Patrick Leahy

Patrick Joseph Leahy (/ˈlhi/; born March 31, 1940) is a American retired politician and attorney who served as a United States senator from Vermont from 1975 to 2023, and also served as the president pro tempore of the United States Senate from 2012 to 2015 and from 2021 to 2023. A member of the Democratic Party, he chaired the Senate Appropriations Committee, the Senate Judiciary Committee and the Senate Agriculture Commitee at various points during his 48-year tenure. Leahy is the third-longest-serving U.S. senator in history.

Patrick Leahy
Official portrait, c. 2021
United States Senator
from Vermont
In office
January 3, 1975  January 3, 2023
Preceded byGeorge Aiken
Succeeded byPeter Welch
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
January 20, 2021  January 3, 2023
Preceded byChuck Grassley
Succeeded byPatty Murray
In office
December 17, 2012  January 3, 2015
Preceded byDaniel Inouye
Succeeded byOrrin Hatch
President pro tempore emeritus of the United States Senate
In office
January 3, 2015  January 20, 2021
Preceded byTed Stevens (2009)
Succeeded byChuck Grassley
Chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee
In office
February 3, 2021  January 3, 2023
Preceded byRichard Shelby
Succeeded byPatty Murray
Chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee
In office
January 3, 2007  January 3, 2015
Preceded byArlen Specter
Succeeded byChuck Grassley
In office
June 6, 2001  January 3, 2003
Preceded byOrrin Hatch
Succeeded byOrrin Hatch
In office
January 3, 2001  January 20, 2001
Preceded byOrrin Hatch
Succeeded byOrrin Hatch
Chair of the Senate Agriculture Committee
In office
January 3, 1987  January 3, 1995
Preceded byJesse Helms
Succeeded byRichard Lugar
State's Attorney of Chittenden County, Vermont
In office
May 10, 1966  January 2, 1975
Preceded byJohn Fitzpatrick
Succeeded byFrancis Murray
Personal details
Patrick Joseph Leahy

(1940-03-31) March 31, 1940
Montpelier, Vermont, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Marcelle Pomerleau
(m. 1962)
EducationSaint Michael's College (BA)
Georgetown University (JD)

Upon Representative Don Young's death in March 2022, he became the most senior member of Congress. Leahy was also the last of the Senate's "Watergate Babies"—Democrats first elected to Congress in the wave election of 1974 that followed President Richard Nixon's resignation over the Watergate scandal.[1]

At the time of his retirement, Leahy was the dean of his state's congressional delegation. He was also Vermont's longest-serving U.S. senator, as well as the first Democrat ever elected to the U.S. Senate from Vermont. He served as ranking member of the Appropriations Committee from 2017 to 2021 and became chairman in 2021. In 2001, Leahy and then–Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle were targeted by the anthrax attacks that killed five people. He was the presiding officer at Donald Trump's second impeachment trial, becoming the first senator to preside over a former president's impeachment trial.[2][3]

On November 15, 2021, Leahy announced that he would not seek reelection in 2022.[4] He was succeeded by Peter Welch, who became the second Democrat to represent Vermont in the Senate.

Early life and education

Leahy was born in Montpelier, Vermont, the son of Alba (née Zambon) and Howard Francis Leahy.[5] He has been legally blind in his left eye since birth.[6][7] Leahy's maternal grandparents were Italian, and his father was of Irish ancestry; some of his ancestors came to Vermont in the 19th century to work at the granite quarries and manufacturing plants in Barre Town and Barre City.[8] The Leahys ran a printing business across from the Vermont State House, and were also the publishers of the Waterbury Record newspaper.[5] Leahy attended the parochial schools of Montpelier, and graduated from Montpelier's St. Michael's High School in 1957.[9]

In 1961, Leahy graduated from Saint Michael's College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in government.[10] While attending college, Leahy was a member of the National Federation of Catholic College Students.[11] He was also involved with the Knights of Columbus, the Saint Michael's College Glee Club, and the school's pre-law society and politics club.[11] He was active with the Reserve Officers' Training Corps rifle team, and was a member of the varsity rifle team.[11] He was also on the staff of The Shield, the Saint Michael's College yearbook and WSSE, the school's AM radio station.[11] In 1964, Leahy received his Juris Doctor from the Georgetown University Law Center.[10][lower-alpha 1] While in law school, Leahy was active in the Phi Delta Phi legal honor society.[14] In addition, Leahy participated in Georgetown Law's Legal Aid Society and Legal Argument Program.[14] He was also a representative to the school's Student Bar Association.[14]

Early career

Leahy was admitted to the bar soon after his law school graduation and became an associate at the Burlington firm headed by Philip H. Hoff, then serving as governor of Vermont.[15] In January 1965, Leahy was appointed as an assistant to Lewis E. Springer Jr., the legislative draftsman for the Vermont General Assembly.[16] While working for Hoff's firm, Leahy was also appointed as Burlington's assistant city attorney.[17]

In May 1966, Hoff appointed Leahy State's Attorney of Chittenden County after the incumbent resigned.[18] Leahy was elected to a full term in 1966[19] and reelected in 1970.[20] His service as state's attorney was notable for his participation in the sting operation that caught Paul Lawrence, an undercover police officer for numerous departments in Vermont.[21][22] Lawrence falsely claimed to have purchased illegal drugs from several people, resulting in numerous convictions based on his perjury.[21][23]

U.S. Senate

Early career (1975–1987)

Leahy in 1979

Leahy originally aspired to the governorship,[24] but in 1974 ran for the United States Senate.[25] He ran in the wake of the Watergate scandal that had resulted in President Richard Nixon's resignation in August of that year, won a close race against Republican Congressman Richard W. Mallary, and succeeded the retiring George Aiken.[25][26] At age 34, Leahy was the youngest U.S. senator in Vermont history[27] and the first non-Republican senator from Vermont since 1856.[28][lower-alpha 2] In 1980, Leahy defeated Republican Stewart Ledbetter by only 2,700 votes amid Ronald Reagan's landslide victory in the presidential election.[29] In 1986, he faced what was on paper an even stronger challenger in former Governor Richard Snelling, but Leahy turned it back, taking 63 percent of the vote.[30] In 1992, Secretary of State of Vermont Jim Douglas held him to 54 percent of the vote.[31] After that, Leahy did not face a strong Republican challenger.[32]

In May 1981, Leahy and Senator Ted Kennedy requested that the Senate reject John Crowell Jr.'s nomination as Assistant Agriculture Secretary. Leahy said his opposition was "because documents have been uncovered since his approval by the Agriculture Committee which suggest that he was aware of and involved in the anti-competitive and monopolistic practices of his former employer."[33] Leahy and Kennedy contended that Crowell concealed his involvement with Louisiana-Pacific, Panhandle Logging Company, and Ketchikan Spruce Mills during the confirmation process.[34] Crowell was confirmed by the Senate.[35]

In October 1981, Leahy introduced an amendment that would have increased the Energy Department's enforcement budget by $13 million. He called the Reagan administration's cuts to the enforcement budget "de facto amnesty" for violations made by alleged increases in prices for oil companies. The amendment was defeated in the Senate on October 28 by a vote of 48 to 43.[36] On December 2, 1981, Leahy voted for an amendment to Reagan's MX missiles proposal that would divert the silo system by $334 million, as well as earmark further research for other methods that would allow giant missiles to be based.[37] The vote was seen as a rebuff of the Reagan administration.[38][39] In March 1982, Leahy was named to the Senate Select Committee to Study Law Enforcement Undercover Activities of the Department of Justice, an eight-member select committee formed to investigate undercover operations.[40] The resolution introducing the committee was the result of Harrison A. Williams's resignation for his involvement in the Abscam sting operation.[41][42] On December 23, 1982, Leahy voted for a five-cent per gallon increase on gasoline taxes across the U.S. to finance highway repairs and mass transit.[43] The bill passed on the last day of the 97th United States Congress.[44][45] On October 19, 1983, Leahy voted for a bill establishing Martin Luther King Jr. Day.[46] Reagan signed the legislation the next month.[47] In March 1984, Leahy voted against a proposed constitutional amendment authorizing periods in public school for silent prayer,[48] and against Reagan's unsuccessful proposal for a constitutional amendment permitting organized school prayer in public schools.[49][50]

Senate Agriculture Committee and other activities (1987–1999)

Leahy was appointed chair of the Senate Agriculture Committee on January 3, 1987.[51][52] During his tenure as vice-chair of the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 1987, Leahy showed a news reporter an unclassified draft report on the Iran–Contra affair.[53] At a press conference afterward, Leahy said, "Even though it was declassified, I was way too careless about it" and accepted blame.[53] Disclosure of that information was against Intelligence Committee rules; Leahy said he hastened his already planned departure from the committee because he was so angry at himself.[53] Later that year, as a member of the Senate Judiciary Committee, Leahy said that if Reagan could not produce an acceptable Supreme Court nominee[lower-alpha 3] to replace Lewis F. Powell Jr., after Robert Bork was rejected and Douglas Ginsburg withdrew, Senate Democrats would refuse hearings for any nominee until after the 1988 presidential election.[55] In May 1989, Leahy urged the Agriculture Department to withdraw the proposals regarding the reduction of federal inspections.[56] In May 1990, he and Representative Dan Glickman introduced the Consumer Seafood Safety Act, a bill that would have strengthened fish inspections.[57] Leahy has been active in the international effort to ban the production, export, and use of anti-personnel land mines.[58] In 1992, he penned a bill to prohibit the export of land mines, the first law of its kind.[59]

In February 1992, the George H. W. Bush administration and Israeli officials struggled to strike a deal that would entice both sides to proceed with a loan guarantee package. After a meeting between Secretary of State James Baker and Zalman Shoval failed to generate a compromise,[60] Baker informed Leahy of the meeting's contents and Leahy announced that he would introduce his own plan if the U.S. and Israel could not come to an agreement in the following weeks.[61] Later that month, the Bush administration announced the U.S. would present Israel with loan guarantees only if the Israeli government halted settlement building. Leahy supported the measure and introduced his own proposal that retained the $10 billion in loan guarantees, but "disbursed at a pace up to $2 billion a year for five years".[62] On November 20, 1993, Leahy voted for the North American Free Trade Agreement.[63] The agreement linked the U.S., Canada, and Mexico into a single free trade zone, and was signed into law on December 8 by President Bill Clinton.[64] Clinton publicly weighed reducing funding for The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) by half. In March 1994, during a news conference, Leahy pledged that he would preserve funding for TEFAP, noting his 1987 lawsuit against Agriculture Secretary Richard Edmund Lyng and declaring that TEFAP maintained the same level of significance as it did then.[65] In August 1994, Leahy attended a news conference with the health advocacy group Public Voice, as it urged the federal government to take more ambitious steps to increase the healthiness of school lunches. He praised the 41 schools involved with Public Voice for setting a good example for the rest of the country and cited the importance of school lunches to education.[66] The 1994 midterm elections resulted in a Republican majority in the House for the first time since the 1950s,[67] and conversation arose of limiting feeding programs. Leahy remarked, "Not since the Great Depression has the possibility of millions of children lining up at soup kitchens been so real."[68] He cosponsored legislation with Indiana Republican Richard Lugar that led to the downsizing of the Agriculture Department. In December 1994, the department announced it was closing 1,274 field offices around the US, a scaling back that was estimated to save over $3 billion over the next five years. Leahy said the Agriculture Department was the only federal agency to succeed in its downsizing efforts and called on other agencies to follow its example.[69] In 1994, Leahy introduced legislation to encourage schools to ban soft drinks and other food items of "minimal nutritional value",[70] saying, "These vending profits go for good causes. But when it comes to vending machine junk food, it would be better to put pupils ahead of vending profits." The bill overcame opposition from The Coca-Cola Company and other representatives of the beverage industry, as well as some education organizations, and was enacted.[71] In October 1999, Leahy voted for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The treaty was designed to ban underground nuclear testing and was the first major international security pact to be defeated in the Senate since the Treaty of Versailles.[72][73]

1999 to 2009

Former Committee Chairman Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia, far right) shakes hands with Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, while Senators Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont, center right) and Tom Harkin (D-Iowa) look on. The hearing was held to discuss further funding for the War in Iraq.

The 1998 United States Senate election in Vermont was noteworthy, in that Republican candidate Fred Tuttle endorsed Leahy.[74] Tuttle was a retired farmer and the lead actor in the mock documentary film Man with a Plan, shot in Vermont, in which a farmer decides to run for Congress.[74] After winning the Republican nomination in a campaign designed both to promote the movie and to mock ostensible GOP frontrunner Jack McMullen, who had only recently moved to Vermont from Massachusetts, Tuttle recommended that voters support Leahy.[74][75] Leahy was touched by this gesture; he and Tuttle made several joint appearances during the campaign, and Leahy said of Tuttle that he was the "distilled essence of Vermonthood".[74]

The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center shifted American foreign policy focus to terrorism. In December 2006, during an appearance at the law school of Georgetown University, Leahy said that after the September 11 attacks, "the White House accelerated its power plays at the expense of the other branches of government, all in the name of fighting terrorism." He added that the administration had declined to answer "the legitimate oversight questions of the public's duly elected representatives", as well as broken the law by wiretapping Americans without warrants.[76] On September 13, 2002, Leahy said in a radio interview that an investigation should be launched into whether the West Nile virus was a biological terrorism effort.[77] During a July 1, 2007 interview, Leahy said he was not against lawful eavesdropping and recommended a revision to the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Act, so potential terrorists could be investigated without question.[78] Leahy added that the White House had been subpoenaed, so George W. Bush administration officials could explain "the legal justification they tried to follow when, for years, they wiretapped ordinary Americans and everyone else put out a warrant."[78] Leahy was one of two senators targeted in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The anthrax letter meant for him was intercepted before it reached his office. In 2004, Leahy was awarded the Electronic Privacy Information Center's Champion of Freedom Award, for efforts in information privacy and open government. He is regarded as one of the leading privacy advocates in Congress.[79] In 2000, Leahy cosigned a letter sent to Appropriations Committee conference members, requesting a delay in implementing Section 304 in H.R. 4392, the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001,[80] until it could be fully considered by the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. The amendment would introduce new felony crime laws, concerning the unauthorized disclosure of information. Leahy and his colleagues indicated this would be in conflict with existing First Amendment rights and Whistleblower Protection Acts.[81][82] On June 22, 2004, Leahy and Vice President Dick Cheney participated in the U.S. Senate class photo. After the vote, Cheney was talking to only Republicans. When Leahy asked him to come over and talk to the Democrats, Cheney upbraided Leahy for the Senator's recent excoriations of Halliburton's activities in Iraq. At the end of the exchange, Cheney told Leahy, "Go fuck yourself."[83][84] Leahy joked about the incident in 2007, when he escorted Bernie Sanders, Vermont's newly elected senator, to the well of the Senate where he was sworn in by Cheney: "When it comes to the vice president, it's always better to be sworn in than to be sworn at."[85]

Leahy opposed the invasion of Iraq in 2003, and writes in his 2022 memoir that he found files with information that contradicted Dick Cheney's public statements about Iraq after mysterious joggers whose identities he did not know told him to request specific files.[86][87]

Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy
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  • Summary of attorneys
  • Congressional hearings
  • List of dismissed attorneys
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In March 2004, Leahy and Senator Orrin Hatch introduced the Pirate Act, backed by the Recording Industry Association of America. In July 2004, Leahy and Hatch introduced the INDUCE Act. Both were aimed at combating copyright infringement.[88] On November 2, 2004, Leahy easily defeated his opponent, businessman Jack McMullen, with 70.6 percent of the vote.[89] On September 21, 2005, Leahy announced his support for John Roberts to be Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.[90] On January 19, 2006, Leahy announced that he would vote against Judge Samuel Alito, to be a justice of the Supreme Court.[91] He has a mixed record on gun control, being one of the few Senate Democrats to vote against the Brady Bill.[92] He voted for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and is in favor of phasing out farm subsidies. He voted against the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA).[93] Leahy voted for the Defense of Marriage Act and was one of the few in his party to support the ban on intact dilation and extraction procedures.[94] In 2005, Project on Government Oversight, a government watchdog group, presented Leahy and Senator John Cornyn with its first ever Bi-Partisan Leadership Award, in honor of their cooperation on issues of government oversight and transparency, including their co-sponsorship of the OPEN Government Act of 2005, which prevented burying exemptions to the Freedom of Information Act in legislation.[95] On March 2, 2006, Leahy was one of ten senators to vote against the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act, a bill to extend the USA PATRIOT Act. The Reauthorization Act changed the appointment process for interim United States attorneys, allowing the Attorney General of the United States to make interim appointments without term limit or Senatorial confirmation. This was an aspect of hearings in the dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy. In March 2007, both houses voted to overturn the interim appointment provision. On January 18, 2007, Leahy received widespread coverage for his cross-examination of Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, about the Maher Arar affair and the extraordinary rendition of Arar to Syria.[96]

Later career (2009–present)

Leahy in 2009

Leahy endorsed Barack Obama, the Democratic junior senator from Illinois, in the 2008 presidential election, and recorded a radio advertisement for the Obama campaign to be aired in Vermont.[97]

In May 2009, President Obama nominated Sonia Sotomayor to the Supreme Court. Sotomayor received criticism for having said "I would hope that a wise Latina woman with the richness of her experiences would more often than not reach a better conclusion than a white male who hasn't lived that life." In June, Leahy discussed the remark with Sotomayor, during their meeting, and secured her consent to recount the comment. According to Leahy, the comment meant she believed one's life experiences influence who they are, but that judges of all ethnic backgrounds are still required to follow the law, which is the same for every American.[98] In August, on the day of Sotomayor's confirmation, Leahy defended her record against Republican critics: "Judge Sotomayor's career and judicial record demonstrates that she has always followed the rule of law. Attempts at distorting that record by suggesting that her ethnicity or heritage will be the driving force in her decisions as a justice of the Supreme Court are demeaning to women and all communities of color."[99]

On September 20, 2010, Leahy introduced the Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act, Senate Bill S. 3804, which would allow the court to issue a restraining order or injunction against Internet domain names which infringe upon copyright.[100]

In May 2011, Leahy introduced the Protect IP Act (PIPA) to the Senate. The bill was drafted to give the U.S. government and copyright holders additional tools to fight copyright piracy and counterfeit goods trafficking by foreign rogue websites. Critics of the bill said it would be ineffective, impede free expression on the internet, and interfere with its infrastructure. Leahy subsequently indicated that he would favor further research into provisions that raised objections.[101]

Leahy chaired the Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee from 1987 until 1995 the Judiciary Committee from 2001 to 2003 and from 2007 to 2015. He is one of the key Democratic leaders on Senate issues on rules for filling federal judgeships, via advise and consent. Leahy serves as second-highest Democrat on the Appropriations Committee and as Chairman of the Appropriations Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs. In his position as the second-highest Democrat on the Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee, Leahy chairs the Agriculture Subcommittee on Research, Nutrition and General Legislation.

Upon the death of Senate President pro tempore Daniel Inouye, a Hawaii Democrat, on December 17, 2012, Leahy became the most senior senator in the majority party, and was elected president pro tempore by unanimous consent.[102][103] He was succeeded in this post by Orrin Hatch on January 3, 2015, and became president pro tempore emeritus.

In February 2013, Leahy was one of 24 senators to sign a letter asserting that Sikh, Hindu and Arab Americans were often targets of violence because they were mistaken for radical Muslims and citing a need for the federal government to "begin tracking information about anti-Sikh, anti-Hindu and anti-Arab hate crimes as soon as possible so that law enforcement can more effectively respond to this threat".[104]

In June 2013, Leahy filed three amendments to an immigration reform package, including one that proposed recognizing same-sex marriages when one spouse is an American. He said implementation of the amendment would end discrimination in the American immigration system and that seeking "equal protection under our laws for the LGBT community is the right thing to do."[105]

According to GovTrack, in 2013, Leahy was the senator who has sponsored the most bipartisan bills. Sixty-one percent of bills he sponsored had both Democratic and Republican co-sponsors.[106]

In January 2015, Leahy headed a congressional delegation to Cuba, meant to "impress upon Cuban leaders the importance of concrete results and positive momentum". It was American officials' first visit to Cuba, since President Obama announced normalized relations between the US and Cuba the previous month.[107]

In July 2015, after the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action was unveiled, an international agreement on the nuclear program of Iran,[108] Leahy issued a statement saying it was preferable to war and calling it "unfortunate" that some members of Congress opposed the deal as the lack of deal would allow Iran to further develop nuclear weapons.[109]

In January 2017, during a hearing, Leahy asked Jeff Sessions, President-elect Donald Trump's nominee for attorney general, whether he believed grabbing a woman by her genitals without consent was sexual assault, in reference to comments made by Trump on the Access Hollywood tape that had surfaced during the election cycle. Leahy also asked Sessions if he would be able to "prosecute and investigate" a president or elected official who had been accused of committing the aforementioned act.[110]

In April 2017, Leahy was one of 11 senators to cosponsor a bill that would have restored a FCC rule requiring internet service providers to obtain permission from customers before selling data about them to advertisers that had been repealed earlier in the week.[111]

On June 1, 2017, weeks after the firing of FBI Director James Comey, Leahy and Senator Al Franken of Minnesota released a joint statement disclosing their prior request of Comey to investigate all contacts and communications Attorney General Sessions or his aides had with Russian government officials and raised the question of whether Sessions had committed perjury in his Senate testimony.[112]

In September 2017, Leahy was one of eight senators to vote against the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), a defense policy bill that included $640 billion in base defense spending and $60 billion in war funds.[113]

In November 2017, Leahy was one of ten Democratic senators to sign a letter urging Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu to halt the planned demolitions of Palestinian villages Khan al-Ahmar and Sussiya, on the grounds that such action would further impede efforts to seek a two-state solution and "endanger Israel's future as a Jewish democracy".[114]

On January 18, 2018, Leahy announced he would not support the stopgap measure for the fiscal year to avert a government shutdown, saying the House bill left "too much undone, and it is woefully inadequate". Leahy added that bipartisan support for the bill would only come from collaborating with Democrats and charged Republicans with "appealing for our support only after they've written a mishmash bill crafted behind closed doors".[115] After the United States federal government shutdown of January 2018 commenced,[116] Leahy was one of 18 senators to vote against temporary funding.[117]

In February 2018, Leahy was one of four senators to sign a letter to United States Secretary of Defense James Mattis requesting that the Pentagon estimate the cost of and time needed to assemble President Trump's requested military parade, calling the parade seemingly "inappropriate and wasteful" at a time of war.[118]

In March 2018, Leahy wrote a letter to Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Chuck Grassley in which he expressed his fear that "the damage being done to the FBI, and to our nation's institutions more broadly, will far outlast any current crises unless we take decisive, bipartisan action" and requested an oversight hearing on the Trump administration's criticisms of the FBI and Justice Department.[119]

In September 2018, as the Senate weighed the first spending package for the 2019 fiscal year, Leahy advocated for increasing the spending cap for a veterans' care program. When this proposal was not implemented in the final version of the package, which consisted of military construction and veterans' affairs, legislative branch, and energy and water, Leahy warned the decision would leave the VA choice program unfunded.[120]

In October 2018, Leahy, along with Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Bob Corker, ranking Democrat on the Foreign Relations Committee Bob Menendez, and Lindsey Graham, sent President Trump a letter requesting that he begin an investigation of the disappearance of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, under the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act. The letter asked Trump to report the findings within 120 days, along with a decision on whether to impose sanctions on those found responsible.[121] Later that month, Leahy was one of eight senators to sign a letter to Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats requesting a classified briefing on what the American intelligence community knew about threats to Khashoggi, so that the senators may fulfill their "oversight obligation" as members of Congress.[122] In March 2019, Leahy was one of nine Democratic senators to sign a letter to Salman of Saudi Arabia requesting the release of human rights lawyer Waleed Abu al-Khair and writer Raif Badawi, women's rights activists Loujain al-Hathloul and Samar Badawi, and Dr. Walid Fitaih. The senators wrote, "Not only have reputable international organizations detailed the arbitrary detention of peaceful activists and dissidents without trial for long periods, but the systematic discrimination against women, religious minorities and mistreatment of migrant workers and others has also been well-documented."[123]

In December 2018, after United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced the Trump administration would suspend its obligations in the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in 60 days, if Russia continued to violate the treaty, Leahy was one of 26 senators to sign a letter expressing concern over the administration's "now abandoning generations of bipartisan U.S. leadership around the paired goals of reducing the global role and number of nuclear weapons and ensuring strategic stability with America's nuclear-armed adversaries" and calling on President Trump to continue arms negotiations.[124]

After Minnesota Representative Rick Nolan retired from Congress in 2019, Leahy became the only remaining Watergate baby in Congress.[125]

Leahy endorsed fellow Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders's 2020 presidential campaign.[126]

In May 2021, POLITICO reported that Leahy was "leaning toward [running for a ninth term]" and asking his Senate colleagues for support.[127] On November 15, 2021, Leahy announced that he was not running for a ninth term.

Upon the death of Representative Don Young on March 18, 2022, Leahy became the longest-serving current member of Congress.[128]

Committee assignments

Nomination for UN General Assembly

In September 2022, Leahy was nominated as a representative of the United States to the Seventy-seventh session of the United Nations General Assembly.[130]

Political positions

Leahy speaking during the second day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado

Leahy has held progressive political positions that are generally in line with those of the state.


Leahy has generally supported abortion rights, rejecting proposals to limit minors or those stationed on military bases from having the procedure performed. He voted against the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in 1995 and for it between 1997 and 2003.[131][132]

On March 11, 1982, Leahy voted against a measure sponsored by Orrin Hatch that sought to reverse Roe v. Wade and allow Congress and individual states to adopt laws banning abortions. Its passing was the first time a congressional committee supported an anti-abortion amendment.[133][134]


In 2019, Leahy worked with Senators Sherrod Brown, Susan Collins, and David Perdue on a bipartisan effort to ensure students have access to local foods. The proposal would bolster the Farm to School Grant Program, administered by the Agriculture Department, and raise the program's authorized level from $5 million to $15 million, in addition to furthering the maximum grant award to $250,000.[135]

In March 2019, Leahy was one of 38 senators to sign a letter to United States Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue warning that dairy farmers "have continued to face market instability and are struggling to survive the fourth year of sustained low prices", and urging his department to "strongly encourage these farmers to consider the Dairy Margin Coverage program".[136]

In May 2019, Leahy and eight other Democratic senators sent Perdue a letter that criticized the USDA for using farm bailout money to purchase pork from the Brazilian-owned JBS USA, writing that it was "counterproductive and contradictory" for foreign companies to receive "U.S. taxpayer dollars intended to help American farmers struggling with this administration's trade policy". The senators requested that the department "ensure these commodity purchases are carried out in a manner that most benefits the American farmer's bottom line—not the business interests of foreign corporations."[137]

In June 2019, Leahy and 18 other Democratic senators sent USDA Inspector General (IG), Phyllis K. Fong, a letter requesting that she investigate USDA instances of retaliation and political decision-making, and arguing that to not conduct an investigation would mean these "actions could be perceived as a part of this administration's broader pattern of not only discounting the value of federal employees, but suppressing, undermining, discounting, and wholesale ignoring scientific data produced by their own qualified scientists."[138]

Antitrust, competition, and corporate regulation

In June 2019, Leahy was one of six Democrats, led by Amy Klobuchar, who signed letters to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Department of Justice recounting that many of them had "called on both the FTC and the Justice Department to investigate potential anticompetitive activity in these markets, particularly following the significant enforcement actions taken by foreign competition enforcers against these same companies", and requesting that each agency confirm whether it had opened antitrust investigations into each of the companies and that each agency pledge to publicly release any such investigation's findings.[139]


Leahy supports states' rights to make their own cannabis laws. He proposed a companion to the Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment, which would extend protections to states that have legalized cannabis in some form. It became known as the Leahy Amendment, and prevents the federal government from spending federal tax dollars to prosecute people who are following their state's cannabis laws.[140][141]

Child care

In 2019, Leahy and 34 other senators introduced the Child Care for Working Families Act, a bill that created 770,000 new child care jobs and ensured that families making less than 75 percent of the state median income did not pay for child care, with higher earning families having to pay "their fair share for care on a sliding scale, regardless of the number of children they have". The legislation also supported universal access to high-quality preschool programs for all three- and four-year-olds, changed compensation for the child care workforce, and provided training to aid both teachers and caregivers.[142]


In a September 12, 2019, press release, Leahy condemned the persecution of Falun Gong practitioners in China and contended that Falun Gong is a threat to the survival of the Chinese Communist Party. He also argued that the Chinese government should commit to ending the use of torture, organ harvesting of prisoners, and propaganda against minorities.[143]

Civil justice

Senator Leahy with Circuit Judge Merrick Garland, March 2016

In February 2016, Leahy introduced the "Restoring Statutory Rights Act",[144] to "prevent companies from imposing forced arbitration in cases covered by consumer protection laws, as well as employment discrimination and other civil rights matters".[145][146]

Civil rights and privacy

Leahy has been supported by the NAACP and is outspoken in his support for affirmative action. He has supported the legalization of gay marriage and reducing discrimination against gays and lesbians. Leahy has called for the domestic partners of federal employees to receive the same benefits as heterosexual couples.[147]

Leahy is a lead sponsor of the Senate version of the Email Privacy Act, which would reform the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 and enhance privacy protections for email. He sponsored this bipartisan bill with Republican Mike Lee of Utah.[148][149]

Criminal justice

Leahy has called for a moratorium on the death penalty and for more DNA testing for death row inmates. He supports rehabilitation as the goal of prisons and providing treatment, instead of punishment, for first-time offenders.

In February 2015, Leahy and Republican Rand Paul revived the Justice Safety Valve Act, legislation granting federal judges authority to bestow sentences lower than the mandatory punishment in certain cases, where the sentence violates standards for fair punishment as defined elsewhere in American law.[150]

In October 2017, Leahy cosponsored a bill aimed at easing sentences for some nonviolent offenders, such as for drug crimes, while beefing up other tough-on-crime laws. The bill would have abolished the three-strike mandatory life sentence for some repeat drug offenders and authorized enhanced penalties for some individuals with previous convictions for serious violent and drug felonies.[151]

On July 31, 2019, after Attorney General William Barr announced that the federal government would resume carrying out the death penalty, for the first time in over 20 years, Leahy, Cory Booker, and Dick Durbin introduced a bill that would ban the death penalty. Leahy said capital punishment fails "by any objective measure", citing its finality and juries' propensity to mistakenly convict.[152]


Leahy was a longtime critic of the Iraq War, and spoke in favor of timetables for troop withdrawal, saying the country needs well-trained employees in both foreign service and private industry to help repair damage to its civilian structure. He has been critical of the PATRIOT Act, even though he has voted to reauthorize altered versions of it.[147] In June 2013, following the disclosure of PRISM and other covert surveillance activities by the National Security Agency, Leahy introduced a bill that would tighten guidelines related to the acquisition of FISA warrants for domestic surveillance and shorten the current FISA authorization by two years.[153]

Leahy has always opposed the opening and operation of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp,[154][155] and supported punishment of war profiteering.[156]


On taxation, Leahy has consistently supported progressive rates. He has rejected proposals to remove the Estate Tax and Alternative Minimum Tax, and he has spoken out strongly against cutting taxes for the wealthy. Leahy has strongly supported the rights of employees, and has voted to increase the minimum wage and allow for more union organization. He has voted against a free trade proposal, CAFTA, but supported normalizing trade relations with China.[147]


Leahy has been a strong supporter of environmental policy. He has supported bills that would increase hydrogen car production, uphold Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards, set a goal of reducing oil consumption by 40 percent in 2025, and increase solar and wind power funding.

Climate change

In 2011, Leahy voted against limiting EPA's ability to regulate greenhouse gas emissions.[157] In 2013, he voted against a concurrent resolution creating a point of order which would make it harder for Congress to put a price on carbon.[158][159] In 2015, he voted in support of Obama's Clean Power Plan.[160] On his Climate Change page, he states that "human activity, since the Industrial Revolution, has contributed, in large part, to the changes in climate."[161] He has supported the establishment of greenhouse gas tradeable allowances and has spoken out against the use of ethanol as a solution to rising gasoline prices.[147]

In June 2017, after President Trump announced the US would withdraw from the Paris Agreement, Leahy called the move a "great leap backward", adding that pandering "to a handful of billionaires and special interests would impose huge harm upon our generation, upon future generations, and upon our fragile planet." He said he intended "to ensure that this stroke of the president's pen does not derail Vermonters' hard work and leadership to protect our communities from climate risk, and that it does not deter the entrepreneurs and innovators in Vermont and other states who are expanding the world markets for the clean green energy and conservation technologies that will shape our future."[162]

In February 2019, in response to reports that the EPA intended to decide against setting limits for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in drinking water, as part of an upcoming national strategy to manage the chemicals, Leahy was one of 20 senators to sign a letter to Acting EPA Administrator, Andrew R. Wheeler, calling on the agency "to develop enforceable federal drinking water standards for PFOA and PFOS, as well as institute immediate actions to protect the public from contamination from additional per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)".[163]


In October 2016, Leahy was one of five senators to sign a letter to President Obama requesting that the administration halt work on the Dakota Access Pipeline, until the permitting process of the Army Corps could "be transparent and include public notice and participation, formal and meaningful tribal consultation, and adequate environmental review", and stating their support for the "tribes along the pipeline route in their fight against the Dakota Access pipeline project".[164]

First Amendment

Leahy spoke strongly against a proposed constitutional ban on flag burning and on its implications for freedom of speech and expression. He rejects school prayer initiatives.[165]

Gun laws

Leahy has generally supported gun control, including requiring background checks at gun shows and allowing for lawsuits against firearms manufacturers. He voted in favor of prohibiting foreign and UN aid that inhibits gun ownership.[147]

In January 2019, Leahy was one of 40 senators to introduce the Background Check Expansion Act, a bill that would require background checks for either the sale or transfer of all firearms, including unlicensed sellers. Exceptions to the bill's background check requirement included transfers between members of law enforcement, loaning firearms for either hunting or sporting events on a temporary basis, giving firearms to members of one's immediate family, firearms being transferred as part of an inheritance, or giving a firearm to another person temporarily for immediate self-defense.[166]

In February 2019, Leahy was one of 38 senators to sign a letter to Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Lindsey Graham calling on him to "hold a hearing" on universal background checks and noting Graham's statement in the press that he "intended to have the Committee work on 'red flag' legislation and potentially also background checks, both actions" the senators indicated their support for.[167]

Health care

Leahy has stated the importance of increasing the prevalence of public health care, during times of economic downturn. He voted to increase Medicare benefits and to allow this organization to negotiate lower-priced, bulk prescriptions from pharmaceutical manufacturers. Leahy has broken with Democratic leadership in supporting allowing states to make bulk drug purchases on their own, an idea he has characterized as an important short-term solution until Congress can agree on a similar proposal.

In a May 2012 speech on the Senate floor, Leahy advocated that Chief Justice John Roberts uphold the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act: "The conservative activism of recent years has not been good for the court. Given the ideological challenge to the Affordable Care Act and the extensive, supportive precedent, it would be extraordinary for the Supreme Court not to defer to Congress in this matter that so clearly affects interstate commerce."[168]

In March 2017, after House Republicans withdrew the American Health Care Act, Leahy released a statement touting the accomplishments of the Affordable Care Act and charging Republicans with trying to undo the record with a bill that was really "a massive tax cut for the wealthiest Americans".[169]

In September 2017, Leahy was one of 16 senators to co-sponsor the Medicare for All Act, introduced by his fellow Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, which would establish a single-payer healthcare system in the United States.

In December 2018, Leahy was one of 42 senators to sign a letter to Trump administration officials Alex Azar, Seema Verma, and Steve Mnuchin arguing that the administration was improperly using Section 1332 of the Affordable Care Act to authorize states to "increase health care costs for millions of consumers while weakening protections for individuals with pre-existing conditions". The senators requested the administration withdraw the policy and "re-engage with stakeholders, states, and Congress".[170]

In February 2019, Leahy and 22 other Democratic senators introduced the State Public Option Act, a bill that would authorize states to form a Medicaid buy-in program for all residents and thereby grant them the ability to buy into a state-driven Medicaid health insurance plan if they wished. Brian Schatz, a bill cosponsor, said the legislation would "unlock each state's Medicaid program to anyone who wants it, giving people a high-quality, low-cost public health insurance option" and that its goal was "to make sure that every single American has comprehensive health care coverage".[171]


In February 2018, after the Supreme Court declined to immediately consider the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, Leahy said that Congress should have acted on immigration reform the previous year, and urged Congress to act, while admitting the Supreme Court decision had reduced pressure to pass legislation quickly.[172]

In June 2018, Leahy, Kirsten Gillibrand, and Joni Ernst wrote a letter to United States Defense Secretary James Mattis saying they were "deeply troubled by the department's decision to send 21 active and reserve JAGs to the border on temporary orders to prosecute immigration cases", expressing the view that dispatching "twenty-one trial counsel from military courtrooms to prosecute immigration cases is an inappropriate misapplication of military personnel", and urging Mattis to maintain the military lawyers within the military justice system.[173]

In August 2018, Leahy was one of 17 senators to sign a letter to United States Secretary of Homeland Security Kirstjen Nielsen demanding that the Trump administration take immediate action in attempting to reunite 539 migrant children with their families, citing each passing day of inaction as intensifying "trauma that this administration has needlessly caused for children and their families seeking humanitarian protection".[174]

In September 2018, after nearly $10 million of the Federal Emergency Management Agency budget was transferred to US Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Leahy said in a statement, "I am hopeful that the administration will see the consequences of its actions and begin to work with Republicans AND Democrats to actually address the problems in our immigration system. Fomenting fears against immigrants is not governing—it's demagoguery on the taxpayer's dime. It needs to stop now."[175]

In January 2019, Leahy was one of 20 senators to sponsor the Dreamer Confidentiality Act, a bill banning the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) from passing information collected on DACA recipients to Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Department of Justice, or any other law enforcement agency with exceptions in the case of fraudulent claims, national security issues, or non-immigration related felonies.[176]

In July 2019, following reports that the Trump administration intended to cease protecting spouses, parents and children of active-duty service members from deportation, Leahy was one of 22 senators, led by Tammy Duckworth, to sign a letter arguing that the protection gave service members the ability "to fight for the United States overseas and not worry that their spouse, children, or parents will be deported while they are away" and that its termination would both cause service members personal hardship and negatively affect their combat performance.[177]

Internet privacy

In April 2017, after President Trump signed a law undoing a Federal Communications Commission rule requiring internet service providers to obtain their customers' permission to sell their data to advertisers, Leahy was one of 11 senators to sponsor legislation undoing the repeal and reinstating the regulations.[111]


In May 2018, Leahy was one of 12 senators to sign a letter to Trump urging him not to withdraw from the Iran nuclear deal, on the grounds that "Iran could either remain in the agreement and seek to isolate the United States from our closest partners, or resume its nuclear activities" if the U.S. pulled out and that both possibilities "would be detrimental to our national security interests".[178]


Leahy has signed resolutions in support of Israel's right to self-defense, but has also been critical of alleged human rights violations in the region, especially after the 2008 Operation Cast Lead.

In 2011, Leahy initially promoted a bill to cut the military aid to three elite IDF units after reports of human rights violations during the Gaza flotilla raid and in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.[179]

In February 2016, Leahy joined ten House of Representatives members asking the State Department to investigate suspected human rights violations by Egyptian and Israeli security forces, in particular citing claims of extrajudicial killings that could trigger the Leahy Law, which can cause the suspension of American military aid to countries guilty of such abuses.[180]

In April 2019, after the Trump administration refused to distribute money to West Bank and Gaza "because of perceived intransigence on peace talks by the Palestinians and payments to the families of those who have attacked Israelis", Leahy was one of six Democratic senators to introduce a resolution restoring U.S. humanitarian aid to the West Bank and Gaza.[181]

In May 2020, Leahy voiced his opposition to Israel's plan to annex parts of the occupied Palestinian territories.[182]


In March 2017, Leahy was one of 21 senators, led by Ed Markey, to sign a letter to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell that said that 12% of adult Medicaid beneficiaries had some form of a substance abuse disorder, that one-third of treatment for opioid and other substance use disorders in the U.S. is financed by Medicaid, and that the American Health Care Act could "very literally translate into a death spiral for those with opioid use disorders" due to inadequate funding, often resulting in individuals abandoning substance use disorder treatment.[183]

LGBT issues

In October 2018, Leahy was one of 20 senators to sign a letter to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo urging him to reverse the rolling back of a policy that granted visas to same-sex partners of LGBTQ diplomats who had unions that were not recognized by their home countries, writing that too many places around the world have seen LGBTQ individuals "subjected to discrimination and unspeakable violence, and receive little or no protection from the law or local authorities", and that refusing to let LGBTQ diplomats bring their partners to the US would be equivalent of upholding "the discriminatory policies of many countries around the world".[184]

North Korea

In June 2018, Leahy was one of seven Democrats to sign a letter cautioning Trump that they would not support lifting sanctions against North Korea unless a nuclear agreement between it and the US met five standards outlined in the letter.[185] In a statement after the North Korea–United States summit, Leahy commended Trump "for beginning direct negotiations" but added that it was troubling that Trump "agreed to unilaterally halt military exercises with South Korea without verifiable commitments from North Korea to denuclearize, while giving Kim the recognition he has long craved."[186]


In December 2010, Leahy voted for the ratification of New START,[187] a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation obliging both countries to have no more than 1,550 strategic warheads and 700 launchers deployed during the next seven years, and providing for a continuation of on-site inspections that halted when START I expired the previous year. It was the first arms treaty with Russia in eight years.[188]

In February 2017, Leahy was one of 11 senators to sign a letter to United States Attorney General Jeff Sessions expressing their concern "about credible allegations that the Trump campaign, transition team, and Administration has colluded with the Russian government, including most recently the events leading to the resignation of Lieutenant General Michael Flynn as National Security Adviser". The senators requested the creation of "an independent Special Counsel to investigate collusion with the Russian government by General Flynn and other Trump campaign, transition and Administrative officials", in order to maintain "the confidence, credibility and impartiality of the Department of Justice".[189]

Other issues

Leahy has consistently voted to uphold Social Security and has opposed school vouchers.[147]

Leahy supported Joe Biden's plan to withdraw all U.S. troops from Afghanistan.[190]


In 2013, Leahy received the annual U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official from the Jefferson Awards for Public Service.[191]

In 2014, the Congressional Management Foundation awarded Leahy a "Silver Mouse Award" for his website, and a "Gold Mouse Award" for his engagement on social media.[192]

Leahy is the recipient of several honorary degrees, including:

Personal life


Leahy married Marcelle Pomerleau in 1962.[197] Her parents, Louis Philippe Pomerleau and Cecile Bouchard Pomerleau, emigrated to the United States from Quebec, and she is bilingual (English and French).[198] The extended Pomerleau family established several successful Vermont businesses, and includes her uncle Antonio Pomerleau (d. 2018), a prominent real estate developer and philanthropist.[198][199] Marcelle Leahy graduated from the nursing school at Burlington's former DeGoesbriand Hospital.[197] She is a registered nurse and has worked at hospitals in Burlington, Washington, D.C., and Arlington, Virginia.[198] The Leahys have resided in a farmhouse in Middlesex, Vermont, since moving from Burlington, and have three children.[197] In 2012, they celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary, with Leahy saying, "We hate it when we're apart from one another."[197]


On January 26, 2021, Leahy was hospitalized "out of an abundance of caution" after feeling ill. His hospitalization occurred hours after he had been sworn in as the presiding officer for Trump's second impeachment trial.[200] He returned home later the same day.[201]

On June 29, 2022, Leahy fractured his hip after falling at his home in McLean, Virginia. He underwent hip replacement surgery the next day, and had a second operation related to his hip injury on July 19, 2022.[202][203]

Leahy was hospitalized again on October 13, 2022, after feeling unwell. He was kept overnight for "tests and observation" and discharged the following day.[204]


Leahy is a published photographer and author.[205][206] He is a Roman Catholic and attends Saint Andrew's Church in Waterbury, Vermont.[207] He also attends Holy Trinity Catholic Church in Washington, D.C.[207]

Comic book fan

Leahy is a fan of comic books, and in particular the character Batman. He wrote the foreword to The Dark Knight Archives, Volume 1 (a 1992 collection of the first four Batman comic books), the preface essay for Batman: Death of Innocents (a 1996 graphic novel about the horrors of landmines), and the introduction to Green Arrow: The Archer's Quest (a single-volume collection of a six-issue story arc).

Leahy has also made several cameo appearances in Batman television episodes and films, beginning with an uncredited cameo in Batman Forever (1995).[208][209] He voiced a territorial governor in the Batman: The Animated Series episode "Showdown" (1995), appeared as himself in the film Batman & Robin (1997), and appeared twice in Christopher Nolan's Dark Knight Trilogy as a Wayne Enterprises board member. In The Dark Knight (2008) he appeared as a fundraiser guest who confronts the Joker.[210] In The Dark Knight Rises (2012), he defended the legacy of the Wayne family against attempts to usurp the company by industrialist John Daggett.[211] Leahy also appeared in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, playing Senator Purrington, in a scene set during Superman's Senate hearing which is subsequently destroyed by an explosion.[212]

All royalties and fees from Leahy's roles are donated to charities, primarily the Kellogg-Hubbard Library in Vermont, where he read comic books as a child.[209][213]


Year Title Role Notes Ref.
1995 Batman Forever Himself Uncredited cameo [214][215]
Batman: The Animated Series Territorial Governor Voice; Episode: "Showdown" [216]
1997 Batman & Robin Himself Cameo
2008 The Dark Knight Wayne Enterprises board member
2012 The Dark Knight Rises
2016 Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice Senator Purrington [217]

Electoral history

1974 U.S. Senate election in Vermont[218]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Patrick Leahy 19,801 83.9%
Democratic Nathaniel Frothingham 3,703 15.7%
None Scattering 97 0.4%
Total votes 23,601 100%
General election
Democratic Patrick Leahy 70,629 49.48
Republican Richard W. Mallary 66,223 46.39
Liberty Union Bernie Sanders 5,901 4.13
Total votes 142,753 100.00
Democratic gain from Republican
1980 U.S. Senate election in Vermont[219][220]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 27,548 100.00
Total votes 27,548 100.00
General election
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 104,089 49.76
Republican Stewart M. Ledbetter 101,647 48.59
independent (politician) Anthony N. Doria 1,764 0.84
Liberty Union Earl S. Gardner 1,578 0.75
Write-in 110 0.05
Total votes 209,188 100.00
Democratic hold
1986 U.S. Senate election in Vermont[221][222]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 21,255 100.00
Total votes 21,255 100.00
General election
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 124,123 63.16
Republican Dick Snelling 67,798 34.50
Conservative Anthony N. Doria 2,963 1.51
Liberty Union Jerry Levy 1,583 0.81
Write-in 65 0.03
Total votes 196,532 100.00
Democratic hold
1992 U.S. Senate election in Vermont[223][224]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 24,721 100.00
Total votes 24,721 100.00
General election
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 154,762 54.16
Republican Jim Douglas 123,854 43.35
Liberty Union Jerry Levy 5,121 1.79
Freedom for LaRouche Michael B. Godeck 1,780 0.62
Write-in 222 0.08
Total votes 285,739 100.00
Democratic hold
1998 U.S. Senate election in Vermont[225][226]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 18,643 100.00
Total votes 18,643 100.00
General election
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 154,567 72.22
Republican Fred Tuttle 48,051 22.45
Libertarian Hugh Douglas 4,199 1.96
independent (politician) Barry M. Nelson 2,893 1.35
Vermont Grassroots Bob Melamede 2,459 1.15
Liberty Union Jerry Levy 1,238 0.58
Write-in 629 0.29
Total votes 214,036 100.00
Democratic hold
2004 U.S. Senate election in Vermont[227][228]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 27,459 94.32
Democratic Craig Hill 1,573 5.40
Write-in 81 0.28
Total votes 29,113 100.00
General election
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 216,972 70.63
Republican Jack McMullen 75,398 24.54
Marijuana Cris Ericson 6,486 2.11
Green Craig Hill 3,999 1.30
independent (politician) Keith Stern 3,300 1.07
Liberty Union Ben Mitchell 879 0.29
Write-in 174 0.06
Total votes 307,208 100.00
Democratic hold
2010 U.S. Senate election in Vermont[229][230]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 64,756 88.92
Democratic Daniel Freilich 7,892 10.84
Write-in 175 0.24
Total votes 72,823 100.00
General election
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 151,281 64.32
Republican Len Britton 72,699 30.91
independent (politician) Daniel Freilich 3,544 1.51
Marijuana Cris Ericson 2,731 1.16
independent (politician) Stephen J. Cain 2,356 1.00
Socialist Pete Diamondstone 1,433 0.61
independent (politician) Johenry Nunes 1,021 0.43
Write-in 133 0.06
Total votes 235,198 100.00
Democratic hold
2016 U.S. Senate election in Vermont[231][232]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 62,249 88.59
Democratic Cris Ericson 7,596 10.81
Write-in 424 0.60
Total votes 70,269 100.00
General election
Democratic Patrick Leahy (incumbent) 192,243 61.26
Republican Scott Milne 103,637 33.03
Marijuana Cris Ericson 9,156 2.92
independent (politician) Jerry Trudell 5,223 1.66
Liberty Union Pete Diamondstone 3,241 1.03
Write-in 309 0.10
Total votes 313,809 100.00
Democratic hold


  • Leahy, Patrick (August 23, 2022). The Road Taken: A Memoir. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9781982157357. OCLC 1265084645.

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. Leahy received an LL.B. degree.[12] Law schools began offering the Juris Doctor as the graduate law degree in the late 1960s; Georgetown made the change in 1967 and made it retroactive so previous graduates could have their degrees revised.[13]
  2. Prior to 1856, Vermont's U.S. Senators were members of the Anti-Administration, Democratic-Republican, Federalist, Anti-Jacksonian, and Whig parties. From 1856 to 1975, all Vermont's U.S. senators were Republicans.
  3. Senate Democrats noted several proposed nominees, most emphatically Pasco Bowman II and John Clifford Wallace, as unacceptable immediately following Bork’s rejection.[54]


  1. Garcia, Eric (July 6, 2017). "Congress' 'Watergate babies' compare, contrast current events". Duluth News Tribune. Duluth, Minnesota. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  2. Bolton, Alexander; Carney, Jordain (January 25, 2021). "Leahy, not Roberts, to preside over impeachment trial". The Hill. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  3. Davis, Susan (January 25, 2020). "Sen. Patrick Leahy To Preside Over Trump's Senate Impeachment Trial". NPR.
  4. Teaganne, Finn; Jacob Fulton (November 15, 2021). "Sen. Patrick Leahy announces he won't run for re-election". NBC News.
  5. D'Ambrosio, Dan (March 5, 2016). "Patrick Leahy's legacy of fighting for human rights". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT.
  6. United States Senate (1983). An Amendment to the National Security Act of 1947: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC. pp. 25–26.
  7. Gaudiano, Nicole (January 19, 2013). "Vermont Sen. Leahy Takes Shots Like No One Else". USA Today. Tysons Corner, VA. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
  8. "Senate's Leahy finds peace on his Vermont farm". NBC News. Associated Press. July 6, 2009.
  9. Congress, United States; Michael, W. H. (2001). Official Congressional Directory. ISBN 9780160509834.
  10. Nutting, Brian; Hawkins, David (2003). Politics In America 2004. Washington, DC: CQ Press. p. 1026. ISBN 9781568028132.
  11. "Two Montpelier Youths Receiving Degrees Today at St. Michael's". Barre Montpelier Times Argus. Barre, VT. June 5, 1961. p. 7 via
  12. Georgetown University Law Center (1964). Georgetown University Law Center Bulletin, 1964-1965 (PDF). Washington, DC: Georgetown University. p. 84.
  13. "Georgetown Law Chronology: 1870-2019". Georgetown Law Library Special Collections. Washington, DC: Georgetown Law School. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
  14. "Montpelier: Law School Graduate". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT. June 19, 1964. p. 1 via
  15. "State's Attorney, City Grand Juror Resign". Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT. May 7, 1966. p. 13 via
  16. "Leahy To Help Draft Bills". Barre Montpelier Times Argus. Barre, VT. January 6, 1965. p. 2 via
  17. "Board Delays Settlement of Wheeler School Land Cases". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT. December 15, 1965. p. 6 via
  18. "Leahy Sworn in as State's Atty". Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT. May 10, 1966. p. 13 via
  19. "Chittenden County Democratic". Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT. November 9, 1966. p. 15 via
  20. Boardman, William (August 12, 2012). "Vermont Attorney General Race Doesn't Have a Lot of Rules". Independent Voter Project. San Diego, CA.
  21. Duffy, John J.; Hand, Samuel B.; Orth, Ralph H. (2003). The Vermont Encyclopedia. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-58465-086-7.
  22. Kifner, John (August 2, 1976). "Drug Raid Leader Jailed in Vermont". The New York Times. New York, NY. pp. 1, 33 via TimesMachine.
  23. Boyd, Bob (January 3, 2015). "Legacy of a 'super cop' turned bad". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT.
  24. Stigliani, Emilie Teresa (February 14, 2016). "Marcelle & Patrick Leahy: A Vermont love story". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT.
  25. Craven, Jasper (October 26, 2016). "The Leahy legacy: Fidel, fundraising and influential friends". VT Digger. Montpelier, VT.
  26. "Vermont Senators". United States Senate. April 15, 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
  27. "Patrick Leahy sworn in as president pro tempore of Senate after Daniel Inouye's death". The Oregonian. Associated Press. December 18, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
  28. Vermont Legislative Directory and State Manual. Montpelier, VT: Vermont Secretary of State. 1981. p. 92 via Google Books.
  29. "U.S. Senator – 1980 General Election Results – Vermont" (PDF). April 15, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 27, 2010.
  30. Dendy, Dallas Jr. (May 29, 1987). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 1986" (PDF).
  31. Dendy, Dallas Jr. (May 31, 1993). "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 3, 1992" (PDF).
  32. Heintz, Paul (October 12, 2016). "Forty-Two Years a Senator: Has Leahy Served Long Enough?". Vermont Seven Days. Burlington, VT. But the senator himself seems rattled by his opponent's attacks, perhaps because he has not faced a competitive race since 1992.
  33. Hillgren, Sonja (May 19, 1981). "Two Democrats led the opposition Tuesday to President Reagan's ..." UPI. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
  34. King, Seth S. (May 17, 1981). "New Hearings Asked on Forests Nominee – Democrats Seek Delay in Light of Crowell's Positions With Two Other Lumber Concerns". The New York Times. p. 33. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  35. King, Seth S. (May 21, 1981). "Forest Chief Gains Senate's Approval – Democrats Make a Futile Attempt to Return Crowell Nomination for Committee Hearings". The New York Times. p. A19. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  36. "Senate Votes Interior Dept. Bill Exceeding New Reagan Budget Goal". The New York Times. October 28, 1981. p. A23. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  37. "The 90–4 vote by which the Senate approved the ..." UPI. December 3, 1981.
  38. Roberts, Steven V. (December 3, 1981). "Senators Reject Plan for Placing MX Missile in Silos". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  39. Webbe, Stephen (December 4, 1981). "Reagan scorns Senate rejection of silo-based MX missile plan". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
  40. Maitland, Leslie (July 21, 1982). "Senate Unit Starts Studying F.B.I. Undercover Inquiries". The New York Times. p. A12. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  41. Sullivan, Joseph F. (March 12, 1982). "Williams Quits Senate Seat As Vote to Expel Him Nears; Still Asserts He Is Innocent – Successor Weighed – Kean Says He Has a List of 50 For Post But Will Not Rush to Fill It". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  42. Bachrach, Judy (February 1, 1982). "Facing Expulsion from the Senate He Loves, Harrison Williams Finds Some Unlikely Supporters". People. Retrieved March 5, 2011. One of them, who asks for anonymity, recalls 'going over to Pete and Nancy's house in Westfield, N.J. and having coffee together. Pete looked about 80 years old—horrible.'
  43. "The 54–33 vote by which the Senate gave final ..." UPI. December 23, 1982. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
  44. Tolchin, Martin (December 24, 1982). "Filibuster Cut Off, Senate Votes Rise in Gas Tax, 54 to 33 – 97th Congress Ends – Bill Lifts Levy to 9 Cents a Gallon on April 1st to Pay for Road Repair". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  45. Maraniss, David (December 24, 1982). "Senate Passes Gas-Tax Bill, Closes the 97th". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  46. "Senate's Roll-Call Vote on King Holiday". The New York Times. October 20, 1983. p. B9. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  47. Reagan, Ronald (November 2, 1983). "Remarks on Signing the Bill Making the Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., a National Holiday". Reagan Library. Archived from the original on March 1, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  48. "Senate Vote on School Prayer". The New York Times. March 16, 1984. p. B5. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  49. Tolchin, Martin (March 21, 1984). "Amendment Drive on School Prayer Loses Senate Vote – 11 Short of Passing – Moderates in G.O.P. Join 26 Democrats Against Reagan's Proposal". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
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