Muhammad Jamalul Alam II

Muhammad Jamalul Alam II (Jawi: محمد جمال العالم٢; Malay: Muhammad Jamalul Alam II ibni Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin; 1889 – September 11, 1924) was the 26th Sultan of Brunei from 10 May 1906 until his death in 1924.[1]

Muhammad Jamalul Alam II
26th Sultan of Brunei
Reign10 May 1906 – 11 September 1924
SuccessorAhmad Tajuddin
BornMuhammad Jamalul Alam II ibni Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
Istana Kampong Ayer, Bandar Brunei, Brunei
Died11 September 1924 (aged 35)
Istana Majlis, Bandar Brunei, Brunei
Kubah Makam Diraja, Bandar Brunei, Brunei
Siti Fatimah
(died 1947)

(m. 1910)
IssuePrince Bongsu
Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin
Prince Anum
Prince Laila Gambar
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III
Prince Bagol
Princess Hajah Besar
Princess Tengah
Princess Damit
Princess Hajah Tinggal
Sultan Sir Muhammad Jamalul Alam II ibni Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
FatherHashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
MotherSiti Fatimah

Early life

Born in 1889 at Istana Kampong Ayer, Bandar Brunei, he was the eldest surviving son of Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin. Before he became sultan, he was known as Pengiran Muda Bongsu Muhammad Jamalul Alam.[2]


Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II with the State Dignitaries on a state ceremony in 1920s

He ascended to the throne at the age of 17 after the death of his father in May 1906.[3] It is notable that he also became the first Sultan of Brunei to speak English.[4] The responsibility of the Sultan was in the hands of the Majlis Pemangku Raja (Council of Regency).[5] During his reign, he aimed to encourage new developments in agriculture, medicine, and education.[6] Jamalul Alam oversaw several major events such as the first discovery of crude oil was first discovered in the country but not before major oil strikes were made in Seria in 1927.[7] Moreover, his reign was in charge of Brunei during its most impoverished state.[8]

In 1909, he relocated his residence on land,[9] and later encouraged Chinese to settle in Brunei for commercial skills.[10] It was only on 15 May 1918 that he was crowned as sultan.[11] Jamalul Alam was convinced by the bendahara (vizier) to signed a petition to change 5 points to the 1905 treaty.[12] It was also during his reign that Islamic Law was officially introduced in the country.[6] This was known as Mohammedan Laws Enactment.[13] It was introduced in 1912, replacing the Kanun Brunei.[14] Then in 1913, the Marriage and Divorce Act was introduced.[13]

With the introduction of the Residential System in Brunei in 1906, all the executive power, except in matters of religion and tradition, was transferred from the Sultan to the Resident.[15] In 1922, he moved from Istana Kampong Ayer to Istana Majlis.[16] That same year, a band of traditional musicians was sent to Singapore as attendants to the Sultan.[17]

He also encouraged learning Islam and built a mosque despite the country's lack of revenue.[6] During World War II, the mosque was destroyed due to the intense shelling and fighting within Brunei Town.[18]


An outbreak of malaria claimed his life as well as three members of his family on 11 September 1924, aged 35.[19] He was succeeded by his eldest son, Pengiran Muda Besar Ahmad Tajuddin.[20] He was buried at the Royal Mausoleum at Jalan Tutong.[21]

Personal life

Princess Besar in 1960.


He was married to Queen Siti Fatimah.[22]



  • Muhammad Jamalul Alam Mosque, named after him and the early Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam I.[23]
  • Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam Middle School (SMJA), formerly Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam Malay Middle School.[24]



  1. Saunders, Graham (5 November 2013). A History of Brunei. Routledge. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-136-87394-2.
  2. "Sultans of Brunei Series II - Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II". Sultans of Brunei Series II - Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  3. Kershaw, Roger (4 January 2002). Monarchy in South East Asia: The Faces of Tradition in Transition. Routledge. pp. xvii. ISBN 978-1-134-66707-9.
  4. Bolton, Kingsley; Botha, Werner; Kirkpatrick, Andy (6 October 2020). The Handbook of Asian Englishes. John Wiley & Sons. p. 401. ISBN 978-1-118-79180-6.
  5. Haller-Trost, R. (1994). The Brunei-Malaysia Dispute Over Territorial and Maritime Claims in International Law. IBRU. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-897643-07-5.
  6. Melton, J. Gordon (15 January 2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History [4 Volumes]: 5,000 Years of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. p. 1618. ISBN 978-1-61069-026-3.
  7. World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. 2007. p. 1199. ISBN 978-0-7614-7642-9.
  8. Hussainmiya, Bachamiya Abdul (2000). The Brunei Constitution of 1959: An Inside History. Brunei Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-99917-32-04-6.
  9. Indonesia, Malaysia & Singapore Handbook. Trade & Trade & Travel Publications ; New York, NY. 1996. p. 569. ISBN 978-0-8442-8886-4.
  10. Thumboo, Edwin (1996). Cultures in ASEAN and the 21st Century. UniPress, Centre. p. 35. ISBN 978-981-00-8174-4.
  11. The Brunei Museum Journal. The Museum. 1982. p. 85.
  12. Vienne, Marie-Sybille de (9 March 2015). Brunei: From the Age of Commerce to the 21st Century. NUS Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-9971-69-818-8.
  13. "Islamic Family Law » Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam)". Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  14. Saadiah, Hajah (2006). "PENTADBIRAN UNDANG-UNDANG ISLAM DI NEGARA BRUNEI DARUSSALAM PADA ZAMAN BRITISH" (PDF). Akedemi Pengajian Brunei, Universiti Brunei Darussalam. p. 2.
  15. Horton, A. V. M. (1986). "British Administration in Brunei 1906-1959". Modern Asian Studies. 20 (2): 353–374. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00000871. ISSN 0026-749X. JSTOR 312580. S2CID 144185859.
  16. "Pusat Sejarah Brunei - Sultan - Sultan Brunei". Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  17. Brisbane, Katherine; Chaturvedi, Ravi; Majumdar, Ramendu; Pong, Chua Soo; Tanokura, Minoru (16 August 2005). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: Volume 5: Asia/Pacific. Routledge. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-134-92978-8.
  18. al-Sufri (Haji), Awang Mohd Jamil (2002). Survival of Brunei: A Historical Perspective. Brunei History Centre, Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports. p. 62. ISBN 978-99917-34-18-7.
  19. Kumarasingham, H. (18 July 2020). Viceregalism: The Crown as Head of State in Political Crises in the Postwar Commonwealth. Springer Nature. p. 315. ISBN 978-3-030-46283-3.
  20. Vienne, Marie-Sybille de (9 March 2015). Brunei: From the Age of Commerce to the 21st Century. NUS Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-9971-69-818-8.
  21. Pusaka: berita Jabatan Pusat Sejarah, Kementerian Kebudayaan, Belia dan Sukan Negara Brunei Darussalam (in Malay). Jabatan Pusat Sejarah, Kementerian Kebudayaan, Belia dan Sukan Negara Brunei Darussalam. 2014. p. 11.
  22. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1994. p. 55.
  23. "Berita - Masjid Jamalul Alam semarakkan Sambutan Hari..." Retrieved 9 October 2022.
  24. Brunei (1976). Annual Report. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 120.
  25. Ujan, Gira (2008). Pengantar sejarah kesusasteraan klasik Melayu Brunei (in Malay). Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei, Kementerian Kebudayaan, Belia dan Sukan. p. 93. ISBN 978-99917-0-588-0.
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