Provinces of Thailand

The provinces of Thailand are part of the government of Thailand that is divided into 76 provinces (Thai: จังหวัด, RTGS: changwat, pronounced [t͡ɕāŋ.wàt̚]) proper and one special administrative area (Thai: เขตปกครองส่วนท้องถิ่นรูปแบบพิเศษ), representing the capital Bangkok.[3][4][5] They are the primary local government units and act as juristic persons. They are divided into amphoe (districts) which are further divided into tambon (sub districts), the next lower level of local government. Each province is led by a governor (ผู้ว่าราชการจังหวัด phu wa ratchakan changwat), who is appointed by the central government.

Provinces of Thailand
  • Also known as:
  • changwat (จังหวัด)
CategoryUnitary state
LocationKingdom of Thailand
Number76 provinces
1 Special Administrative Division
Populations174,000 (Mae Hong Son) – 5,702,000 (Bangkok) (2022)[1]
Areas414 km2 (160 sq mi) Samut Songkhram – 22,135 km2 (8,546 sq mi) Chiang Mai[2]

The provinces and administrative areas

A clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces
A clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces
Seal Name Name
(in Thai)
Population (December 2022)[1] Area (km2)[2] Population density Namesake town/city HS[6] ISO[7] FIPS
(special administrative area)
กรุงเทพมหานคร 5,702,000 1,564 3,623 Bangkok BKK TH-10 TH40
 Amnat Charoen อำนาจเจริญ 402,000 3,290 115 Amnat Charoen ACR TH-37 TH77
 Ang Thong อ่างทอง 301,000 950 294 Ang Thong ATG TH-15 TH35
 Bueng Kan บึงกาฬ 450,000 4,003 106 Bueng Kan BKN TH-38 TH81
 Buriram บุรีรัมย์ 1,623,000 10,080 159 Buriram BRM TH-31 TH28
 Chachoengsao ฉะเชิงเทรา 754,000 5,169 139 Chachoengsao CCO TH-24 TH44
 Chai Nat ชัยนาท 331,000 2,506 131 Chai Nat CNT TH-18 TH32
 Chaiyaphum ชัยภูมิ 1,156,000 12,698 91 Chaiyaphum CPM TH-36 TH26
 Chanthaburi จันทบุรี 572,000 6,415 84 Chanthaburi CTI TH-22 TH48
 Chiang Mai เชียงใหม่ 1,820,000 22,135 79 Chiang Mai CMI TH-50 TH02
 Chiang Rai เชียงราย 1,315,000 11,503 113 Chiang Rai CRI TH-57 TH03
 Chonburi ชลบุรี 1,603,000 4,508 346 Chonburi CBI TH-20 TH46
 Chumphon ชุมพร 524,000 5,998 85 Chumphon CPN TH-86 TH58
 Kalasin กาฬสินธุ์ 1,010,000 6,936 142 Kalasin KSN TH-46 TH23
 Kamphaeng Phet กำแพงเพชร 748,000 8,512 86 Kamphaeng Phet KPT TH-62 TH11
 Kanchanaburi กาญจนบุรี 914,000 19,385 46 Kanchanaburi KRI TH-71 TH50
 Khon Kaen ขอนแก่น 1,826,000 10,659 169 Khon Kaen KKN TH-40 TH22
 Krabi กระบี่ 500,000 5,323 90 Krabi KBI TH-81 TH63
 Lampang ลำปาง 762,000 12,488 59 Lampang LPG TH-52 TH06
 Lamphun ลำพูน 421,000 4,478 92 Lamphun LPN TH-51 TH05
 Loei เลย 656,000 10,500 61 Loei LEI TH-42 TH18
 Lopburi ลพบุรี 779,000 6,493 116 Lopburi LRI TH-16 TH34
 Mae Hong Son แม่ฮ่องสอน 174,000 12,765 23 Mae Hong Son MSN TH-58 TH01
 Maha Sarakham มหาสารคาม 1,000,000 5,607 172 Maha Sarakham MKM TH-44 TH24
 Mukdahan มุกดาหาร 338,000 4,126 87 Mukdahan MDH TH-49 TH78
 Nakhon Nayok นครนายก 224,000 2,141 122 Nakhon Nayok NYK TH-26 TH43
 Nakhon Pathom นครปฐม 955,000 2,142 430 Nakhon Pathom NPT TH-73 TH53
 Nakhon Phanom นครพนม 698,000 5,637 127 Nakhon Phanom NPM TH-48 TH73
 Nakhon Ratchasima นครราชสีมา 2,703,000 20,736 128 Nakhon Ratchasima NMA TH-30 TH27
 Nakhon Sawan นครสวรรค์ 997,000 9,526 111 Nakhon Sawan NSN TH-60 TH16
 Nakhon Si Thammarat นครศรีธรรมราช 1,602,000 9,885 158 Nakhon Si Thammarat NRT TH-80 TH64
 Nan น่าน 492,000 12,130 40 Nan NAN TH-55 TH04
 Narathiwat นราธิวาส 847,000 4,491 180 Narathiwat NWT TH-96 TH31
 Nong Bua Lamphu หนองบัวลำภู 481,000 4,099 125 Nong Bua Lam Phu NBP TH-39 TH79
 Nong Khai หนองคาย 536,000 3,275 160 Nong Khai NKI TH-43 TH17
 Nonthaburi นนทบุรี 1,335,000 637 1,986 Nonthaburi NBI TH-12 TH38
 Pathum Thani ปทุมธานี 1,142,000 1,520 766 Pathum Thani PTE TH-13 TH39
 Pattani ปัตตานี 756,000 1,977 367 Pattani PTN TH-94 TH69
 Phang Nga พังงา 243,000 5,495 49 Phang Nga PNA TH-82 TH61
 Phatthalung พัทลุง 567,000 3,861 135 Phatthalung PLG TH-93 TH66
 Phayao พะเยา 489,000 6,189 76 Phayao PYO TH-56 TH41
 Phetchabun เพชรบูรณ์ 1,034,000 12,340 80 Phetchabun PNB TH-67 TH14
 Phetchaburi เพชรบุรี 469,000 6,172 77 Phetchaburi PBI TH-76 TH56
 Phichit พิจิตร 578,000 4,319 124 Phichit PCT TH-66 TH13
 Phitsanulok พิษณุโลก 900,000 10,589 82 Phitsanulok PLK TH-65 TH12
 Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya พระนครศรีอยุธยา 812,000 2,548 322 Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya AYA TH-14 TH36
 Phrae แพร่ 426,000 6,483 68 Phrae PRE TH-54 TH07
 Phuket ภูเก็ต 387,000 547 762 Phuket PKT TH-83 TH62
 Prachinburi ปราจีนบุรี 506,000 5,026 99 Prachinburi PRI TH-25 TH74
 Prachuap Khiri Khan ประจวบคีรีขันธ์ 530,000 6,414 88 Prachuap Khiri Khan PKN TH-77 TH57
 Ranong ระนอง 204,000 3,230 60 Ranong RNG TH-85 TH59
 Ratchaburi ราชบุรี 895,000 5,189 168 Ratchaburi RBR TH-70 TH52
 Rayong ระยอง 727,000 3,666 201 Rayong RYG TH-21 TH47
 Roi Et ร้อยเอ็ด 1,295,000 7,873 166 Roi Et RET TH-45 TH25
 Sa Kaeo สระแก้ว 608,000 6,831 83 Sa Kaeo SKW TH-27 TH80
 Sakon Nakhon สกลนคร 1,200,000 9,580 121 Sakon Nakhon SNK TH-47 TH20
 Samut Prakan สมุทรปราการ 1,324,000 947 1,420 Samut Prakan SPK TH-11 TH42
 Samut Sakhon สมุทรสาคร 567,000 866 675 Samut Sakhon SKN TH-74 TH55
 Samut Songkhram สมุทรสงคราม 209,000 414 467 Samut Songkhram SKM TH-75 TH54
 Saraburi สระบุรี 708,000 3,499 185 Saraburi SRI TH-19 TH37
 Satun สตูล 311,000 3,019 107 Satun STN TH-91 TH67
 Sing Buri สิงห์บุรี 198,000 817 255 Sing Buri SBR TH-17 TH33
 Sisaket ศรีสะเกษ 1,484,000 8,936 165 Sisaket SSK TH-33 TH30
 Songkhla สงขลา 1,444,000 7,741 186 Songkhla SKA TH-90 TH68
 Sukhothai สุโขทัย 615,000 6,671 89 Sukhothai (Sukhothai Thani) STI TH-64 TH09
 Suphan Buri สุพรรณบุรี 891,000 5,410 156 Suphan Buri SPB TH-72 TH51
 Surat Thani สุราษฎร์ธานี 1,101,000 13,079 81 Surat Thani SNI TH-84 TH60
 Surin สุรินทร์ 1,442,000 8,854 157 Surin SRN TH-32 TH29
 Tak ตาก 704,000 17,303 39 Tak TAK TH-63 TH08
 Trang ตรัง 636,000 4,726 136 Trang TRG TH-92 TH65
 Trat ตราด 218,000 2,866 78 Trat TRT TH-23 TH49
 Ubon Ratchathani อุบลราชธานี 1,903,000 15,626 120 Ubon Ratchathani UBN TH-34 TH75
 Udon Thani อุดรธานี 1,608,000 11,072 143 Udon Thani UDN TH-41 TH76
 Uthai Thani อุทัยธานี 342,000 6,647 50 Uthai Thani UTI TH-61 TH15
 Uttaradit อุตรดิตถ์ 470,000 7,906 58 Uttaradit UTD TH-53 TH10
 Yala ยะลา 523,000 4,476 119 Yala YLA TH-95 TH70
 Yasothon ยโสธร 575,000 4,131 130 Yasothon YST TH-35 TH72
  • The total population of Thailand is 67,592,000 as of December 2022.[1]
  • The total land area of Thailand is 517,646 km2 in 2013.[2]
  • HS – Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System.
  • FIPS code is replaced on 31 December 2014 with ISO 3166.


Thailand's national government organisation is divided into three types: central government (ministries, bureaus and departments), provincial government (provinces and districts) and local government (Bangkok, Pattaya, provincial administrative organisations, etc.).

A province, as part of the provincial government, is administered by a governor (ผู้ว่าราชการจังหวัด) who is appointed by the Minister of Interior. Bangkok, as part of the local government, is administered by a corporation called Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The corporation is led by the Governor of Bangkok (ผู้ว่าราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร) who is directly elected by the citizens of Bangkok.

The provinces are named by their original main city, which is not necessarily still the most populous city within the province today. Also, in several provinces the administration has been moved into a new building outside the city.


Before 1892

Many provinces date back to semi-independent local chiefdoms or kingdoms, which made up the Ayutthaya Kingdom. The provinces were created around a capital city (mueang), and included surrounding villages or satellite towns. The provinces were administered either by a governor, who was appointed by the king or by a local ruling family, who were descendants of the old kings and princes of that area and had been given this privilege by the central king. De facto the king did not have much choice but to choose someone from the local nobility or an economically strong man, as against these local power groups the administration would have become impossible. The governor was not paid by the king, but instead financed himself and his administration by imposing local taxes himself. Every province was required to send an annual tribute to Bangkok.

The provinces were divided into four different classes. The first-class were the border provinces. The second-class were those that once had their own princely house. Third-class were provinces that were created by splitting them from other provinces. Fourth-class were provinces near the capital. Additionally tributary states like the principalities of Lan Na, the Laotian kingdoms of Vientiane and Luang Prabang, Cambodia, or the Malay sultanate Kedah were also part of the country, but with more autonomy than the provinces. In this Mandala system the semi-independent countries sometimes were tributary to more than one country.

New provinces were created when the population of an area outgrew the administration, but also for political reasons. If a governor became too dominant in a region former satellite cities were elevated to provincial status, as was the case with Maha Sarakham province.

Reforms of the provincial administration started in the 1870s under increased pressure from the colonial states of the United Kingdom and France. Agents were sent, especially to border areas, to impose more control on the provinces or tributary states.

Administrative reform of 1892

Map of Siam in 1900

At the end of the 19th century King Chulalongkorn reformed the central government. In 1892 the ministry, which previously had many overlapping responsibilities, was reorganized with clear missions as in Western administrations. Prince Damrong Rajanubhab became minister of the Ministry of the North (Mahatthai), originally responsible for the northern administration. When the Ministry of the South (Kalahom) was dissolved in 1894, Prince Damrong became Minister of the Interior, responsible for the provincial administration of the whole country.

Starting in 1893 the already existing commissionaireships in some parts of the country were renamed "superintendent commissioner" (khaluang Thesaphiban), and their area of responsibility was called a monthon. In strategically important areas the monthon were created first, while in other areas the provinces kept their independence a bit longer. Several smaller provinces were reduced in status to an amphoe (district) or even lower to a tambon (sub-district) and included in a neighboring province, sometimes for administrative reasons, but sometimes to remove an uncooperative governor.

In some regions rebellions broke out against the new administrative system, usually induced by the local nobility fearing their loss of power. The most notable was the Holy Man Rebellion in 1902 in Isan. It was initially a messianic doomsday sect, but it also attacked government representatives in the northeast. The provincial town Khemarat was even burned by the rebels. After a few months the rebellion was beaten back.[8]

After 1916, the word changwat became common to use for the provinces, partly to distinguish them from the provincial capital city (mueang or amphoe mueang), but also to stress the new administrative structure of the provinces.[9]

Cities and Monthons in 1900[10]

When Prince Damrong resigned in 1915, the whole country was divided into 19 monthon (including the area around Bangkok, which was under the responsibility of another ministry until 1922), with 72 provinces.

In December 1915 King Vajiravudh announced the creation of regions (phak), each administered by a viceroy (upparat), to cover several monthon. Until 1922 four regions were established, however in 1925 they were dissolved again. At the same time several monthon were merged, in an attempt to streamline administration and reduce costs.

Since 1932

The monthons were dissolved when Thailand transformed from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy in 1932, making the provinces the top level administrative division again. Several smaller provinces were also abolished at that time. During World War II, several provinces around Bangkok were merged. These changes were undone after the war. Also the occupied area from French Indochina was organized into four provinces: Phra Tabong, Phibunsongkhram, Nakhon Champasak and Lan Chang. The current province of Sukhothai was at first known as Sawankhalok. It was renamed Sukhothai in 1939 (which is why the railway system goes to Sawankhalok city and not Sukhothai city). The province, Kalasin, was reestablished in 1947 after having been dissolved in 1932.

In 1972 Phra Nakhon and Thonburi provinces were merged to form the special administrative area of Bangkok, which combines the tasks of the provinces with that of a municipality, including having an elected governor.

Starting in the second half of the 20th century some provinces were newly created by splitting them off from bigger provinces. In 1975, Yasothon province was split off from Ubon Ratchathani. In 1977, Phayao province was created from districts formerly part of Chiang Rai. In 1982, Mukdahan was split off from Nakhon Phanom. In 1993 three provinces were created: Sa Kaeo (split from Prachinburi), Nong Bua Lamphu province (split from Udon Thani), and Amnat Charoen (split from Ubon Ratchathani). The newest province is Bueng Kan, which was split off from Nong Khai effective 23 March 2011.

Former provinces and administrative areas

Former Provinces Merged into Other Provinces

Province Capital Merged in Fate
Kabin Buri Kabin Buri 1926[11] Merged into Prachinburi province
Sukhothai (before 1932) Sukhothai Thani 1932[12] Merged into Sawankhalok province. However, the province's name and location of capital was changed back to Sukhothai in 1938.
Lom Sak Lom Sak Merged into Phetchabun province
Thanyaburi Thanyaburi Merged into Pathum Thani province
Kalasin Kalasin Merged into Maha Sarakham province, Split out again in 1947
Lang Suan Lang Suan Merged into Chumphon province
Takua Pa Takua Pa Merged into Phang Nga province
Sai Buri Sai Buri Merged into Pattani province (except Bacho District which was merged into Narathiwat province)
Phra Pradaeng Phra Pradaeng Merged into Samut Prakan province (except Rat Burana District which was merged into Thonburi province)
Min Buri Min Buri Merged into Phra Nakhon province (Nong Chok District was merged into Chachoengsao province first then reallocated back in 1933)
Samut Prakan (before 1943) Samut Prakan 1943[13] Merged into Phra Nakhon province (except Ko Sichang District which was merged into Chonburi province). The part of Phra Nakhon was split out again in 1946
Nakhon Nayok Nakhon Nayok Merged into Prachinburi province (except Ban Na District which was merged into Saraburi province). Split out again in 1946
Samut Sakhon Samut Sakhon Merged into Thonburi province. Split out again in 1946
Nonthaburi Nonthaburi Merged into Phra Nakhon province (except Bang Kruai District, Bang Yai District, Bang Bua Thong District which was merged into Thonburi province). Split out again in 1946
Phra Nakhon Phra Nakhon 1971[14] Merged to form the current Bangkok
Thonburi Thonburi

Lost Territories

Territory Capital Period Fate Today part of
Salaween Territory Chiang Mai 1802–1892 Karenni State and Shan State, British Burma Kayah State and Shan State  Myanmar
Kawtaung Territory Chumphon 1769–1864 Mergui British Burma Thanintharyi Myanmar
Miawadi Territory Chiang Mai 1768–1834 Thaton British Burma Myawaddy, Kayin State  Myanmar
Sip Song Ju Tai none 1779–1888 4e Territoire Millitaire, Son La, Lao Kay, Yen Bay, Pho Tho, Hoa Bin French Indochina Son La, Dien Bien, Lai Chau, Phu Tho, Yen Bai, Hoa Binh  Vietnam
Chiang Khaeng (Muang Sing) Muang Sing 1892–1893 Shan State British Burma and Haut Mekong French Indochina Shan State  Myanmar and Luang Namtha  Laos
Luang Phrabang Luang Phrabang 1778–1893 Luang Phrabang French Indochina Luang Phrabang  Laos
Chiang Khouang Chiang Khouang 1828–1893 Tran Ninh French Indochina Xiangkhouang  Laos
Borikhan Nikhom Borikhan Nikhom 1828–1893 Vientiane French Indochina Bolikhamsai  Laos
Kham Kert Kham Kert 1828–1893 Khammouane French Indochina Bolikhamsai  Laos
Kham Meun Kham Meun 1828–1893 Khammouane French Indochina Khammouane  Laos
Nakhon Phanom Nakhon Phanom 1893 Partitioned between Nakhon Phanom  Siam and Khammouane French Indochina Nakhon Phanom  Thailand and Khammouane  Laos
Mukdahan Mukdahan 1893 Partitioned between Mukdahan  Siam and Savannakhet French Indochina Mukdahan  Thailand and Savannakhet  Laos
Khemmarat Khemmarat 1893 Partitioned between Khemmarat  Siam and Salavan French Indochina Ubon Ratchathani  Thailand and Salavan  Laos
Nakhon Champassak Nakhon Champassak 1780–1826


Partitioned between Det Udom  Siam and Bassac, Attapeu, Stung Treng French Indochina Stung Treng  Cambodia and Salavan, Attapeu  Laos
Kham Thong Luang Kham Tong Luang 1829–1893 Salavan French Indochina Salavan  Laos
Salawan Salawan 1829–1893 Salavan French Indochina Salavan  Laos
Attapeu Attapeu 1829–1893 Attapeu French Indochina Attapeu  Laos
Sitadon Sitadon 1829–1893 Bassac French Indochina Champassak  Cambodia
Saen Pang Saen Pang 1829–1893 Stung Treng French Indochina Stung Treng  Cambodia
Chiang Taeng Chiang Taeng 1829–1893 Stung Treng French Indochina Stung Treng  Cambodia
Chaiburi Chaiburi 1893–1904 Luang Phrabang French Indochina Sainyabuli  Laos
Khukhan Khukhan 1907 Partitioned between Khukhan  Siam and Kampong Thom French Indochina Sisaket  Thailand and Stung Treng, Kampong Thom  Cambodia
Sangkha Sangkha 1907 Partitioned between Sangkha  Siam and Battambang French Indochina Surin  Thailand and Oddar Meanchey, Banteay Meanchey  Cambodia
Siemmarat Siemmarat 1845–1907 Siem Reap French Indochina Siem Reap  Cambodia
Phanom Sok Phnom Srok 1845–1907 Siem Reap, Battambang French Indochina Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, Banteay Meanchey  Cambodia
Sisophon Sisophon 1845–1907 Battambang French Indochina Banteay Meanchey  Cambodia
Phra Tabong Phra Tabong 1769–1907 Battambang French Indochina Battambang, Banteay Meanchey  Cambodia
Prachankiriket[15] Prachankiriket 1855–1904 Pursat and Kampot, French Indochina Pursat and Koh Kong,  Cambodia
Penang Penang 1786–1867 Penang British Malaya Penang  Malaysia
Lan Chang Sama Buri 1941–1946 Luang Prabang, French Indochina Sainyabuli and Luang Prabang,  Laos
Phra Tabong Battambang 1941–1946 Battambang, French Indochina Battambang and Pailin,  Cambodia
Phibunsongkhram Sisophon 1941–1946 Battambang, Siem Reap, Kompong Thom and Stung Treng, French Indochina Banteay Meanchey, Oddar Meanchey and Siem Reap,  Cambodia
Nakhon Champassak Champasak 1941–1946 Kompong Thom, Stung Treng and Bassac, French Indochina Preah Vihear and Stung Treng,  Cambodia
Champasak,  Laos
Syburi Alor Setar 1821–1909
Kedah, British Malaya Kedah,  Malaysia
Palit Kangar 1839–1909
Perlis, British Malaya Perlis,  Malaysia
Kalantan Kota Bharu 1786–1909
Kelantan, British Malaya Kelantan,  Malaysia
Trangkanu Kuala Terengganu 1786 –1909
Terengganu, British Malaya Terengganu,  Malaysia
Saharat Thai Doem Chiang Tung 1943–1945 Karenni State and Shan State, British Burma Kayah State and Shan State  Myanmar
Tanaosi Tanaosi until–1767 Dawei Konbaung Dynasty Thanintharyi Myanmar

Map of Siam in early 1893 showing provinces

Provinces of Siam (Thailand) in 1871

Historic Administrative Division of Thailand

See also


  1. รายงานสถิติจำนวนประชากรและบ้านประจำปี พ.ศ.2562 [Statistics, population and house statistics for the year 2019]. Registration Office Department of the Interior, Ministry of the Interior. (in Thai). 31 December 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  2. "ตารางที่ 2 พี้นที่ป่าไม้ แยกรายจังหวัด พ.ศ.2562" [Table 2 Forest area Separate province year 2019]. Royal Forest Department (in Thai). 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2021, information, Forest statistics Year 2019, Thailand boundary from Department of Provincial Administration in 2013{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  3. "Administrative information". Department of Provincial Affairs (DOPA). Provincial Affairs Bureau. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  4. "ประกาศสำนักทะเบียนกลาง เรื่อง จำนวนราษฎรทั่วราชอาณาจักร ตามหลักฐานการทะเบียนราษฎร ณ วันที่ 31 ธันวาคม 2558" [Announcement of the Central Registry. The number of people throughout the Kingdom. The evidence of registration as of 31 December 2015]. Department of Provincial Administration (DOPA). Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  5. "The World Factbook: Thailand". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  6. "What is the Harmonized System (HS)?". World Customs Organization.
  7. "ISO 3166-2:TH".
  8. Tej Bunnag (1969). The Provincial Administration of Siam from 1892 to 1915. p. 273ff.
  9. ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง ทรงพระกรุณาโปรดเกล้า ฯ ให้เปลี่ยนคำว่าเมืองเรียกว่าจังหวัด (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 33 (ก): 51–53. 1916-05-28.
  10. Timtsunami8 (2020-08-31), of Siam in 1900.png English: An updated version of the map, retrieved 2021-06-21 {{citation}}: Check |url= value (help)
  15. "ร.๔ พระราชทานชื่อเมือง ประจวบคีรีขันธ์ กับ ปัจจันตคีรีเขตร ให้คู่กัน! แต่วันนี้อีกเมืองหายไปไหน!!". 27 June 2018.

Further reading

  • Tej Bunnag (1977). The Provincial Administration of Siam, 1892–1915: the Ministry of the Interior under Prince Damrong Rajanubhab. Kuala Lumpur; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580343-4.
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