The Pasukan Khas TUDM (RMAF Special Force, Jawi: ڤاسوكن خاص تنترا اودارا) – it is better known as PASKAU – is the special operations force of the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF; Malay: Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia — TUDM). Its main functions are to carry out high-value target protection, ground forward air controller, combat search and rescue and rescuing downed aircrew assignments. PASKAU is also tasked as the principal anti-hijack response force for military and civil aircraft in Malaysia. This task was taken over from Grup Gerak Khas. All PASKAU members are airborne and commando-trained and can be deployed behind enemy lines via air, land and sea to assist in target designation for the Malaysian Armed Forces and RMAF missions.[1] The PASKAU Headquarters is known as RMAF Regiment (Malay: Rejimen TUDM).

RMAF Special Forces
Pasukan Khas TUDM
ڤاسوكن خاص تنترا اودارا
Official PASKAU crest
  • 1 April 1980 (known as HANDAU)
  • 1 June 1983 (known as RMAF Regiment)
  • 1996 (known as PKU)
  • 1 April 2002–present (PASKAU)
Country Malaysia
Branch Royal Malaysian Air Force
TypeSpecial forces
Part of
  • RMAF Regiment & CWS: RMAF Jugra Air Base, Selangor
  • CARS & FPS: Various RMAF Airbases
Motto(s)Cepat, Senyap, Pasti ('Swift, Stealth, Definite')
(Amaranth Red, Navy Blue, Maya Blue and Airforce Golden Yellow)
Beret:   Sky Blue
Anniversaries1 April
Commander of RMAF RegimentBrigadier General Dato’ Mohamed Nazri Dashah RMAF
Colonel-in-chiefAbdullah of Pahang
Regimental sergeant majorWarrant Officer II Mohamad Kamal Samsudin
RMAF Regiment Crest
Parachutist badge


PASKAU detachments dressed in the No.4 Digital Camouflage, tactical gear and ghillie suits parading during the 60th National Day Parade of Malaysia at Sultan Abdul Samad Street, Kuala Lumpur.


PASKAU can trace its origins back to 1974. A mortar attack by Malayan Communist Party agents from outside of Kuala Lumpur RMAF Airbase, and in 1979, another mortar attack resulted in damage to an RMAF DHC-4 Caribou transport aircraft.[2] Due to these incidents, a specific directive from the RMAF led to the formation of a new security force which would take over security of RMAF airbases from the Malaysian Army Royal Military Police Corps (RMPC). A cadre of RMAF airmen and officers was sent to PLPK (now known as PULPAK) to receive commando training. The force became known as Pasukan Pertahanan Darat dan Udara ('Air and Ground Defence Force'), or by its abbreviation, HANDAU, and was established on 1 April 1980. The new force was tasked as the security force for RMAF airbases.[1][3] The first HANDAU squadron was named 102 HANDAU Squadron. A small number of Malaysian Army Grup Gerak Khas commandos were attached to HANDAU as RMAF Air Rescue Team.[4]

RMAF Security Regiment Headquarters

The 102 Squadron was the first unit to take over security duties from the RMPC at Kuala Lumpur RMAF Airbase, on 1 April 1980. RMAF Security Regiment Headquarters (Malay: Markas Rejimen Keselamatan TUDM — MAREJ) was established as HQ for HANDAU, and since the HQ establishment up to 1 March 1987, ten more HANDAU squadrons were established.

List of RMAF HANDAU Squadrons
Branch Base Year Formed
102 HANDAU SquadronKuala Lumpur RMAF Airbase1 April 1980
103 HANDAU SquadronKuantan RMAF Airbase18 November 1980
104 HANDAU SquadronButterworth RMAF Airbase10 January 1981
202 HANDAU SquadronIpoh RMAF Airbase9 February 1981
105 HANDAU SquadronKuching RMAF Airbase7 April 1981
107 HANDAU SquadronAlor Setar RMAF Airbase7 July 1981
109 HANDAU SquadronDEBKAT Subang6 August 1981
204 HANDAU SquadronKluang RMAF Airbase19 August 1981
201 HANDAU SquadronBukit Jugra RMAF Airbase27 August 1987
208 HANDAU SquadronSubang RMAF Airbase1 September 1987
106 HANDAU SquadronLabuan RMAF Airbase1 March 1987

RMAF Regiment

Since MAREJ's establishment in 1980, MAREJ reported directly to the Air Force Command (Malay: Markas Tentera Udara — MTU) for all operations involving the HANDAU squadrons. As part of the June 1983 reorganization of the RMAF, MAREJ was moved under the RMAF High Command (Malay: Markas Besar Udara — MABES) and was also renamed as the RMAF Regiment. At the same time, the HANDAU squadrons were renamed to the RMAF Provost Squadrons. The RMAF Provost Squadrons was given with the task of providing security for RMAF Forward Operation Bases (FOB). As part of the same reorganization, two special operations (Spec Ops) elements also introduced to the RMAF Regiment. The special operations elements are Combat Air Rescue Team (CART; Malay: Tim Penyelamat Tempur Udara) and Rapid Deployment Force (RDF; Malay: Pasukan Gerak Cepat).[5]


In 1996, the special operations elements were reorganised and given a new name – Pasukan Khas Udara (Abbr.: PKU; 'Air Special Forces'). The PKU strength was increased and its role expanded to include counter-terrorism, unconventional warfare and Search and Rescue missions.[3] The unit also received training from the United Kingdom Special Air Service and the United States Special Operations Forces for their new roles.

On 17 March 1999, PKU was moved from Kuala Lumpur RMAF Air Base to Jugra RMAF Air Base. The RMAF Provost Squadrons was separated from RMAF Regiment and made into a single department – RMAF Provost Marshal Department. On 1 April 2002, 22 years after HANDAU establishment, PKU now officially known as Pasukan Khas TUDM (Abbr.: PASKAU; 'RMAF Special Forces').[5]

On 24 January 2008, the Sultan of Pahang, Sultan Ahmad Shah, was made an Honorary Colonel of the unit when he honoured the Honor Beret of PASKAU by Chief of Air Force, General Tan Sri Azizan Ariffin RMAF (later promoted to Chief of Defence Force in 2009) at Jugra RMAF Regiment, Bukit Jugra, Banting, Selangor.[6]

Combat elements


RMAF Security Regiment Headquarters

  • Air and Ground Defence Force (HANDAU)
  • Air Rescue Team


RMAF Regiment

  • RMAF Provost Squadrons
  • RMAF Special Operations
    • Rapid Deployment Force
    • Combat Air Rescue Team

Current combat formations

Today, RMAF Regiment operates directly under RMAF Air Operations Headquarters and is located at Bukit Jugra RMAF Air Base, Banting. Below are the three main squadrons of PASKAU under the Operations Branch of the RMAF Regiment, the branch that responsible for special operations.

PASKAU branches, responsibility and roles
Squadron Responsibility Roles
Combat Wing Squadron Special Operations and Counter-terrorism Combat Wing Squadron (CWS; Malay: Skuadron Sayap Tempur — SST), is the combat arm of PASKAU. Located at Jugra RMAF Airbase, this squadron is trained in counter-terrorism, hostage rescue, infiltration and sabotage, and can work behind enemy lines to destroy or disable high-value targets. It has AN/PEQ-1 SOFLAM Ground Laser Target Designation (GLTD) team to provide forward target acquisition and tracking for attacking aircraft. Every mission involves a six personnel with different specialisations such as cross-trained Signallers, Medics, Weapons Specialists, Demolitions Experts, Snipers and Boatmen. PASKAU Counter-terrorist team, the Flight Hostage Rescue Team (FHRT), that specialises in aircraft hostage rescue operations is attached to this squadron.[3]

CWS is equivalent to U.S. Air Force Combat Control Team of the 24th Special Tactics Squadron.

Combat Air Rescue Squadron Combat Search and Rescue Combat Air Rescue Squadron (CARS; Malay: Skuadron Penyelamat Tempur Udara — SPTU), is capable of mounting a rescue operation behind enemy lines. It consist of six detachments operating from air bases with a Rescue Sub-Centre (RSC) at Kuala Lumpur, Kuantan, Butterworth, Gong Kedak, Kuching and Labuan AFBs. The CARS is also capable of sea rescue through its Maritime Para Rescue Team (MPRT) based in Bukit Jugra.[3]

CARS is equivalent to U.S. Air Force Pararescue.

Field Protection Squadron Special Protections, Pathfinders and Forward Air Controllers The Field Protection Squadron (FPS; Malay: Skuadron Kawalan Medan — SKM) provides special protection to high-value military facilities such as air defence radar and forward operating bases (FOB). High-value target protection not only involves installation but also close or special escort duty. This team is equipped with the Field Intrusion Detection System (FIDS) for zone protection. During the insertion operation into enemy territory, FPS would be the pathfinders and able to act as Ground Forward Air Controllers (GFAC).[3]

FPS is equivalent to U.S. Air Force Special Operations Force Tactical Air Control Party.

National Special Operations Force

In 2016, the main counter-terrorism operators in Malaysia were formed into a single special operation task force.[7] Several operators from FHRT of PASKAU were selected to be part of the National Special Operations Force.

Training and expertise

A PASKAU trainee in the Diving Phase being supervised by a USAF 320th Special Tactics Squadrons instructor.
PASKAU and USAF 320th Special Tactics personnel firing the Barret M82A1 (M107) sniper rifles during a tactical long range course as a part of Teak Mint 09-1.

It is not obligatory for HANDAU airmen to pass the commando school, it is however compulsory for Special Operations airmen. Since 1996, it is becoming compulsory for any airmen wishing to join the PKU (the then name for the PASKAU) to complete the basic commando course.[8] In 1993, the RMAF established their own commando course – the RMAF Commando Course (Malay: Kursus Komando TUDM). Prior to that, commando-trained RMAF Regiment airmen were required to pass the Malaysian Army Basic Commando Course offered at the PULPAK.

Currently, every officer and enlisted personnel are presented with a light blue beret and light blue lanyard once they pass the RMAF Commando Course, and a tactical knife after they pass the PASKAU expert course. They can then continue to complete further advanced training which allows them to take part in all operations.

On 6 May 2004, only 81 of 198 personnel who started the three month training program received their blue berets, including the best trainee Laskar Udara Meor Mohd Nazri Othman, 23, having survived the challenging three-month series 07/2004 Basic Commando Training[9] while in October 2007, only 20 of the 54 trainees successfully completed the three-month training program.[10]

RMAF Commando Course

The course lasts for 12 weeks and has six modules. In this course, trainees will learn land, sea and air insertion, jungle warfare tactics, sabotage and hostage rescue.[11]

  1. Camp Module
  2. 160 kilometres (99 mi) Long-distance march[3]
  3. Jungle Training Module
  4. Water Training Module
  5. 120 kilometres (75 mi) Dark Water Module
  6. Survival, Escape, Resistance, Evasion (SERE) Module

PASKAU Expert Course

PASKAU operatives are capable of conducting operations using:

Insertion Techniques
  • High-altitude military parachuting – high altitude low opening/high altitude high opening of parachutes
  • Single occupant delivery operation module[13] – insertion via fighter jet
  • Hover jump
  • Rappelling
  • Special patrol insertion/extraction – SPIE rig
Intelligence Gathering
Expertise Oriented

During May 2009, PASKAU participated with the United States Air Force 320th Special Tactics Squadron in an underwater search and recovery course as part of a joint training exercise code-named Teak Mint 09-1. The USAF presented Barret M107 anti-material rifles for use by the RMAF PASKAU team.[14] Teak Mint 09-1 is a joint training exchange designed to enhance United States – Malaysian military training and capabilities.[14]


PASKAU's establishment has increased the RMAF capability in special air operations such as Combat Search And Rescue (CSAR). It must also be capable of securing forward RMAF bases and be able to assist in the execution of airstrikes using specialist weapons. PASKAU consists of specially selected and trained RMAF regiment personnel. The role of this unit is very different from army Grup Gerak Khas; or the navy PASKAL.


Sky blue beret

PASKAU operators armed with Colt M4A1 assault rifle providing security coverage for the USAF C-17 Globemaster III transport aircraft during the Thunderbirds 2009 air show at RMAF Airbase, Subang, Malaysia.

The Sky blue beret is worn by all HANDAU airmen and later by all units in the RMAF Regiment, including the RMAF special operations teams and RMAF Provost squadrons. Initially, commando-trained HANDAU unit members wore the green beret with GGK's cap badge similar to the GGK but with HANDAU cap badge backing.[15] After RMAF Provost unit was separated from the RMAF Regiment, they were no longer permitted to wear the sky blue beret. Instead the RMAF Provost wear navy blue beret similar to other conventional RMAF units. All commando-trained RMAF Provost members are given a choice, either join the PASKAU and moved to RMAF Jugra Airbase or stay with the provost and their original bases.[16]

The sky blue beret is now only allowed to be worn by the PASKAU team members.

The cap badge position is worn facing left between the end of the eyebrow and above the ear – similar to all other Malaysian commandos trained elite units.

Light blue lanyard

Every member of commando-trained HANDAU was given with light blue lanyard together with green beret and Fairbairn–Sykes commando dagger once they completed their commando training at the PLPK (now PULPAK). The tradition of giving the light blue lanyard was inherited from the Malaysian Special Service Unit (MSSU; now known as 21 Grup Gerak Khas) which was originally from the 40 Commando, Royal Marines. The tradition was continued by HANDAU and later by PASKAU even after the RMAF established their own commando school in 1993.

Tactical knife

PASKAU no longer issues Fairbairn–Sykes commando dagger to its members. Each graduate of the RMAF Commando School is issued with a tactical knife instead. The tactical knife is a symbol of jungle survivalist.[17]

PASKAU shoulder tab

PASKAU operators wear shoulder tab embroidered with "PASKAU" on the right shoulder sleeve. Shoulder tabs are synonymous with elite forces in Malaysian Armed Force.


Name Type Origin Notes
Glock 18C/19/34 Semi-automatic pistol [18]
Sphinx S3000 Semi-automatic pistol
Benelli M1014 Shotgun
Mossberg 590A1 Shotgun
Remington 870 Express / MCS Shotgun
Brügger & Thomet MP9 PDW
Colt 9 mm SMG SMG May be fitted with various different optics.
Heckler & Koch MP5A5 / MP5-K / MP5SD6 SMG Fitted with various different optics and accessories.[18]
Colt M4A1 Carbine Assault-rifle Fitted with the M203 grenade launcher, Brügger & Thomet Rotex V suppressor, FAB NFR EX rails, Steiner OTAL-A laser designators, MARS sight and various European-made accessories, similar to SOPMOD accessories.
SIG SG 553LB / SB Assault-rifle Fitted with the SIG GL 5040 grenade launcher, Brügger & Thomet suppressor, the EOTech G33 3X Magnifier and EOTech 553 holographic weapon sight optics.[19]
Accuracy International Arctic Warfare Sniper-rifle
AMP Technical Services DSR-1 Sniper-rifle
Barrett M107A1 Anti-material sniper-rifle
Blaser 93 Tactical Sniper-rifle
Heckler & Koch PSG-1A1 DMR
M249 Squad Automatic Weapon LMG
Milkor M32 MSGL Revolver grenade-launcher
M203A1/A2 Grenade Launcher Grenade-launcher
SIG GL 5040 Grenade launcher


PASKAU arms with Colt M4A1 SOPMOD passing the Malaysian Stripes of Glory to another men during the 65th Merdeka Day in Kuala Lumpur.
PASKAU sniper operator arms with Accuracy International Arctic Warfare fitted with silencer.

Target marking

To mark a target for an airstrike, such as radar or surface-to-air-missile (SAM) sites, sub-units must be able to infiltrate behind enemy lines. The target can then be 'painted' using GLTD II.

Security of important assets

The unit must secure critical RMAF areas from enemy ground attack. The task is made harder in forwarding locations and other hostile environments where the threat level is higher.

Search and rescue

Search and rescue missions, on land (on both sides of the lines) and at sea, are the responsibility of PASKAU. A wide variety of circumstances are usually encountered. For instance, when a Sikorsky S61 "Nuri" helicopter crashed on the slopes of Gunung Gerah in November 1989, reaching the wreckage required abseiling into the jungle. Other SAR missions are shown in the 'Recent Operations' section further down this page.


Incidents involving hijacked aircraft and terrorists throughout Malaysia come under the remit of PASKAU. The unit is trained to solve the problem with the least effect on the passengers and aircraft.



PASKAU is able to be rapidly inserted into an operational area by land, air or sea.


The group is capable of being deployed independently or as part of a joint task force with other special operations groups.


The unit is able to operate independently and conduct special operations for sustained periods without external assistance.


The group has access to high-tech equipment and weaponry to improve its ability to execute complex and demanding special operations.

Special training

The group employs specialised physical training that exceeds that of conventional forces. This is to ensure that operators are well-prepared to execute highly demanding Spec Ops-type missions. They are especially suited to classified missions involving small sub-units.

Mission and the future

The future direction for PASKAU includes the continuous expansion of the team expertise and roles as well as enhancing the team's effectiveness with newer and more capable equipment.

Recent operations

Operation Daulat

In March 2013, PASKAU commandos were deployed on a joint operation with all branches of the Malaysian Armed Forces, Royal Malaysia Police and Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency special forces to execute Operation Daulat. They conducted psychological operations against the Sulu terrorists by dropping leaflets to urge them to lay down their weapon and surrender to the authorities. The PASKAU commandos were used to paint enemies' target via GLTD for strikes by laser-guided bombs against terrorist camps at Kampung Tanduo, Lahad Datu.[20]


Malaysia sent troops, including PASKAU, 10th Parachute Brigade, 21 Grup Gerak Khas and PASKAL to Afghianistan as part of thee International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The team which consisted of 40 soldiers was deployed to assist New Zealand Armed Forces in the peacekeeping missions and humanitarian aid in the Bamiyan District, Afghanistan.[21]

Genting Sempah incident

In July 2007, PASKAU, with the 10th Parachute Brigade, 22nd Commando Regiment of 21 Grup Gerak Khas and the Pasukan Gerakan Khas, supported by the United States Navy Air Fleet (from USS Jarrett (FFG-33)), Police General Operations Force Senoi Praaq, Police Air Wing, Fire and Rescue Department, Forestry Department Rangers, Civil Defence Department (JPA3) and local villagers, were deployed in a search and rescue operation after a RMAF Sikorsky S61 'Nuri' helicopter went down with a crew of six near Genting Sempah, in the Genting Highlands.[22][23] The SAR team located the wreckage on 17 July at 1324hrs with its rotor blades detached. The bodies of all crew members were found in the cabin of the stricken aircraft.[24]


PASKAU was part of a contingent which also included the 10th Parachute Brigade, Grup Gerak Khas and PASKAL which were deployed to assist the administrative workload at the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) headquarters in Lebanon which 160 soldiers including 3 Malaysian special forces as the Quick Reaction Team.[25][26]

Hawk 208 crash

On 27 June 2006, PASKAU was involved in the search for Major Muhammad Rohaizan Abdul Rahman RMAF after his Hawk 208 fighter crashed into the sea off Rompin, Pahang on 31 May 2006. The remains of the pilot were found on the seabed 28 days after the crash, 150 meters off the coast of Pantai Lanjut, Rompin, Pahang.[27][28]

Bukit Batu Tiban incident

PASKAU was involved in rescue operations on 28 July 2005, after a Hornbill Skyway Bell 206 Jet Ranger helicopter crashed in Bukit Batu Tiban, Ulu Baleh, Kapit, near the Sarawak-West Kalimantan border. Three passengers and the pilot died, one passenger survived.[29][30]

Brinchang incident

On 7 June 2005, 21 PASKAU and 35 VAT 69 of the Pasukan Gerakan Khas operators were involved in the search for four children who were reported to be missing on Fraser's Hill as well as another two persons who were lost on Gunung Brinchang in the Cameron Highlands. They were all found three days later.[31]

Piper 28 crash

PASKAU, together with the Department of Civil Aviation (DCA) and the 10th Parachute Brigade of the Malaysian Army, were involved on 14 March 2004, in the search and rescue of the occupants of a civilian Piper 28 aircraft which had crashed. The aircraft went down in a heavily forested area 3.2 kilometres south-west of the Langat Dam, Selangor. The pilot, Captain Nasir Ma Lee Abdullah, was killed while the passenger, Nazarullah Mohd Sultan, was found alive.[32]

PASKAU boat capsizing

On 19 January 2003, a fibreglass boat carrying two senior officers and four servicemen from PASKAU capsized after encountering large waves in stormy conditions. This occurred during reconnaissance operations in the vicinity of Sibu Island, Johor at around 10:30 am. RMAF Majors Audrey Smith and Damian Sebastian, Sergeants Radzi Abdul Majid and Saad Che Omar were safely recovered while Corporals Hasnul Abdul Rahman and Ayub Sidek perished.[33]

Bukit Galla incident

PASKAU with RMP General Operations Force, the State Forestry Department, the Civil Defence Department (JPA 3), the Department of Civil Aviation and the Negeri Sembilan Fire and Rescue Department, were involved on 20 February 1999, in search and rescue operations after a civilian Beechcraft BE-36 aircraft crashed into the slopes of Bukit Galla, Mantin, Negeri Sembilan. The pilot and his passenger, Patrick Dutrey and Natalie Marie Chappate, were killed.[34]

Gunung Gerah incident

On 14 November 1989, PASKAU was involved in rescue operations after a TUDM Sikorsky S61 'Nuri' helicopter went down on the slopes of Gunung Gerah and Gunung Bilah near the Kelantan-Perak border. 21 passengers were killed, including 15 policemen from the General Operations Force of the Royal Malaysia Police.

See also


  1. "Sejarah Ringkas Rejimen TUDM". RMAF Official Portal (in Malay). 25 February 2016.
  2. "Teringat pangkalan 'dihujani' mortar 1974". Harian Metro (in Malay). 16 March 2018.
  3. Ifwan Tun Tuah. "Latihan lasak jana komando elit". Skuad. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2009.In Bahasa Malaysia
  4. "Air Rescue Team" (Facebook pages). Malaysia special forces. 1 May 2017.
  5. "HUT PASKAU: Pasukan Khas Udara". Malaysia Transformasi (Blog) (in Malay). 1 April 2016.
  6. "Sultan of Pahang honored the Honor Beret". Utusan Malaysia. 25 January 2008. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2009.In Bahasa Malaysia
  7. Hishammuddin Hussein (28 October 2016), Majlis Pelancaran National Special Operation Force (NSOF) - 27 Oktober 2016, archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 28 February 2018
  8. "Majlis Hi Tea Bersama MB Perak 2018". Wra-Tacticalist (Facebook Page) (in Malay). 13 March 2018.
  9. "81 air force personnel complete basic commando training". Utusan Malaysia. 7 May 2004. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
  10. Christina Tan (4 October 2007). "54 sign up for training but only 20 make it". The Star. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  11. Shahrizal. "Majlis Penganugerahan Beret PASKAU dan Penutup Kursus Komando Tudm Siri 24/2017". (in Malay). Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  12. Zabry Mohamad Madzlan (26 November 2008). "Sang Moo Doo defeating an enemy without weapon". Utusan Malaysia. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  13. "RMAF deploying Single Occupant Delivery Operation Modul for its special forces unit PASKAU". Malaysia Military Power. 30 November 2011.
  14. Technical Sergeant Aaron Cram (29 July 2009). "Air Commandos Provide Underwater Training To RMAF PASKAU". United States Air Force Special Operations Command (USAFSOC). Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  15. Paliousis, Nikolaos. "Special Forces (HANDAU) (80's) Royal Malaysian Air Force". Pinterest (Image).
  16. "106 Skuadron Provos TUDM Labuan" (Facebook pages). Malaysia special forces (in Malay). 26 September 2017.
  17. "Azizul jalan kaki 3 hari 2 malam". Utusan Malaysia (in Malay). 31 October 2007. Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  18. Thompson, Leroy (December 2008). "Malaysian Special Forces". Special Weapons. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
  19. Zabry Mohamad Madzlan (10 December 2008). "Sig SG 553 is a new rifle for PASKAU". Utusan Malaysia. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
  20. Hafizuddin Sulaiman (March 2013). "Ops Daulat: PUTD Helicopters Have Arrived". Malaysia Flying Herald. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  21. Hardi Effendi Yaacob (November 2010). "High risk of humanitarian aid". Berita Harian online. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  22. "Mist, Rain Hamper Search For Missing Copter". Bernama. 16 July 2007. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
  23. "Search For Missing Nuri Enters Fourth Day". Bernama. 16 July 2007. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
  24. Roslina Mohamad (16 July 2007). "Villagers help in ground search". The Star. Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  25. "Malaysia wants longer peacekeeping tenure". The Star. 18 April 2007. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  26. "200 Soldiers To Play Role As UNIFIL Administrators". Bernama. 20 September 2006. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
  27. Ghazali Basri (28 June 2006). "Mayat juruterbang Hawk 208 ditemui di dasar laut". Utusan Malaysia. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009. In Bahasa Malaysia
  28. "Body Of Missing RMAF Pilot Found". Bernama. 27 June 2006. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
  29. Edward Subeng Stephen (26 July 2005). "Helicopter Crash: SAR Team Spots Signs Of Survivors". Bernama. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
  30. Borhan Abu Samah and Izwar Abdul Wahid (29 July 2005). "Satu mangsa dikesan selamat – Laungan minta tolong 3 lagi penumpang nahas helikopter turut didengar". Utusan Malaysia. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009. In Bahasa Malaysia
  31. Razak Din, Aizawati Ahmad and Sopi Samaile (29 June 2005). "2 lagi hilang di Brinchang, 4 belum ditemui di Bukit Fraser". Utusan Malaysia. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009. In Bahasa Malaysia
  32. "Mangsa nahas Piper minum air jeram tanpa makanan tiga hari". Utusan Malaysia. 18 March 2004. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009. In Bahasa Malaysia
  33. "Two bodies of air force commando be found, one still alive". Utusan Malaysia. 22 January 2003. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009. In Bahasa Malaysia
  34. Herman Shakri (21 February 1999). "Mayat juruterbang pesawat terhempas berjaya dikeluarkan". Utusan Malaysia. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009. In Bahasa Malaysia
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