Pakubuwono X

Pakubuwono X (also transliterated Pakubuwana X, sometimes abbreviated PBX;[1] Surakarta, November 29, 1866 Surakarta, February 22, 1939) was the tenth Susuhunan (ruler of Surakarta).

Portrait of Pakubuwono X, wearing the uniform of a KNIL major-general
Pakubuwono X of Surakarta poses with the Governor General of Dutch East Indies Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff (center) in 1928.
Group portrait during a visit by King Chulalongkorn of Siam (now Thailand).
Javanese case with the emblem of Surakarta, designed by Pakubuwono X 1930 - Livrustkammaren


His birth name (Javanese: asma timur) was Raden Mas Sayyidin Malikul Kusna, son of Pakubuwono IX and his wife Kanjeng Raden Ayu Kustiyah.


His reign corresponded with the political changes happening in the Dutch East Indies at the time, in particular the growth of local indigenous political organizations such as Budi Utomo and Sarekat Islam of which he and the royal family were patrons.[2]


Pakubuwono X was known to have many concubines, but his main consort was GKR Hemas, the daughter of Sultan Hamengkubuwono VII of Yogyakarta. He was also known major contributor to improvements at the Royal Graveyard of Imogiri, where he himself is buried.


Even more than women Pakubuono X loved motorcars. In 1894 he purchased a Benz phaeton for 10,000 guilders,[3] an amount of money a contract coolie  could make in three centuries.[4] So he became the first motorist in the Dutch Colonial Empire, two years in advance of the first one in the Netherlands. In effect it made him a pioneer of the Indonesian automobile industry as the first car driver of the territories that make up the current Republic.

Death and funeral train

The prepared carriage with the coffin of PB X on trip to Yogyakarta

After PB X's death, his coffin was transported between Surakarta and Yogyakarta by a NIS train. The remaining journey between Yogyakarta and Imogiri was by royal carriage. His coffin's trip to Imogiri was one of the most photographed royal funeral processions of rulers of his era.

See also


  1. "PB XIII Tegaskan Lembaga Adat Sudah Dihapus Sejak PB X" [PB XIII Emphasises that Traditional Institutions Have Been Abandoned since PB X]. Tribun (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta. 27 May 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  2. Lawson, George D. (George Donald); Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands) (1987), Prelude to revolution : palaces and politics in Surakarta, 1912-1942, Foris Publications, ISBN 978-90-6765-217-9
  3. F.F. Habnit: KRÈTA SÈTAN, ‘s-Gravenhage: Tong Tong 1977.
  4. Jan Breman: Koelies, Planters en Koloniale Politiek, Dordrecht: Foris Publications 1987.

Further reading

  • Miksic, John N. (general ed.), et al. (2006) Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, central Java (First published: 'By the will of His Serene Highness Paku Buwono XII'. Surakarta: Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004) Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2
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