The ORCID (/ˈɔːrkɪd/ (listen); Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify authors and contributors of scholarly communication[1] as well as ORCID's website and services to look up authors and their bibliographic output (and other user-supplied pieces of information).

Full nameOpen Researcher and Contributor ID
OrganisationORCID, Inc.
Introduced16 October 2012 (2012-10-16)
No. issued14,727,479
No. of digits16
Check digitMOD 11-2

This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature or publications can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems. It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to tax ID numbers, that are created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs).[2]


ORCID aims to provide a persistent code for humans,[3] to address the problem that a particular author's contributions to scholarly communication can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique and thus multiple persons of the same name could contribute to the same scholarly field, even from the same institutional department. Further, names can change (such as with marriage); there are cultural differences in name ordering conventions; journals make inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations, name suffixes, and middle initials; and employ different writing systems.

The ORCID organization, ORCID Inc., offers registered users to maintain "a constantly updated ‘digital curriculum vitae’ providing a picture of his or her contributions to science going far beyond the simple publication list,"[4] hosted by ORCID, edited by the user.

Development and launch

ORCID was first announced in 2009 as a collaborative effort by publishers of scholarly research "to resolve the author name ambiguity problem in scholarly communication".[5] The "Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative" - hence the name ORCID - was created temporarily prior to incorporation.[6][7]

A prototype was developed on software adapted from that used by Thomson Reuters for its ResearcherID system.[8] ORCID, Inc. was incorporated as an independent nonprofit organization in August 2010 in Delaware, United States of America, with an international board of directors.[9][10] Its executive Director, Chris Shillum, was appointed in September 2020;[11] he succeeded the founding ED, Laurel Haak, who was appointed in April 2012.[12] From 2016, the board is chaired by Veronique Kiermer of PLOS[13] (the former chair was Ed Pentz of Crossref). ORCID is freely usable and interoperable with other ID systems.[4] On 16 October 2012, ORCID launched its registry services[14][15] and started issuing user identifiers.[16]


  • On 15 November 2014, ORCID announced the one-millionth registration.[17]
  • On 20 November 2020, ORCID announced the ten-millionth registration.[18]
  • As of 2 August 2022, the number of live accounts reported by ORCID was 14,727,479.[19]

To encourage others to join them in supporting the adoption of ORCID, an open letter dated 1 January 2016 was crafted with "publishers that signed this open letter committed to requiring ORCID iDs following specific implementation standards."[20][21]

In a 2021 update to the Springer Nature website, they noted that they would thenceforth "support verifying and crediting your [peer] review activity directly from our manuscript submission systems to ORCID."[22]


Formally, ORCID IDs are specified as URIs,[23] for example, the ORCID ID for Josiah S. Carberry (a fictitious professor whose ID is used in examples and testing) is https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1825-0097[24][25] (both https:// and http:// forms are supported; the former became canonical in November 2017[26]). However, some publishers use the short form, e.g. "ORCID: 0000-0002-1825-0097"[27] (as a URN).

ORCID IDs are a subset of the International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI),[28] under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (as ISO 27729), and the two organizations are cooperating. ISNI will uniquely identify contributors to books, television programmes, and newspapers, and has reserved a block of identifiers for use by ORCID,[28][29] in the range 0000-0001-5000-0007 to 0000-0003-5000-0001.[30] It is therefore possible for a person to legitimately have both an ISNI and an ORCID ID[31][32] – effectively, two ISNIs.

Both ORCID and ISNI use 16-character identifiers,[29] using the digits 0–9, and separated into groups of four by hyphens.[27] The final character, which may also be a letter "X" representing the value "10" (for example, Stephen Hawking's ORCID ID is https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9079-593X[33]), is a MOD 11-2 check digit conforming to the ISO/IEC 7064:2003 standard.

Members, sponsors and registrants

By the end of 2013 ORCID had 111 member organizations and over 460,000 registrants.[34][35][36] On 15 November 2014, ORCID announced the one-millionth registration,[17] and on 20 November 2020 the ten-millionth registration.[18] As of 2 August 2022, ORCID reported 1258 member organizations and 14,727,479 live accounts.[37] The organizational members include many research institutions such as Caltech and Cornell University, and publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and Nature Publishing Group. There are also commercial companies including Thomson Reuters, academic societies and funding bodies.[38]

Grant-making bodies such as the Wellcome Trust (a charitable foundation) have also begun to mandate that applicants for funding provide an ORCID identifier.[39]

National implementations

In several countries, consortia, including government bodies as partners, are operating at a national level to implement ORCID. For example, in Italy, seventy universities and four research centres are collaborating under the auspices of the Conference of Italian University Rectors (CRUI) and the National Agency for the Evaluation of the University and Research Institutes (ANVUR), in a project implemented by Cineca, a not-for-profit consortium representing the universities, research institutions, and the Ministry of Education.[40] In Australia, the government's National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australian Research Council (ARC) "encourage all researchers applying for funding to have an ORCID identifier".[41] The French scientific article repository HAL is also inviting its users to enter their ORCID ID.[42]


Nick Jennings' ORCID in his Wikidata entry

Both Wikipedia and Wikidata include pages with ORCID identifiers.[43][44]

As of 2014 in addition to members and sponsors, journals, publishers, and other services have or had included ORCID in their workflows or databases.[45][46][47][27][48][49] 2014 to 2016 some online services created tools for exporting data to, or importing data from, ORCID.[50][51][52][53][54][55][56]

In October 2015, DataCite, Crossref and ORCID announced that the former organisations would update ORCID records, "when an ORCID identifier is found in newly registered DOI names".[57][58]

Some ORCID data may also be retrieved as RDF/XML, RDF Turtle, XML or JSON.[59][60] ORCID uses GitHub as its code repository.[61]

See also


  1. Sources:
    • "ORCID website". orcid.org. Retrieved 18 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link).
    • News (30 May 2012) "Scientists: your number is up: ORCID scheme will give researchers unique identifiers to improve tracking of publications", Declan Butler, "Nature". 485: 564 doi:10.1038/485564a.
    • Interview with Alice Meadows, Director of Communications for ORCID (2015). "ORCID – Unique Author Identifier". ChemViews magazine. doi:10.1002/chemv.201500088.
  2. Crossref & ORCID.
  3. Farley, Isaac. "ORCID auto-update". Crossref.
  4. Editorial (2009). "Credit where credit is due". Nature. 462: 825. doi:10.1038/462825a.
  6. "Welcome to the Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative (or ORCID) group on Nature Network". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2017 via internet archive.
  7. "What is the relationship between the ORCID Initiative and ORCID, Inc.? – Feedback & support for ORCID". support.orcid.org. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  8. "Press Release: ORCID funding and development efforts on target". 15 August 2011. ORCID also announced today that Thomson Reuters has provided ORCID with a perpetual license and royalty free use of ResearcherID code and intellectual property, giving ORCID the critical technology to create its system.
  9. Craig Van Dyck. "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing News: An Update on the Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier (ORCID)". Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  10. "Certificate of Incorporation of ORCID Inc" (PDF). State of Delaware. 5 August 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  11. Petro, Julie Anne (14 September 2020). "ORCID Proudly Announces its New Executive Director". EIN Presswire. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  12. Butler, Declan (30 May 2012). "Scientists: your number is up". Nature. 485 (7400): 564. Bibcode:2012Natur.485..564B. doi:10.1038/485564a. PMID 22660298.
  13. "ORCID team". 17 August 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  14. "ORCID Launches Registry". 16 October 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  15. "ORCID vs ISNI; ORCID lanceert vandaag hun Author Register - Artikel - SURFspace". Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  16. "Register for an ORCID iD". Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  17. "Tweet". ORCID. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014. It's official! 1M of you have an ORCID iD! We thank the community, and look forward to continued collaboration.
  18. "10M ORCID iDs!". ORCID. 20 November 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  19. ORCID. "ORCID Statistics". orcid.org. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  20. various (1 January 2016). "Requiring ORCID in Publication Workflows: Open Letter". Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  21. "Why Some Publishers are Requiring ORCID iDs for Authors: An Interview with Stuart Taylor, The Royal Society". The Scholarly Kitchen. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  22. "ORCID iDs at Springer Nature". Springer Nature. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  23. "Trademark and iD Display Guidelines". ORCID. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  24. "Structure of the ORCID Identifier". ORCID.
  25. "Josiah Carberry". Biography. ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 22 December 2014. Josiah Carberry is a fictitious person.
  26. Meadows, Alice (15 November 2017). "Announcing API 2.1 - ORCID iDs are now HTTPS!". ORCID. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  27. "Hiroshi Asakura". Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  28. "ISNI and ORCID". ISNI. Archived from the original on 4 March 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  29. "What is the relationship between ISNI and ORCID?". Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  30. "Structure of the ORCID Identifier". ORCID. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  31. "ISNI 0000000031979523". ISNI. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  32. "ORCID 0000-0001-5882-6823". ORCID. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  33. ORCID. "Stephen Hawking (0000-0002-9079-593X) - ORCID | Connecting Research and Researchers". orcid.org. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  34. "2013 Year in review". ORCID, Inc. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  35. "Members". ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  36. O'Beirne, Richard. "OUP and ORCID". Oxford Journals. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  37. ORCID. "ORCID Statistics". orcid.org. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  38. "ORCID Community". info.orcid.org.
  39. Wilsdon; et al. (July 2015). "The Metric Tide" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  40. Meadows, Alice (22 June 2015). "Italy Launches National ORCID Implementation". ORCID. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  41. "NHMRC and ARC Statement on Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)". National Health and Medical Research Council. 10 April 2015. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  42. "Identifiant auteur IdHAL et CV". 1 June 2018.
  43. Wikipedia authors. "Category:Wikipedia articles with ORCID identifiers". Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  44. Wikidata contributors. "Pages that link to "Property:P496"". Wikidata. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 20 April 2014. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  45. "Announcements". Journal of Neuroscience. April 2014. Archived from the original on 22 June 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  46. "The Journal of Neuroscience Rolls Out ORCID Integration". Society for Neuroscience. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  47. "Author Zone 16 - ORCID". Springer Publishing. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  48. "ORCID Article Claiming". Europe PubMed Central. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  49. "ORCID integration". Researcher Name Resolver. National Institute of Informatics. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  50. "Scopus2Orcid - Use the Scopus to Orcid Author details and documents wizard to collect all your Scopus records in one unique author profile". Scopus. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  51. "figshare ORCID integration". Figshare. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  52. "RID - ORCID Integration - IP & Science". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  53. "Researchfish now integrating with the ORCID registry". Researchfish. 4 July 2015. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  54. "British Library EThOS - about searching and ordering theses online". British Library. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  55. "Connected from the Beginning: Adding ORCID to ETDs". 12 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015 via ProQuest.
  56. Ponto, Michelle (7 October 2015). "ORCID and Loop: A New Researcher Profile System Integration". ORCID. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  57. "Explaining the DataCite/ORCID Auto-update". DataCite. 29 October 2015.
  58. "Auto-Update Has Arrived! ORCID Records Move to the Next Level". Crossref. 26 October 2015. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  59. "Q&D RDF Browser". Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  60. Archer, Phil. "Proposal for the Improvement of the Semantics of ORCIDs". W3C. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  61. "ORCID, Inc". GitHub. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
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