Cat) and Francis Lovell (the Dog).
  3. For instance, in Act 1, Scene III of Richard III, Margaret, Queen consort of England describes Richard as "Thou elvish-mark'd, abortive, rooting hog!"



  1. King Henry II (1154–1189) used proto-heraldic arms, showing one or two lions.
  2. Jamieson 1998, pp. 14–15.
  3. Boutell 1859, p. 373: "The three golden lions upon a ground of red have certainly continued to be the royal and national arms of England."
  4. Fox-Davies 2008, p. 607.
  5. "Coat of Arms of King George III". The First Foot Guards. Retrieved 4 February 2010.
  6. Parker, James. "A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry". A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  7. Onians, John (2004). Atlas of World Art. Lawrence King Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 978-1856693776. significant pre-figuration of medieval heraldry
  8. Shanzer, Danuta; Mathisen, Ralph W (28 July 2013). Romans, Barbarians, and the Transformation of the Roman World: Cultural Interaction and the Creation of Identity in Late Antiquity. Ashgate Publishing. p. 322. ISBN 978-1409482093.
  9. Brooke-Little 1978, pp. 205–222
  10. Brooke-Little 1981, pp. 3–6
  11. Paston-Bedingfield & Gwynn-Jones 1993, pp. 114–115.
  12. "Union Jack". The Royal Household. Archived from the original on 30 June 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  13. "The Flag of Her Majesty the Queen for personal use in Canada". Governor General of Canada. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  14. Briggs 1971, pp. 166–167.
  15. Ingle, Sean (18 July 2002). "Why do England have three lions on their shirts?". The Guardian. Loncon. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  16. Thomson 2001, p. 91.
  17. Fox-Davies 2008, p. 474.
  18. Keightley 1834, p. 310.
  19. James 1840, p. 247.
  20. Boutell 1859, pp. 373–377.
  21. Holroyd, Graham (2000). "The Earliest Known Depiction of the Royal Arms of England?". Coat of Arms. 192.
  22. Ailes, Adrian (1982). The Origins of The Royal Arms of England. Reading: Graduate Center for Medieval Studies, University of Reading. pp. 52–63.
  23. Albrecht Rieber; Karl Reutter (1974). Die Pfalzkapelle in Ulm (in German). p. 204.
  24. Rabbow, Dr Arnold (1999). "The Origin of the Royal Arms of England – a European Connection". Coat of Arms. 186.
  25. Ross 2002, p. 56.
  26. Ailes. pp. 52–3, 64–74.
  27. Knight 1835, pp. 148–150.
  28. Francisco Olmos, José María de (July 2008). Las primeras acuñaciones del príncipe Felipe de España (1554–1556): Soberano de Milán Nápoles e Inglaterra [The First Coins of Prince Philip of Spain (1554–1556): Sovereign of Milan, Naples and England]. Documenta & Instrumenta (Thesis) (in Spanish). Vol. 3. Universidad Complutense Madrid. pp. 165–166 via ResearchGate.
  29. Arnaud Bunel's Héraldique européenne site
  30. Barker O.B.E., Brian (1976). "The Grand Procession". When the Queen was Crowned. Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 77. ISBN 978-0710083975.
  31. "The Three Lions". England Football Online. Archived from the original on 12 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  32. England Wales Cricket Board
  33. "The United Kingdom £1 Coin". Royal Mint. 2010. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
  34. "Three lions replace The Queen on stamps". The Daily Telegraph. London. 6 March 2001. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  35. Why Do England’s Cricketers Wear the Iconic Crest on Their Chest? Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 10 September 2012. The Cricket Blog.
  36. Brooke-Little 1981, pp. 4–8.
  37. Brooke-Little 1981, p. 16.
  38. Brooke-Little 1981, p. 9.
  39. Paston-Bedingfield & Gwynn-Jones 1993, p. 117.
  40. Hall 1853, p. 74.
  41. Woodward 1997, pp. 50–54.
  42. "Faversham Coat of Arms". The Faversham Website. 2 May 2010. Archived from the original on 2 May 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  43. Scott-Giles 1953, p. 11.
  44. "The history of the Royal heralds and the College of Arms". College of Arms. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  45. Elston, Laura (8 September 2009). "Herald's tabard". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  46. Arthur Charles Fox-Davies (1915). The Book of Public Arms. T. C. & E. C. Jack. pp. 380-381. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  47. "Prince Albert's cultural vision and the history of South Kensington: What is Albertopolis?". Royal Albert Hall. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  48. Sumner 2001, p. 9.
  49. "The name and arms of the College". Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2010.


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