Newspaper of record

A newspaper of record is a major national newspaper with large circulation whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered authoritative and independent; they are thus "newspapers of record by reputation" and include some of the oldest and most widely respected newspapers in the world. The level and trend in the number of "newspapers of record by reputation" is regarded as being related to the state of press freedom and political freedom in a country.[1][2]

The New York Times Building in Midtown Manhattan; some meanings of the term "newspaper of record" originated in reference to The New York Times.

It may also be a newspaper authorized to publish public or legal notices, thus serving as a newspaper of public record. Newspapers whose editorial content is largely directed by the state can be referred to as an official newspaper of record, but the lack of editorial independence means that they are not "newspapers of record by reputation". Newspapers of record by reputation that focus on business can also be called newspapers of financial record.[1][2]

Newspapers of public record

Paris headquarters of Le Figaro, France's centre-right newspaper of record (public record and by reputation)

A "newspaper of public record", or government gazette, refers to a publicly available newspaper that is authorized by a government to publish public or legal notices.[3] It is often established by statute or official action and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a private party, is usually considered sufficient to comply with legal requirements for public notice.[4] Such gazettes often have little editorial content (i.e. opinion articles), and are focused on transmission of information to the public regarding state services and state decisions; an example is Latvia's Latvijas Vēstnesis.[5]

In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may register with the public authorities to publish public and legal notices, or be otherwise eligible to publish said notices (terms used may include "newspaper of general circulation" among others).[6][7][8] Likewise, a private newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices, such as notices of fictitious business names, if certain judicial and statutory standards are met.[9][10] These are sometimes called "legally adjudicated newspapers".[11]

Official newspaper of record

In more extreme cases, some newspapers of public record are owned and operated by a Government that directs their entire editorial content (not just the legal and public notice content). Such newspapers, while pejoratively termed "state mouthpieces", can also be called "official newspapers of record", as their entire editorial copy represents the official view and doctrine of the State. Inclusion of the word "official" can be used to separate them from "newspapers of record by reputation". Notable examples include Russia's Rossiyskaya Gazeta,[12] North Korea's Rodong Sinmun,[13] and China's People's Daily.[14]

Newspapers of record by reputation

First edition of Neue Zürcher Zeitung (1780), world's oldest newspaper of record by reputation.

The second type of "newspaper of record" (also known as a "journal of record", or by the French term presse de référence) is not defined by any formal criteria and their characteristics can vary. The category typically consists of those newspapers that are considered to meet higher standards of journalism than most print media, including editorial independence (particularly from the ruling government and from its owners), accountability (mistakes are acknowledged), attention to detail and accuracy, and comprehensiveness and balance of coverage;[15] they are often renowned internationally, and regarded as sources in their country and/or region by other global outlets.[16][17]

Some newspapers of record by reputation, while respected for the accuracy and quality of their reporting, can still be recognized as ideologically conservative (e.g. The Wall Street Journal and The Telegraph) or liberal (e.g. The Washington Post and The Guardian).[18]

While many countries are proud of their newspapers of record by reputation, in some countries, they face an openly hostile state or political system that tries to suppress their press freedoms. Examples include Turkey's Cumhuriyet, where many of the staff have been imprisoned,[19] Panama's La Prensa, where staff have been shot and the owners forced into exile,[20] and Venezuela's El Nacional,[21] which was effectively forced out of print by the state who seized all their assets.[22]

Despite changes in society, newspapers of record by reputation have historically tended to maintain a similar tone, coverage, style, and traditions; many newspapers of record are over a century old, with some close to, or over, two centuries old (e.g. Neue Zürcher Zeitung, The Times, The Guardian, Le Figaro, and The Sydney Morning Herald).[16]


The term is believed to have originated among librarians who began referring to The New York Times as the "newspaper of record" when it became the first U.S. newspaper in 1913 to publish an index of the subjects covered in its pages.[18][23] In recognition of the usage, The New York Times held an essay contest in 1927 in which entrants had to demonstrate "The Value of The New York Times Index and Files as a Newspaper of Record". The New York Times, and other newspapers of its type, then sought to be chroniclers of events, acting as a record of the day's announcements, schedules, directories, proceedings, transcripts and appointments. The New York Times no longer considers itself a newspaper of record in the original, literal sense.[24]

Over time, historians relied on The New York Times and similar titles as a reliable archival and historical record of significant past events, and a gauge of societal opinions at the time of printing. The term "newspaper of record" evolved from its original literal sense to its currently understood meaning.[23]

The derived term "financial (or business) newspaper of record" is attributed to the Wall Street Journal,[25][26] the Financial Times,[27] and to the Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei).[28]

Examples of fallen newspapers

The former headquarters of El Nacional, Venezuela's long-standing newspaper of record,[21] which was seized by the state in 2018, and the paper forced out of newsprint production.[22]

Over time, some established newspapers of record by reputation have lost their status due to various factors including financial collapse, take-over or merger by another entity that did not have the same standards or allowed continued independence, and/or increased government control and suppression of the paper's editorial independence. The existence of newspapers of record by reputation is an aspect of the level of press freedom and political freedom in a country, with major first-world democracies having several such newspapers (e.g. United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Italy and Japan); in contrast, countries that have seen a decline in their newspapers of record by reputation can represent a decline in levels of personal and political freedom (e.g. Zimbabwe, Venezuela, and Cambodia).[1]

Examples include:

  • Zimbabwe's The Herald, lost its status as an established newspaper of record when it was eventually taken over by Robert Mugabe's Zanu-PF party.[29]
  • Venezuela's newspaper of record, El Nacional,[21] was forced out of print by the state in 2018, and its headquarters given to a high-ranking official.[22]
  • London-based pan-Arab newspaper of record, Al-Hayat, ceased in 2020 due to financial and political pressures.[30][31]
  • In Cambodia, the Hun Sen administration forced both of Cambodia's newspapers of record out of business using contrived tax fines that resulted in the closure of The Cambodia Daily in 2017,[32][33] and the sale of The Phnom Penh Post to a close ally of the Hun Sen administration in 2018.[34][35]
  • Latvian newspaper Diena saw its established status as a newspaper of record diminished post a 2010 takeover, with the Historical Dictionary of Latvia (2017) listing it as "holding tenuously to a popular newspaper-of-record sentiment at home and abroad" due to "questions of ownership and if said owners influence newspaper content".[36]

Selected existing examples

Country Region Newspaper City of publication Founded Language Refs.
Argentina South America La Nación Buenos Aires 1870 Spanish [21][37][38]
Australia Oceania The Age Melbourne 1854 English [15][18]
The Sydney Morning Herald Sydney 1831 [39][15][18]
Austria Europe Die Presse Vienna 1848[lower-alpha 1][40] German [41]
Der Standard 1988 [42]
Bahamas Caribbean The Nassau Guardian Nassau 1844 English [43]
Bangladesh South Asia The Daily Star Dhaka 1991 English [44][45]
Belgium Europe Le Soir Brussels 1887 French [46]
De Standaard Groot-Bijgaarden 1918 Dutch [47]
Bolivia South America El Diario La Paz 1904 Spanish [48]
Brazil South America O Estado de S. Paulo São Paulo 1875 Portuguese [49][50][51]
Folha de S.Paulo 1921 [52]
O Globo Rio de Janeiro 1925 [21]
Canada Northern America Le Devoir Montreal 1910 French [53]
The Globe and Mail Toronto 1844[lower-alpha 2] English [54][55][56][57][18]
La Presse Montreal 1884 French [58][59]
Chile South America El Mercurio Santiago 1900[lower-alpha 3] Spanish [21][60]
Colombia South America El Tiempo Bogotá 1911 Spanish [21][61][62]
Czech Republic Europe Lidové noviny Prague 1893 Czech [63]
Denmark Europe Berlingske Copenhagen 1749[lower-alpha 4] Danish [64][65]
Egypt Africa Al-Ahram Cairo 1875 Arabic [66][67][68]
Finland Europe Helsingin Sanomat Helsinki 1889 Finnish [69]
France Europe Le Figaro Paris 1826[lower-alpha 5] French [71][72][73]
Libération 1973 [74]
Le Monde 1944[lower-alpha 6] [75][76][77][73]
Germany Europe Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Frankfurt 1949[lower-alpha 7] German [78][60]
Der Spiegel Hamburg 1947 [79]
Süddeutsche Zeitung Munich 1945 [82]
Die Zeit Hamburg 1946 [82][73]
Greece Europe Kathimerini Athens 1919 Greek [83][84]
Hong Kong East Asia South China Morning Post Hong Kong 1903 English [85][86]
India South Asia The Hindu Chennai 1878 English [87][88]
The Times of India Mumbai 1838[lower-alpha 8] [18][89][15]
The Statesman Kolkata 1875 English [90]
Indonesia Southeast Asia Kompas Jakarta 1965 Indonesian [91][92]
Iran West Asia Ettela'at Tehran 1926 Persian [93][94]
Ireland Europe The Irish Times Dublin 1859 English [15][95]
Israel West Asia Haaretz Tel Aviv 1919 Hebrew and English [96][97][98][99][18]
Italy Europe Il Sole 24 Ore Milan 1965 Italian [100][101][102]
Corriere della Sera Milan 1876 [103][104][105][73]
La Stampa Turin 1867 [106][107][73]
la Repubblica Rome 1976 [105]
Jamaica Caribbean The Gleaner Kingston 1834 English [108] [109]
Japan East Asia The Asahi Shimbun Osaka 1879 Japanese [110][111][112]
Mainichi Shimbun Tokyo 1872 [113]
Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei) 1876 [28]
Yomiuri Shimbun 1874 [114][115]
Kenya Africa Daily Nation Nairobi 1960[lower-alpha 9] English [116][117]
Lebanon West Asia An-Nahar Beirut 1933 Arabic [118][119]
Malaysia Southeast Asia New Straits Times[lower-alpha 10] Kuala Lumpur 1965[lower-alpha 11] English [120][121]
Mexico Northern America Reforma Mexico City 1993 Spanish [21]
Netherlands Europe NRC Amsterdam 1970[lower-alpha 12] Dutch [122]
New Zealand Oceania The New Zealand Herald Auckland 1863 English [15]
Norway Europe Aftenposten Oslo 1860 Norwegian
Pakistan South Asia Dawn Karachi 1941 English [124][125][126]
Panama Central America La Prensa Panama City 1980 Spanish [127][128][20]
Peru South America El Comercio Lima 1839 Spanish [21]
Philippines Southeast Asia Philippine Daily Inquirer Makati 1985 English [129][130][131]
Poland Europe Gazeta Wyborcza Warsaw 1989 Polish [132][133]
Rzeczpospolita 1920[lower-alpha 13] [132][134]
Portugal Europe Diário de Notícias Lisbon 1864 Portuguese [135][136]
Público Lisbon 1990 [137][138][139]
Serbia Europe Danas Belgrade 1997 Serbian [140]
Singapore Southeast Asia The Straits Times[lower-alpha 10] Singapore 1845 English [120][121]
South Africa Africa Mail & Guardian Johannesburg 1985 English [141][142]
South Korea East Asia The Chosun Ilbo Seoul 1920 Korean [143]
The Dong-a Ilbo 1920 [143]
JoongAng Ilbo 1965 [143]
Spain Europe ABC Madrid 1903 Spanish [144][145][146]
El Mundo 1989 [147][73]
El País 1976 [148][149][73]
Sweden Europe Dagens Nyheter Stockholm 1864 Swedish [150]
Switzerland Europe Neue Zürcher Zeitung Zurich 1780 German [151][152][73]
Le Temps Geneva 1998[lower-alpha 14] French [152][153]
Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean Trinidad and Tobago Guardian Port of Spain 1917 English [154][155]
Turkey West Asia Cumhuriyet Istanbul 1924 Turkish [19]
United Kingdom Europe The Daily Telegraph London 1855 English [15][156][18]
The Financial Times 1888 [15][18][27][73]
The Guardian 1821[lower-alpha 15] [18][73][89]
The Times 1785[lower-alpha 16] [156][15][18][157]
United States Northern America Los Angeles Times Los Angeles 1881 English [15][18]
The New York Times New York City 1851 [15][18][158][159]
The Wall Street Journal 1889 [15][18][73][160]
The Washington Post Washington, D.C. 1877 [15][18][73][160]
Vatican City Europe L'Osservatore Romano Rome 1861 Italian, English, French, Spanish, German, Polish, Portuguese [161][162]

See also

  • Freedom of the press
  • Grupo de Diarios América
  • List of national newspapers
  • List of government gazettes


  1. Staff split in 1864 to form Neue Freie Presse, aryanized by the Nazis in 1938 and closed in 1939, reestablished as Die Presse in 1946.
  2. Successor to The Globe (founded 1844), The Toronto Mail (1872) and Toronto Empire (1887); papers merged in 1895 and 1936.
  3. Spun off from El Mercurio de Valparaíso (founded 1827).
  4. Named Berlingske Tidende until 2011.
  5. Le Figaro is France's oldest national newspaper still operating to this date.[70]
  6. Founded as a successor to the discredited collaborationist Le Temps (founded 1861).
  7. Considered a successor to the Frankfurter Zeitung (founded 1856), banned in 1943 by the Nazis.
  8. Named The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce until mergers in 1860–1.
  9. Originated as the Swahili Taifa in 1958.
  10. The Straits Times and New Straits Times were qualified as "semi-official newspapers of record" in the Encyclopedia of Journalism (2009) as "each is tightly connected to the dominant political party of their respective countries".[120]
  11. Spun off from The Straits Times (founded 1845) upon Singapore's independence.
  12. Merger of Algemeen Handelsblad (founded 1828) and Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (1844).
  13. Dissolved in 1931 and revived in 1944, second dissolution in 1951, revived again in 1982.
  14. Merger of Journal de Genève (founded 1826), Gazette de Lausanne (1798), and Nouveau Quotidien (1991).
  15. Founded as The Manchester Guardian, adopted its present name in 1959.
  16. Named The Daily Universal Register until 1788.


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  2. Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
  3. Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
  4. Black's Law Dictionary, 6th edn. West Publishing. 1990. ISBN 90-6544-631-1.
  5. House, Freedom (13 September 2004). Nations in Transit 2004: Democratization in East Central Europe and Eurasia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 342. ISBN 9781461731412.
  6. See, for example, L.N. 362 of 1997 of The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette
  7. For example, see Texas Local Government Code - Section 52.004. Official Newspaper Archived 9 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  8. "1.12 Official Newspaper - City of McCleary". Archived from the original on 27 December 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  9. See, e.g., "California Government Code, Sec. 6000 - 6008". California Legislative Information. California State Legislature. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  10. "New York Consolidated Laws, General Construction Law - GCN § 60". Findlaw.
  11. "Fictitious Names: Adjudicated Newspapers". County Clerk. County of Sonoma. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  12. Zadorozhnii, Oleksandr (July 2017). International Law in the Relations of Ukraine and the Russian Federation. K.I.S. p. 144. ISBN 978-6176841463.
  13. Em, Pavel P.; Ward, Peter (January 2021). "City profile: Is Pyongyang a post-socialist city?". Cities. 108: 102950. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2020.102950. S2CID 225116450. ... a line that appeared in Rodong Sinmun (Rodong Sinmun, 1999, 29) the official newspaper of record in North Korea.
  14. Manuel, Ryan (14 December 2017). "China is furious and Australia should expect more backlash after questioning its influence". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 May 2022. Most significantly, the People's Daily, China's official newspaper of record, had a special signed editorial attacking Australia's government and media.
  15. Caulfield, Mike (8 January 2017), "National Newspapers of Record", Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers, Self-published, retrieved 20 July 2020
  16. Salles, Chloë (January 2010). "Media Coverage of the Internet: An Acculturation Strategy for Press of Record?" (PDF). Innovation Journalism. 7 (1): 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  17. Martin, Shannon (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. pp. 6, 27, 31. ISBN 0275959600.
  18. Corey Frost; Karen Weingarten; Doug Babington; Don LePan; Maureen Okun (30 May 2017). The Broadview Guide to Writing: A Handbook for Students (6th ed.). Broadview Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-55481-313-1. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  19. Shaheen, Kareem; Hatunoğlu, Gözde (24 July 2017). "Turkish activists decry attack on press freedom as journalists stand trial". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 May 2022. ...because Cumhuriyet, the country's newspaper of record that is committed to secularism...
  20. "Four Journalists Win Columbia University's Cabot Prizes For Coverage of Latin America". Columbia University Record. 21 (9). November 1995. Retrieved 9 May 2022. For the past 15 years, Mr. Eisenmann has led Panama's internationally respected daily newspaper of record, La Prensa, as founding editor and publisher.
  21. Johnston, Donald H. (2003). "Chapter: Freedom of the Press in Latin America". Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications. Vol. 2. Academic Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0123876706. Retrieved 9 May 2022. ...the newspaper of record in any country is compulsory reading for political, business, and cultural leaders and the most prestigious such papers in the region, organized into the Grupo de Diarios America, are La Nacion (Buenos Aires, Argentina), O Globo (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), El Tiempo (Bogota, Colombia), El Mercurio (Santiago, Chile), El Comercio (Ecuador), Reforma (Mexico), El Nuevo Dia Interactivo (Puerto Rico), El Comercio (Lima, Peru), El Pais (Montevideo, Uruguay), and El Nacional (Caracas, Venezuela)
  22. Vargas, José González (19 December 2018). "From Distant Glory Days to Utter Degradation, El Nacional Mirrored Venezuela". Caracas Chronicles. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
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  25. "Newspapers". Georgetown University Library. Archived from the original on 28 November 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2022. The Wall Street Journal is the financial newspaper of record
  26. Roush, Chris (2006). Profits and Losses: Business Journalism and Its Role in Society. Marion Street Press. ISBN 978-1933338057.
  27. Brooks, Richard (2014). The Great Tax Robbery: How Britain Became a Tax Haven for Fat Cats and Big Business. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1780743714.
  28. Culpepper, Pepper D. (January 2011). Quiet Politics and Business Power: Corporate Control in Europe and Japan (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics). Cambridge University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0521134132. ...the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, the business or financial newspaper of record, had three million;...
  29. Eckson Mugari, Zvenyika (March 2020). Press Silence in Postcolonial Zimbabwe: News Whiteouts, Journalism and Power. Routledge. ISBN 978-0367252250.
  30. Editorial (4 March 2020). "Pan-Arab newspaper al-Hayat officially closes after decades of journalism". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  31. Lund, Aron (26 May 2020). "Will the Pandemic Kill Arab Print Journalism?". The Century Foundation. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  32. Philp, Catherine (5 November 2017). "Cambodia Daily survived tanks but not descent into outright dictatorship". The Times. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  33. "Cambodia Daily shuts with 'dictatorship' parting shot at prime minister Hun Sen". The Guardian. Reuters. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  34. Osborne, Milton (11 May 2018). "Courageous voice for truth silenced in Cambodia". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  35. Parkhouse, Alan (7 May 2018). "New start or sad end for Cambodia's last free newspaper?". Asia Times. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  36. Plakans, Andrejs; Purs, Aldis (2017). Historical Dictionary of Latvia (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 90. ISBN 978-1538102206.
  37. Vigón, Mercedes (12 July 2013). "Journalism ethics is 'personal and non-transferable'" (Interview). Interviewed by International Press Institute. Retrieved 10 April 2019. In spite of the readership crisis in the United States, The New York Times is a newspaper of record in many countries, as is Le Monde in France or La Nación in Argentina.
  38. Beezley, William H. (September 2021). Latin America 2020-2022 (54th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 154. ISBN 978-1475856439. The country's newspaper of record is La Nación.
  39. "What We're Reading". The New York Times. 14 October 2011. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
  40. "Die Presse - Die Geschichte". Archived from the original on 6 February 2014.
  41. "Die Presse". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
  42. Andrei S. Markovits; Simon Reich (18 October 2018). The German Predicament: Memory and Power in the New Europe. Cornell University Press. p. 102. ISBN 9781501732898. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  43. Beezley, William H. (September 2021). Latin America 2020-2022 (54th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 433. ISBN 978-1475856439. The Nassau Guardian, founded in 1844, is the country's newspaper of record and one of the oldest continuously published newspapers in the Western Hemisphere.
  44. Roy, Anupam Debashis (January 2020). Not All Springs End Winter. Adarsha. p. 144. ASIN B097ZL8NFW. Reports on the demands of the students that were published on the Daily Star, often considered Bangladesh's newspaper of record, ....
  45. Sklair, Leslie (May 2022). The Anthropocene in Global Media: Neutralizing the risk. Routledge. ISBN 978-0367641993. Bangladesh: The first and most articles (19) appear in The Daily Star, often considered the newspaper of record.
  46. Toussaint, Éric (July 2012). A Glance In The Rear View Mirror : Neo-liberal Ideology From Its Origins to the Present. Haymarket Books. ... Bruno Colmant, head of the Brussels stock exchange and professor of economics, published an oped in Le Soir, the Frenchlanguage daily newspaper of record, stating that ...
  47. Art, David (May 2011). Inside the Radical Right: The Development of Anti-Immigrant Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0521720328. For example, the Flemish newspaper of record, De Standaard, published an ...
  48. Field, Thomas (2010). "Conflict on High: The Bolivian Revolution and the United States, 1961-1964" (PDF). Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  49. "O Estado de S. Paulo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 10 October 2013. It is's newspaper of record. O Estado is sometimes called the "New York Times of Latin America" because of its grave editorial demeanour.
  50. Fabricio, Roberto (16 April 1992). "Brazilian Officers Issue Manifesto". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 10 October 2013. The statement, published on Tuesday by O Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil's newspaper of record, was datelined in Fortaleza, a mid-sized city in northeastern Brazil.
  51. Pomela, Marina. "Top 10 Printed Newspaper in Brazil". The Brazil Business. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  52. Carter, Cynthia; Steiner, Linda; McLaughlin, Lisa (December 2013). The Routledge Companion to Media & Gender. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415527699. The daily Folha de São Paulo is Brazil's newspaper of record
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  56. Jiwani, Yasmin (2009). "Helpless Maidens and Chivalrous Knights: Afghan Women in the Canadian Press". University of Toronto Quarterly. 2. 78 (2): 728–744. doi:10.3138/utq.78.2.728. This essay interrogates representations of Afghan women in the Globe and Mail, Canada's major English-language daily and newspaper of record.
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  61. Rathbone, John Paul (3 June 2013). "The history and politics of Colombian media". Financial Times. Retrieved 6 May 2022. Luis Carlos Sarmiento, who has a $14bn fortune, according to Forbes, in 2012 bought El Tiempo, Colombia's largest-circulation daily and the newspaper of record.
  62. "Terror of the Black Hand (Part 1)". The Irish Times. 9 March 2001. Retrieved 6 May 2022. On January 19th in Bogota, the city section of El Tiempo, Colombia's newspaper of record, ran a report which sent shivers through most urban readers.
  63. Bermel, Neil (2007). Linguistic authority, language ideology, and metaphor : the Czech orthography wars. Berlin: De Gruyter. p. 164. ISBN 978-3-11-019766-2. OCLC 290492567.
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  66. Fleet, Kate; Boyar, Ebru (July 2018). Middle Eastern and North African Societies in the Interwar Period. Brill Publishers. p. 152. ISBN 978-9004367142. Their relations were destined to end abruptly shortly thereafter, but as long as they lasted the report on their marriage along with their photos were featured on the front page of al-Ahram, Egypt's newspaper of record.
  67. Perreault, Gregory (2011). "Islam is Everywhere": Coverage of Islam in the English Egyptian Press". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly: 14. Retrieved 10 October 2013. This is significant because the state-run Al Ahram is considered the paper of record in Egypt
  68. Bein, Amit (December 2017). Kemalist Turkey and the Middle East: International Relations in the Interwar Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-1107198005. ... with long excerpts of it published in columns on the front page of al-Ahram, Egypt's newspaper of record.
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  71. "Le Figaro". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 May 2015. ... one of the great newspapers of France and of the world.
  72. "Le Monde, whose print edition comes out around lunchtime, was launched at the end of Nazi occupation of France in 1944 and took on the role of France's newspaper of record alongside the more conservative Le Figaro." - France's Le Monde newspaper editor quits after power struggle with staff Archived 10 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 14 May 2014
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  82. "Gloves off in German Media Scramble". The New York Times. 13 March 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  83. Clogg, Richard (February 2018). Greek to Me: A Memoir of Academic Life. I.B. Tauris. p. 75. ISBN 978-1784539887. She had been the courageous publisher of the conservative Kathimerini, the nearest thing that Greece had to a newspaper of record.
  84. "Greece's agony: What have we become?". The Economist. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2022. Alexis Papahelas, editor of Kathimerini, Greece's newspaper of record, has coined the term "coalition of the unwilling" to describe the array of ultra-leftist and ultra-traditionalist forces bent on blocking reform.
  85. Pepper, Suzanne (June 2007). Keeping Democracy at Bay: Hong Kong and the Challenge of Chinese Political Reform. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 251. ISBN 978-0742508774. The South China Morning Post remained staunchly pro—government and surpassed expectations by becoming the newspaper of record ...
  86. Lanchester, John (2008). Family Romance: A Love Story. Penguin. p. 140. ISBN 9780143112952. The clippings are from the South China Morning Post, the paper of record in Hong Kong
  87. Drèze, Jean; Sen, Amartya (21 February 1991). The Political Economy of Hunger: Volume 1: Entitlement and Well-being. Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780191544460.
  88. Bald, Vivek; Chatterji, Miabi; Reddy, Sujani; Vimalassery, Manu (22 July 2013). The Sun Never Sets: South Asian Migrants in an Age of U.S. Power. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0814786437.
  89. Greg Barton; Paul Weller; Ihsan Yilmaz (18 December 2014). The Muslim World and Politics in Transition: Creative Contributions of the Gülen Movement. A&C Black. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-4411-5873-4. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
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  91. Schwarz, Adam; Paris, Jonathan (1999). The Politics of Post-Suharto Indonesia. Council on Foreign Relations Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780876092477. Retrieved 31 May 2015. .. Kompass, the Indonesian national newspaper of record.
  92. "Indonesia: Media Landscape". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 9 May 2022. They include the daily Kompas, the newspaper of record, with a circulation of more than half a million, and the weekly Tempo, which has built a solid reputation for investigative journalism.
  93. "Iran Media Guide". FRONTLINE - Tehran Bureau. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  94. Shahidi, Hossein (May 2010). Journalism in Iran: From Mission to Profession. Routledge. p. 44. ISBN 978-0415583169. Retrieved 8 May 2022. In the years to come, of the three main pre-Revolution dailies, Ettela'at continued its traditional position as a 'newspaper of record'.
  95. Dwan, David (April 2009). "The Irish Times, book review". The London Standard. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014. Today, the Irish Times is one of Ireland's most authoritative journals – the newspaper of record for political and intellectual elites from Mayo to Monkstown.
  96. "Israel — Hebrew- and English-Language Media Guide" (PDF). U.S. Government: Open Source Center. 16 September 2008. p. 12. Retrieved 16 May 2022. Ha'aretz, the left-of-center daily of record, ...
  97. Levey, Gregory (21 August 2008). "Pushing right-wing American politics — in Israel". Salon. Retrieved 24 January 2014. In the past few months, Haaretz, Israel's paper of record, has run a series of articles expressing misgivings about outside influence.
  98. Rosen, Brant (11 May 2010). "Alan Dershowitz and the Politics of Desperation". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 January 2014. Recent polling, alongside articles in both the New York Times and the Israeli paper of record, Ha'aretz, indicate that the American Jewish community no longer feels represented by our so-called representatives - if we ever did.
  99. Gorenberg, Gershom (September 2002). "The Thin Green Line". Mother Jones. Retrieved 24 January 2014. In late January, the declaration ran as an ad in Ha'aretz, the national paper of record...
  100. Cornia, Alessio (15 June 2022). "Italy". Digital news report 2022. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism-University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Highest Brand Trust score among Italian newspapers
  101. Cornia, Alessio (23 June 2021). "Italy". 2021 Digital News Report. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism-University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 24 June 2023. Highest Brand Trust score among Italian newspapers
  102. Martini, Lorenzo; Alex, Foti (19 June 2014). "Back to the Future of Media". Via Sarfatti 25. Bocconi University. Archived from the original on 24 January 2023.
  103. Israely, Jeff; Macleod, Scott (1 June 2003). "Editing Out Criticism". Time. Archived from the original on 27 March 2013.
  104. Grove, Lloyd (6 February 1998). "Diplomatic Affinity". Los Angeles Times.
  105. Thurman, Judith (24 June 2010). "Debenedetti Confesses!". The New Yorker.
  106. Politi, James; Massoudi, Arash (2 March 2016). "Fiat Chrysler to fold La Stampa into group behind La Repubblica". Financial Times.
  107. "La Stampa | Italian newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  108. Beezley, William H. (September 2021). Latin America 2020-2022 (54th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 266. ISBN 978-1475856439. The Daily Gleaner, established in 1834, is one of the oldest continually published newspapers in the hemisphere and is still Jamaica's newspaper of record.
  109. Surlin, Stuart H.; Soderlund, Walter C. (1990). Mass Media and the Caribbean. Taylor & Francis. p. 20. ISBN 9782881244476.
  110. Brasor, Philip (27 November 2021). "Reporter's death puts spotlight on shifting media landscape". The Japan Times. Retrieved 10 May 2022. One frequent target is the Asahi Shimbun, which to many is the liberal newspaper of record in Japan.
  111. Johnson, David T.; Zimring, Franklin E. (February 2009). The Next Frontier: National Development, Political Change, and the Death Penalty in Asia (Studies in Crime and Public Policy). Oxford University Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0195337402. Some months later, Japan's newspaper of record (the Asahi Shimbun) published a poem calling Hatoyama "the grim reaper" (shinigami).
  112. Lukner, Kerstin; Sakaki, Alexandra (December 2019). Trust and Mistrust in Contemporary Japanese Politics (1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0367892753. ..Asahi Shimbun, Japan's second largest newspaper and the 'newspaper of record' ..
  113. "Mainichi shimbun | Japanese newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2018. It is usually ranked second to Asahi shimbun as regards national and international prestige, but it appears with its rival on most experts' lists of the world's greatest newspapers.
  114. Cho, Hiromi; Lacy, Stephen (2002). "Competition for Circulation Among Japanese National and Local Daily Newspapers". Journal of Media Economics. 15 (2): 73–89. doi:10.1207/S15327736ME1502_1. S2CID 153633875. The Yomiuri Shimbun is considered by many to be Japan's newspaper of record, particularly as it is the newspaper that most closely reflects the position of the Japanese government (Luther, 2002).
  115. Saccani, Rico. Made in Italy - The Story of an American Conductor. First Creative. p. 155. ASIN B004FV5BT0. The Yomiuri had been founded twenty-five years earlier, when the President of the Yomiuri Shinbun, Japan's newspaper of record, wanted to celebrate the paper's anniversary with a symphony concert for its employees.
  116. "Historical Perspective". Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2005.
  117. Benesch, Susan (21 March 2013). "The Kenyan Elections: Peace Happened". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2013. Kenya's newspaper of record, the Daily Nation, published a banner headline "Never Again" over an editorial with a sharp, eloquent warning
  118. "U.S. AND P.L.O. SAID TO BE CLOSE TO ACCORD ON A GUERRILLA PULLOUT". The New York Times. 6 August 1982. Retrieved 6 May 2022. An Nahar, the newspaper of record for the entire Arab world, which was printed every day during the 1975-76 civil war, ground to a halt Wednesday on its 50th anniversary after an Israeli phosphorous [sic] shell sailed into the fourth floor of its building.
  119. Smith, William Edgett (16 August 1982). "Middle East: Beirut Goes Up in Flames". Time. Retrieved 6 May 2022. Countless buildings in the Hamra area were badly damaged, including the Information Ministry and the headquarters of An Nahar, the newspaper of record for the entire Arab world.
  120. Christopher, H. Sterling (2009). "A–C". Encyclopedia of Journalism. Vol. 1. SAGE Publishing. p. 108. ISBN 978-0761929574.
  121. Corfield, Justin (2010). Historical Dictionary of Singapore. Scarecrow Press. p. 255. ISBN 978-0810871847. Straits Times (and New Straits Times): ... it has emerged as a newspaper of record
  122. Waterfield, Bruno (4 March 2010). "Geert Wilders on course to be next Dutch prime minister". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
  123. Lowe, Kristine (8 July 2008). "Online Journalism Scandinavia: Norway's Aftenposten to webcast editorial meetings". Editors Blog.
  124. Walsh, Declan (July 2021). The Nine Lives of Pakistan: Dispatches from a Divided Nation. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. xxi. ISBN 978-1408868492. Cyril Almeida, a senior journalist with Dawn, Pakistan's newspaper of record, who, furious at the news of my expulsion.
  125. Rashid, Ahmed (4 July 2018). "The assault on Pakistan media ahead of vote". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2020. Dawn is the unofficial newspaper of record - indispensable for businessmen, diplomats and military officers alike - and known for its influential editorials that affect Pakistan's image worldwide.
  126. Nugent, Ciara; Perrigo, Billy (2 June 2020). "'The Edge of an Abyss.' How the World's Newspapers Are Responding as the U.S. Descends Into Chaos". Time. Retrieved 9 May 2022. In Pakistan, which has a longstanding, if strained, military alliance with the U.S., the country's newspaper of record, Dawn, ran an editorial under the headline "Trump on the Warpath."
  127. Rockwell, Rick J.; Janus, Noreene (2003). Media Power in Central America. University of Illinois Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0252028021.
  128. Center for Public Integrity (2004). The Corruption Notebooks: 25 Investigative Journalists Report on Abuses of Power in Their Home Country. p. 237. ISBN 978-1882583195. After the 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama , and the ouster of General Manuel Noriega , La Prensa became the country's newspaper of record
  129. "Philippine Daily Inquirer". Library of Congress. Retrieved 7 May 2022. The Philippine Daily Inquirer, popularly known as the Inquirer, is an English-language newspaper in the Philippines. Founded in 1985, it is often regarded as the Philippines' newspaper of record.
  130. "Actor-politicians and understanding the vote of the poor". The Manila Times. 6 July 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  131. Claudio, Leloy. "Reform the country's 'paper of record". GMA News. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  132. Publishing, Britannica Educational (1 June 2013). Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 131. ISBN 9781615309917.
  133. Örnebring, Henrik (November 2017). Newsworkers: A Comparative European Perspective. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 51. ISBN 978-1501338229. The creation of what is arguably the national newspaper of record, Gazeta Wyborcza, stands as an example of ....
  134. Szczerbiak, Aleks (2020). "1 Introduction". Politicising the Communist Past: The Politics of Truth Revelation in Post-Communist Poland. Routledge. ISBN 978-0367433581. ...Rzeczpospolita daily newspaper, the main Polish newspaper of record...
  135. Wheeler, Douglas L.; Opello, Walter C. Jr. (2010). Historical Dictionary of Portugal (3rd ed.). The Scarecrow Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0810860889. The major Lisbon newspapers are Didrio de Noticias (daily and newspaper of record) ....
  136. Eaman, Ross (2009). The A to Z of Journalism. The Scarecrow Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0810871540. The most prestigious newspaper for print journalists is the Diario de noticias, Portugal's "newspaper of record," followed by the more popular Jornal de noticias and the staunchly independent Publico.
  137. Cavanagh, Allison; Steel, John (November 2019). Letters to the Editor: Comparative and Historical Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 17. ISBN 978-3030264796. Our case study of a Portuguese newspaper of record, Público, ....
  138. Carter, Cynthia; Steiner, Linda; McLaughlin, Lisa (December 2013). The Routledge Companion to Media & Gender. Routledge. p. 435. ISBN 978-0415527699. The daily Público is Portugal's newspaper of record, with typical news and section divides.
  139. Fishman, Robert M. (April 2019). Democratic Practice: Origins of the Iberian Divide in Political Inclusion. Oxford University Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-0190912888. .... with Portuguese journalists included José Manuel Fernandes, at the time director of Portugal's newspaper of record, Publico, Lisbon.
  140. "Danas". Voxeurop. 18 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  141. Christopher, H. Sterling (2009). "A–C". Encyclopedia of Journalism. Vol. 1. SAGE Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 978-0761929574.
  142. Jones, Adam (1998). "From Rightist to 'Brightest'? The Strange Tale of South Africa's Citizen". Journal of Southern African Studies. 24 (2): 325–45. Bibcode:1998JSAfS..24..325J. doi:10.1080/03057079808708579. JSTOR 2637530. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  143. Youm, Kyu Ho; Kwak, Nojin (August 2018). "3". Korean Communication, Media, and Culture: An Annotated Bibliography (1st ed.). Lexington Books. p. 71. ISBN 978-1498583329. The prominent "big three" publications — Chosun Ilbo, Dong-A Ilbo, and Joongang Ilbo — are newspapers of record with a combined three million subscribers.
  144. Sklair, Leslie (May 2022). The Anthropocene in Global Media: Neutralizing the risk. Routledge. p. 175. ISBN 978-0367641993. ABC, the third 'newspaper of record' in Spain ...
  145. McCullough, Colin; Wilson, Nathan (15 September 2014). Violence, Memory, and History: Western Perceptions of Kristallnacht. Routledge. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-134-75777-0. As of July 1936, ABC in Madrid, a conservative newspaper of record and the largest Spanish daily, was seized by the Popular Front
  146. Magnussen, Anne (2020). Spanish Comics: Historical and Cultural Perspectives. Berghahn. p. 63. ISBN 9781789209976. ABC, the newspaper of record in Franco's Spain
  147. Sklair, Leslie (May 2022). The Anthropocene in Global Media: Neutralizing the risk. Routledge. p. 174. ISBN 978-0367641993. Coverage in El Mundo, the second 'newspaper of record' in Spain (mainly in 2016) begins with two well-researched ...
  148. Sachsman, David B; Myer Valenti, JoAnn (June 2022). Routledge Handbook of Environmental Journalism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1032336442. For this chapter, we analyzed the environmental information published by the newspaper of record in Spain, El País.
  149. Enjuto-Rangel, Cecilia; Faber, Sebastiaan; García-Caro, Pedro; Newcomb, Robert Patrick (December 2019). Transatlantic Studies: Latin America, Iberia, and Africa. Liverpool University Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-1789620252. A few days later, a Spanish newspaper of record, El País, published an interview ...
  150. "Immigrants outraged over Sweden's racial profiling". The Standard. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013. Dagens Nyheter, Sweden's paper of record.
  151. "Neue Zürcher Zeitung". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  152. Schiller-Merkens, Simone; Balsiger, Philip (October 2019). The Contested Moralities of Markets. Emerald Group Publishing. ISBN 978-1787691209. In addition, we consulted all 302 newspaper articles in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung (the newspaper of record in the German-speaking part of Switzerland), and Le Temps (the newspaper of record in the German-speaking part of Switzerland), that covered...
  153. The Quality of the Media Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, main findings, Research Department on Public Opinion and Society (FÖG) of the University of Zurich, 2012.
  154. Breiner, Laurence (November 2006). "Laureate of nowhere". Caribbean Review of Books. 10. Retrieved 10 May 2022. ..that although the Guardian is the nation's [Trinidad and Tobago] newspaper of record...
  155. Beezley, William H. (September 2021). Latin America 2020-2022 (54th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 394. ISBN 978-1475856439. The [Trinidad and Togabo] Guardian, founded in 1917, is the country's newspaper of record.
  156. "The UK's 'other paper of record'". BBC News. 19 January 2004. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
  157. Toolan, Michael J. (2018). The Language of Inequality in the News: A Discourse Analytic Approach. Cambridge, United Kingdom. p. 11. ISBN 9781108474337.
  158. "The New York Times". Encyclopædia Britannica. ... long the newspaper of record in the United States and one of the world's great newspapers.
  159. Christopher, H. Sterling (2009). Encyclopedia of Journalism. SAGE Publishing. p. 1020. ISBN 978-0761929574. The New York Times is widely recognised as the country's newspaper of record.
  160. Doctor, Ken (12 March 2015). "On The Washington Post and the 'newspaper of record' epithet". Politico. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  161. Bohlen, Celestine (23 December 1996). "Vatican Newspaper of Record Best Read for What It Doesn't Record". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 14 November 2020.
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