Mossman, Queensland

Mossman is a rural town and locality in the Shire of Douglas, Queensland, Australia.[2][3] It is the administrative centre for the Douglas Shire Council[4] In the 2016 census, the locality of Mossman had a population of 1,937 people.[1]

Mossman
Queensland
From left to right; Mossman District Hospital, Mossman Gorge
National Bank of Australia, Exchange Hotel
Mossman
Coordinates16.4604°S 145.3736°E / -16.4604; 145.3736 (Mossman (town centre))
Population1,937 (2016 census)[1]
 • Density160.1/km2 (414.6/sq mi)
Postcode(s)4873
Elevation12 m (39 ft)
Area12.1 km2 (4.7 sq mi)
Time zoneAEST (UTC+10:00)
Location
LGA(s)Shire of Douglas
CountySolander
State electorate(s)Cook
Federal division(s)Leichhardt
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
27.9 °C
82 °F
20.6 °C
69 °F
2,013.2 mm
79.3 in
Localities around Mossman:
Syndicate Miallo Newell
Finlayvale Mossman Bonnie Doon
Mossman Gorge Shannonvale Shannonvale

Geography

Mosman Trams

Mossman in Far North Queensland on the Mossman River.[5]

Mossman is located on the Captain Cook Highway 75 kilometres (47 mi) north of the regional city of Cairns, and 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) east of the Mount Carbine Tableland. The Mossman River flows through the locality from west (Finlayvale / Mossman Gorge) to east (Newell / Bonnie Doon).[5]

Mossman Gorge, a popular attraction within Daintree National Park and the broader Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage area is located west of town.

Sugar cane farming is an important aspect of the local economy, with Mossman Central Mill, the only sugar mill in the district (16.4586°S 145.3786°E / -16.4586; 145.3786 (Mossman Sugar Mill)), processing the cane before sending it to Cairns for shipping domestically and internationally. There is a network of cane tramways through Mossman and nearby sugarcane growing areas to deliver the harvested sugarcane to the mill.[5]

History

The traditional language area of Kuka-Dyangan (also known as Djangun, Gugu Djangun and Kuka Djangun) includes landscape within the local government boundaries of the Douglas Shire and Cook Shire.[6]

Kuku Yalanji (also known as Gugu Yalanji, Kuku Yalaja, and Kuku Yelandji) is an Australian Aboriginal language of the Mossman and Daintree areas of North Queensland. The language region includes areas within the local government area of Shire of Douglas and Shire of Cook, particularly the localities of Mossman, Daintree, Bloomfield River, China Camp, Maytown, Palmer, Cape Tribulation and Wujal Wujal.[7]

Yalanji (also known as Kuku Yalanji, Kuku Yalaja, Kuku Yelandji, and Gugu Yalanji) is an Australian Aboriginal language of Far North Queensland. The traditional language region is Mossman River in the south to the Annan River in the north, bordered by the Pacific Ocean in the east and extending inland to west of Mount Mulgrave. This includes the local government boundaries of the Shire of Douglas, the Shire of Cook and the Aboriginal Shire of Wujal Wujal and the towns and localities of Cooktown, Mossman, Daintree, Cape Tribulation and Wujal Wujal. It includes the head of the Palmer River, the Bloomfield River, China Camp, Maytown, and Palmerville.[8]

The district was originally known as Mossman River after the river which flows through it. The Mossman River, in turn, was named by the explorer George Dalrymple on 6 December 1873 after Hugh Mosman who discovered gold in Charters Towers. Dalrymple wrote "I named this river the Mossman River, after Mossman, an explorer and mining man, member of a very prominent mining family". The town was also known for a brief time as Hartsville after Daniel Hart, an early settler. Later the name was changed to Mossman.[9][10][11]

The Mossman - Port Douglas parish of the Roman Catholic Vicariate Apostolic of Queensland (now the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cairns) was established in 1877.[12]

Mossman River Post Office opened by 1895 (a receiving office had been open from 1883) and was renamed Mossman in 1899.[13]

Mossman Central Sugar Mill commenced crushing on 23 August 1897.[14]

Mossman River State School opened on 31 January 1898 under head teacher Thomas Garland. It was renamed Mossman State School in 1910. A secondary department was opened on 1 February 1955, which operated until a separate Mossman State High School opened on 30 January 1973.[15][16]

The establishment and subsequent growth of Cairns and the completion of the Cairns Railway up through the Barron Gorge in 1891 gave a more direct gateway to the hinterland but, at this period, it was found that the Mossman district contained suitable land for sugar-growing. The establishment of the sugar mill at Mossman formed the nucleus of the town, which grew at the expense of Port Douglas.

Sugar cane tram travelling through Mossman, Queensland, 1900

The district was served by two separate 2-foot (610 mm) gauge tramway systems.[17] Both at one time handled passengers and general goods, as well as sugar cane. Mossman district owes its present prosperity to these tramways which pioneered the first reasonable transport in the neighbourhood, for trafficable roads followed later.

Remains of the 1906 Catholic church after the 1911 cyclone

In June 1905, tenders were called to erect a Catholic church in Mossman.[18] On Sunday 21 January 1906, St Augustine's Catholic church was consecrated by Bishop James Murray in the presence of several hundred spectators.[19]

On Thursday 16 March 1911, a cyclone hit Mossman and Port Douglas doing considerable damage. In Mossman, over 80 people were homeless and the Catholic and Anglican churches were destroyed.[20][21][22]

The 1934 St Augustine's combined Catholic church and school building (centre) and the Sisters of Mercy convent (right). The school now occupies both buildings as the convent has closed and a new church has been built.

On Sunday 11 February 1912, a new St Augustine's Catholic Church was opened by Bishop Murray.[23] It was in Junction Road (approx 16.4584°S 145.3740°E / -16.4584; 145.3740 (St Augustine's Catholic Church (former site))), opposite the Mossman Butchery Company (established in 1927 at 3 Junction Road, 16.4586°S 145.3743°E / -16.4586; 145.3743 (Mossman Butchering Company)).[24][25][26] As the population of Mossman grew, there was a desire to build a Catholic school, but the Junction Road site did not have the space, so a new site was purchased in Grogan Street. On Sunday 29 April 1934, Bishop John Heavey officially opened the new St Augustine's complex at Grogan Street, consisting of a presbytery, a combined church and school building, and a convent. The architect was Vibert McKirdy Brown.[27][28] St Augustine's Catholic School opened with 70 students, with the initial teachers being Sisters Mary Agnes, Gabriel, Cecelia and Pius of the Sisters of Mercy.[29] On 30 January 1977, a new hexagonal-shaped St Augustine's church opened on the Grogan Street site with the former church being converted into school classrooms.[29][24]

During World War II, Mossman was attacked in a Japanese air raid on 31 July 1942. A single flying boat dropped a bomb that fell near a house and injured a child.[30]

Mossman State High School opened on 30 January 1973.[31][32]

Mossman Library opened in 1977.[33]

At the 2006 census, the town of Mossman had a population of 1,740.[34]

Prior to 2008, Mossman was the seat of the Shire of Douglas. In 2008, the Shire of Douglas was amalgamated into the Cairns Region, which was administered from both Cairns and Mossman. In 2014, the Shire of Douglas was de-amalgamated from Cairns Region and reinstated as Shire of Douglas.

In the 2016 census, the locality of Mossman had a population of 1,937 people.[1]

Heritage listings

The heritage protected Exchange Hotel (left) in 1940

Mossman has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

  • Johnston Road: Mossman District Hospital[35]
  • 2 Front Street: Exchange Hotel (formerly Daintree Inn)[36]
  • 3 Foxton Avenue: St David's Anglican Church[11]
  • 8–14 Mill Street: Mossman Shire Hall and Douglas Shire Council Chambers[37]
  • 11 Mill Street: National Bank of Australasia Building[38]

Mossman Central Mill

Mossman Central Mill, 1920s

Mossman Central Mill Company Limited opened in 1894 as co-operative sugar mill owned by local sugarcane farmers. The first sugarcane was crushed on 23 August 1897, the sugarcane coming from Bonnie Doon.[14] Annie Rose fed the first sugarcane into the mill, with the mill producing its first sugar after crushing 27,905 tonnes (30,760 tons) of cane for the initial season.[39][40]

In 1906, Mossman Mill became the first Queensland mill to crush over 100,000 tonnes (98,000 long tons; 110,000 short tons) of cane. That season lasted just under 8 months, extending from June 1906 to late January 1907.[40]

Initially, sugar was transported by sea from Port Douglas, but later the sugar was taken by road to the bulk sugar terminal in Cairns.[40]

Louis John Frederick Prince (General Manager) pioneered the use of computers for cane payment accounting and, in 1971, Mossman purchased the first process control computer used in the world sugar industry.[40]

Education

Mossman State School is a government primary (Prep-6) school for boys and girls at 30-34 Front Street (16.4617°S 145.3743°E / -16.4617; 145.3743 (Mossman State School)).[41][42] In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 213 students with 16 teachers (13 full-time equivalent) and 22 non-teaching staff (13 full-time equivalent).[43]

Mossman State High School is a government secondary (7-12) school for boys and girls at 46-62 Front Street (16.4634°S 145.3735°E / -16.4634; 145.3735 (Mossman State High School)).[41][44] In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 611 students with 62 teachers (56 full-time equivalent) and 41 non-teaching staff (31 full-time equivalent).[43] It includes a special education program.[45]

St Augustine's School is a Catholic primary (Prep-6) school for boys and girls at Grogan Street (16.4617°S 145.3688°E / -16.4617; 145.3688 (St Augustine's School)).[41][46] In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 217 students with 16 teachers (14 full-time equivalent) and 13 non-teaching staff (6 full-time equivalent).[43]

The Tropical North Steiner School has been approved to open in 2022; it will offer Prep to Year 3 initially.[47]

Amenities

Douglas Shire Council operates Mossman Library at 14 Mill Street (16.4589°S 145.3750°E / -16.4589; 145.3750 (Mossman public library)).[48]

The Mossman branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 28 Front Street (16.4614°S 145.3738°E / -16.4614; 145.3738 (CWA Hall)).[49]

There are a number of churches in Mossman, including:

Sport

Mossman has a number of sporting clubs such as the Mossman Sharks rugby league club, Coral Coast Judo Club,[55] Douglas United Dragons Football (Soccer) Club, A Basketball League runs out of the high school Indoor Sport Centre. There is also the Port Douglas Crocs AFL club, Mossman Gymnastics, Port Douglas and Mossman Rugby Union club, and Lady Dragons Indigenous Rugby League Football Club.

See also

  • List of sugar mills in Queensland
  • List of tramways in Queensland

References

  1. Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Mossman (SSC)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  2. "Mossman – town in Shire of Douglas (entry 22939)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  3. "Mossman – locality in Shire of Douglas (entry 48776)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  4. "Contact the Douglas Shire Council". Douglas Shire Council. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  5. "Queensland Globe". State of Queensland. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  6. This Wikipedia article incorporates CC-BY-4.0 licensed text from: "Indigenous languages map of Queensland". State Library of Queensland. State Library of Queensland. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  7. This Wikipedia article incorporates CC-BY-4.0 licensed text from: "Kuku Yalanji". Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages map. State Library of Queensland. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  8. This Wikipedia article incorporates CC-BY-4.0 licensed text from: "Yalanji". Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages map. State Library of Queensland. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  9. Hodes, Jeremy (18 March 2011). "Far North Queensland Place names mo – my". Queensland History. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  10. "NOMENCLATURE OF QUEENSLAND.—200". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane: National Library of Australia. 21 May 1936. p. 14. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  11. "St David's Anglican Church and Raintrees (Samanea saman) (entry 602760)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  12. "Mossman-Port Douglas Parish". Roman Catholic Diocese of Cairns. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  13. Phoenix Auctions History. "Post Office List". Phoenix Auctions. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  14. "Brief History Of Mossman, Far North Queensland". Douglas Shire Historical Society. Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  15. "Agency ID 5516, Mossman State School". Queensland State Archives.
  16. Queensland Family History Society (2010), Queensland schools past and present (Version 1.01 ed.), Queensland Family History Society, ISBN 978-1-921171-26-0
  17. The Cane Tramways of Mossman Singleton, C.C. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, March 1956 pp25-32
  18. "Advertising". Morning Post (Cairns). Vol. 19, no. 152. Queensland, Australia. 28 June 1905. p. 2. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022 via National Library of Australia.
  19. "Advertising". Morning Post (Cairns). Vol. 19, no. 152. Queensland, Australia. 28 June 1905. p. 2. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022 via National Library of Australia.
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  23. "Bishop Murray's Movements". Cairns Post. Vol. XXVI, no. 1236. Queensland, Australia. 16 February 1912. p. 2. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022 via National Library of Australia.
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  25. "MOSSMAN NOTES". Cairns Post. No. 16, 435. Queensland, Australia. 13 November 1954. p. 6. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022 via National Library of Australia.
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  30. Gillison, Douglas (1962). History of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 3 – Air. Volume I – Royal Australian Air Force, 1939–1942. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 563. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
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  36. "Daintree Inn/Former Exchange Hotel (entry 602803)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  37. "Mossman Shire Hall and Douglas Shire Council Chambers (former) (entry 602758)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
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  47. "North Steiner School". North Steiner School. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  48. "Mossman Library". Public Libraries Connect. State Library of Queensland. 10 July 2015. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  49. "Branch Locations". Queensland Country Women's Association. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  50. "St David's Anglican Church". Churches Australia. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  51. "Anglican Parish of Mossman/Port Douglas". Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  52. "Mossman Uniting Church". Churches Australia. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  53. "Mosman Uniting Church". Mosman Uniting Church. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  54. "Mossman Seventh-Day Adventist Church". Churches Australia. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  55. "Coral Coast Judo Club Inc". www.coralcoastjudo.org. Archived from the original on 28 June 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  • "Mossman". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland.
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