Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology (Indonesian: Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi, abbreviated Kemdikbudristek) is a government ministry of the Indonesian government responsible for education, cultural, research and technology affairs. Its formation resulted from the merger of the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Research and Technology in April 2021, under the government of President Joko Widodo.

Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology
Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi
Seal of Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology
Flag of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology

Office of the Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology
Ministry overview
Formed19 August 1945 (1945-08-19) as Department of Teaching
28 April 2021 (2021-04-28) as its current form
Preceding agencies
  • Ministry of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency
  • Ministry of Education and Culture
JurisdictionGovernment of Indonesia
Ministry executive
  • Nadiem Makarim, Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology
Websitekemdikbud.go.id

History

Formation

On 30 March 2021, President Joko Widodo submitted a Presidential Letter to People's Representative Council, which contained a proposal for major changes in the national cabinet, one of which was the merger of the Ministry of Research and Technology and the Ministry of Education and Culture into one ministry named Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology. The National Research and Innovation Agency (Indonesian: Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional, abbreviated BRIN) were to be separated as a new non-ministerial agency.[1]

On 9 April 2021, People's Representative Council approved the proposal, along with the creation of the new Ministry of Investment.[2] On 13 April 2021, Ali Mochtar Ngabalin, spokesperson for and specialist of the Presidential Staff Office, announced that a second reshuffle of the Onward Indonesia Cabinet will take place on second week of April 2021.[3] The reshuffle was finally announced at 28 April 2021. It was the first of its kind, because not only were the ministers reshuffled, but cabinet institutions were also disbanded mid-term. In this reshuffle, Nadiem Makarim was appointed as the first Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology, according to the Presidential Decision No. 72/P/2021.[4][5] On the same day, the President formally recognized the ministry as one of the 34 Indonesian government ministries.[6]

On 30 July 2021, President Widodo issued the permanent constituting document of the ministry, Presidential Decree No. 62/2021.[7] The decree itself backdated to 15 July 2021.[8]

Reception

General secretary of the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle Hasto Kristiyanto praised the move. With the merger, he hoped that the now independent BRIN would play an important role in accelerating the growth of research in Indonesia.[9] The Deputy Chief of Commission X in the People's Representative Council, Hetifah Syaifudian of Golkar, also praised the move. She commented that such fusion might helping the research synergy between academia and research agencies.[10]

Criticism

Deputy chief of the Prosperous Justice Party fraction in the People's Representative Council Mulyanto from the opposition criticized the decision taken by government and said that the change is not effective. He claimed that government not learned from the previous experience when combining Ministry of Research and Technology with General Directorate of Higher Education to form Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education. While the ministry was successfully formed, Mulyanto claimed that the ministry was not effective when combined to manage research and technology development and educational affairs. He also cited that in previous cabinet, the administrative migration and adaptation processes in a new ministry required at least three years. Not only that, the presence of the non-ministerial National Research and Innovation Agency to coordinate and facilitate state research and development, would result in an overlap with some of the tasks of the ministry.[11]

The governing coalition also voiced criticisms. While the Chief of Commission X in the People's Representative Council, Syaiful Huda of the National Awakening Party praised the move, he criticized the timing of the formation of the new ministry, happening in the middle of the second term of the ruling government, when normally such a major change would have been done earlier. Citing the issue of lengthy administrative migration and adaptation processes, Huda urged that the transitional process must be done as soon as possible, in a maximum time of one year after the formation of the new ministry, stressing the importance of research during the COVID-19 pandemic. He also commented that such a merger will put heavy load to the new ministry because both of preceding ministries had very different focuses.[12][10]

In the aftermath of the release of the Presidential Decree No. 62/2021, the formation of the General Directorate of Higher Education, Research, and Technology was also criticized by officials of the ministry. An official from the Quality Control Department, Johannes Gunawan, criticized the government for not learning from failures of the past, citing past mismanagement of expert personnel.[13]

2022 Curriculum Reform

In 2022, the ministry-initiated curriculum policy options as part of efforts to mitigate learning loss and as a form of learning recovery. The ministry provides three options for educational units to implement a curriculum based on the National Education Standards that is in accordance with the learning needs and context of each educational unit. The three options are as follows:[14]

  • using the 2013 Curriculum completely
  • using the Emergency Curriculum
  • using the Independence Curriculum

The ministry launched Independence Curriculum (Indonesian: Kurikulum Merdeka) as part of learning activities recovery process. The curriculum designed to be more flexible, focused on essential material, and develop student's characters and competence. The main characteristics of this curriculum that support learning recovery are:[15]

  • Project-based learning for soft skills and character development according to the profile of Pancasila students
  • Focus on essential material so that there is sufficient time for in-depth study of basic competencies such as literacy and numeracy.
  • Flexibility for teachers to carry out differentiated learning according to the abilities of students and make adjustments to local contexts and content.

Organizational structure

Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology
Incumbent
Nadiem Makarim
since 28 April 2021
AppointerPresident of Indonesia
Inaugural holderNadiem Makarim
Formation28 April 2021
First holderNadiem Makarim

The minister of education, culture, research, and technology, appointed by the president at his own discretion, is by Presidential Decree No. 62 of 2021. The head of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology, under and responsible to the president. The decree also created the Office of Deputy Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology, though it is currently vacant.[16][17]

Building of the Directorate General of Higher Education, Research, and Technology

Initially, the organizational structure of the ministry was a direct merger of the structures of the two preceding cabinet ministries.[18] However, the structure was deemed too large and ineffective.

On 23 August 2021, the structure of the Ministry was expanded by Ministerial Decree No. 28/2021 into:[19]

  • Office of the Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology
  • Office of the Deputy Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology
  • Special Advisor on Institutional and Public Relationship
  • Special Advisor on Innovation
  • Special Advisor on Regulation
  • Special Advisor on Talent Management
  • Special Advisor on Cultural Heritage
  • Office of Secretariat General
    • Bureau of Planning
    • Bureau of Finance and State Properties Management Affairs
    • Bureau of Human Resources Affairs
    • Bureau of Organization and Governance Affairs
    • Bureau of Law Affairs
    • Bureau of Cooperation and Public Relation
    • Bureau of General Affairs and Procurement
  • Directorate General of Teachers and Education Staff/Manpower
    • Directorate General of Teachers and Education Staff/Manpower Secretariat
    • Directorate of Teacher Professional Education
    • Directorate of Headmasters, School Boards, and Education Staffs
    • Directorate of Elementary Education Teachers
    • Directorate of Middle Education and Special Education Teachers
    • Technical Implementation Units
      • Bureau for Teachers Development and Empowerment of North Sumatera Province
      • Bureau for Teachers Development and Empowerment of West Java Province
      • Bureau for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Central Java Province
      • Bureau for Teachers Development and Empowerment of East Java Province
      • Bureau for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Yogyakarta Province
      • Bureau for Teachers Development and Empowerment of South Sulawesi Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Aceh Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of West Sumatera Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Riau Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Jambi Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Lampung Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Banten Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Bali Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of West Nusa Tenggara Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of East Nusa Tenggara Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of West Kalimantan Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of East Kalimantan Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of South Kalimantan Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Central Kalimantan Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of North Sulawesi Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Southeast Sulawesi Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Central Sulawesi Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Maluku Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Papua Province
      • A-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of West Papua Province
      • B-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Riau Islands Province
      • B-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Bangka Belitung Islands Province
      • B-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of West Papua Province
      • B-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of North Kalimantan Province
      • B-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of West Sulawesi Province
      • B-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of Gorontalo Province
      • B-Class Office for Teachers Development and Empowerment of North Maluku Province
  • Directorate General of Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education, and Middle Education
    • Directorate General of Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education, and Middle Education Secretariat
    • Directorate of Early Childhood Education
    • Directorate of Elementary Education
    • Directorate of Junior High Education
    • Directorate of Senior High Education
    • Directorate of Public Education and Specialized Education
    • Technical Implementation Units
      • Bureau for Education Quality Assurance of West Sumatera
      • Bureau for Education Quality Assurance of West Java
      • Bureau for Education Quality Assurance of Central Java
      • Bureau for Education Quality Assurance of East Java
      • Bureau for Education Quality Assurance of South Sulawesi
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Aceh
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of North Sumatera
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Riau
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Riau Islands
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Jambi
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Bengkulu
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Bangka Belitung Islands
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of South Sumatera
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Lampung
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Banten
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Jakarta
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Yogyakarta
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Bali
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of West Nusa Tenggara
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of East Nusa Tenggara
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of West Kalimantan
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of East Kalimantan
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of South Kalimantan
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Central Kalimantan
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of North Sulawesi
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Southeast Sulawesi
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Central Sulawesi
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of North Kalimantan
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of West Sulawesi
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of South Sulawesi
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Gorontalo
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Maluku
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of North Maluku
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of Papua
      • Office for Education Quality Assurance of West Papua
  • Directorate General of Vocational Education
    • Directorate General of Vocational Education Secretariat
    • Directorate of Vocational High School Education
    • Directorate of Vocational Courses and Training
    • Directorate of Academic Affairs for Vocational Higher Education
    • Directorate of Institutional and Resources Affairs for Vocational Higher Education
    • Directorate of Relevance and Equalization of Businesses and Industries
    • Technical Implementation Units
      • Bureau of Vocational Education Quality Assurance Development for Arts and Culture
      • Bureau of Vocational Education Quality Assurance Development for Construction and Electricity
      • Bureau of Vocational Education Quality Assurance Development for Business and Tourism
      • Bureau of Vocational Education Quality Assurance Development for Agriculture
      • Bureau of Vocational Education Quality Assurance Development for Machinery and Industrial Engineering
      • Bureau of Vocational Education Quality Assurance Development for Automotive and Electronics
      • Bureau of Vocational Education Quality Assurance Development for Marine Sciences, Fishery, Information Technology, and Communication
  • Directorate General of Higher Education, Research, and Technology
    • Directorate General of Higher Education, Research, and Technology Secretariat
    • Directorate of Learning and Student Affairs
    • Directorate of Institutional Affairs
    • Directorate of Resources Affairs
    • Directorate of Research, Technology, and Community Services
  • Directorate General of Culture
    • Directorate of Beliefs in One Almighty God and Cultural Affairs
    • Directorate of Films, Music, and Media Affairs
    • Directorate of Cultural Protection
    • Directorate of Cultural Development and Utilization
    • Directorate of Development of Cultural Staff and Institutions
    • Technical Implementation Units
      • National Museum of Indonesia
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region I
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region II
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region III
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region IV
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region V
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region VI
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region VII
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region VIII
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region IX
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region X
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XI
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XII
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XIII
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XIV
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XV
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XVI
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XVII
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XVIII
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XIX
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XX
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XXI
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XXII
      • Cultural Preservation Office Region XXIII
      • Cultural Media Bureau
      • Borobudur Conservation Bureau
      • Sangiran Pre-historic Human Settlements Conservation Bureau
  • Office of General Inspectorate
    • Inspectorate General
    • Inspectorate I
    • Inspectorate II
    • Inspectorate III
    • Inspectorate IV
    • Investigation Inspectorate
  • Agency of Education Standards, Curriculum, and Assessments
    • Agency of Education Standards, Curriculum, and Assessments Secretariat
    • Center of Education Standards and Policies
    • Center of Curriculum and Learning
    • Center of Education Assessments
      • Center for Education Testing Services
    • Center of Books
  • Language Development and Fostering Agency
    • Language Development and Fostering Agency Secretariat
    • Center of Language and Letters Research and Protection
    • Center of Language and Letters Development
    • Center of Language Strengthening and Empowering
    • Technical Implementation Units
      • East Java Language Bureau
      • Bali Language Bureau
      • Aceh Language Bureau
      • North Sumatera Language Bureau
      • Riau Language Bureau
      • West Sumatera Language Bureau
      • South Sumatera Language Bureau
      • West Java Language Bureau
      • Central Java Language Bureau
      • Yogyakarta Language Bureau
      • West Kalimantan Language Bureau
      • Central Kalimantan Language Bureau
      • South Kalimantan Language Bureau
      • North Sulawesi Language Bureau
      • Central Sulawesi Language Bureau
      • South Sulawesi Language Bureau
      • Papua Language Bureau
      • Jambi Language Office
      • Bengkulu Language Office
      • Riau Islands Language Office
      • Bangka Belitung Islands Language Office
      • Lampung Language Office
      • Banten Language Office
      • East Kalimantan Language Office
      • West Nusa Tenggara Language Office
      • East Nusa Tenggara Language Office
      • Southeast Sulawesi Language Office
      • Gorontalo Language Office
      • Maluku Language Office
      • North Maluku Language Office
  • Indonesian Film Censorship Board
    • Indonesian Film Censorship Board Secretariat
  • Public State Universities and Higher Education Institutes in Indonesia
  • Higher Education Service Institutes
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch I (North Sumatera Region)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch II (South Sumatera, Lampung, Bengkulu, and Bangka Belitung Regions)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch III (Jakarta Region)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch IV (West Java and Banten Regions)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch V (Yogyakarta Region)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch VI (Central Java Regions)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch VII (East Java Region)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch VIII (Bali and West Nusa Tenggara Regions)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch IX (South Sulawesi, South East Sulawesi, and West Sulawesi Regions)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch X (West Sumatera, Riau, Jambi, and Riau Islands Regions)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch XI (South Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, and North Kalimantan Regions)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch XII (Maluku and North Maluku Regions)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch XIII (Aceh Region)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch XIV (Papua and West Papua Regions)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch XV (East Nusa Tenggara Region)
    • Higher Education Service Institute Branch XVI (Central Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, and Gorontalo Regions)
  • Centers
    • Center of Data, Technology, and Information
      • Center for Technology Platform Services
    • Center of Ministry Employee Education and Training
    • Center of National Achievements
      • Center for Indonesian Talent Development
    • Center of Character Strengthening
    • Center of Education Funding Service
      • Center for Higher Education Funding

A smaller version of the Ministry of Research and Technology, the General Directorate of Higher Education, Research, and Technology, was created within the ministry in pursuance of Presidential Decree No. 62/2021, to govern and regulate science, research, and technology in Indonesia after dismantlement of Ministry of Research and Technology.[8] Despite that, the coordination between the ministry and the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN) was not yet made clear in the constituting document. Minister Nadiem Makarim asserted that BRIN is a partner of the ministry in performing researches, and not a subordinate of the ministry.[20] While the presidential decree did not clearly separate the scope of the limitation of the ministry and coordination with BRIN, the Ministerial Decree No. 28/2021 distinguished BRIN as a separate entity and clearly outlined the ministry's power in regulating scientific, research, and technology affairs, confirming Makarim's statement.[19] The ministerial decree also confirmed the relinquishment of its National Archaeology Research Institute to BRIN.[19]

As overseer of science, research, and technology in Indonesia, the Ministry has roles to oversee and preparing regulations and technical policies of science, research, and technology.[19] Despite overseer rule, Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology also have research functions, but only limited to academic research. State research and development activities, non-academic governmental strategic research, and policy research are performed by BRIN.[20]

2022 Shadow Organization Disclosure

Unlike other ministries in Indonesia, Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology possessed a shadow organization outside the structure which quite large in size which play significant role in ministry policies and outputs. The shadow organization presence was disclosed in September 2022. The organization is described as "unusual and abnormal" with around 400 members, comparable to size of a General Directorate of a ministry, from product managers, data scientists, and software engineers background. The shadow organization performed some extent of research and development activities on behalf of the Ministry. The presence of the organization surprised many Indonesians, as for the first time in Indonesian politics a shadow organization used by a ministry. For the disclosure, Nadiem confirmed the existence of the shadow organization and the shadow organization actually a legal tenderized collaboration between the ministry with GovTech Edu, a state-owned company subsidiary of Telkom.[21][22][23][24] Such move criticized by People's Representative Council,[21] and mass organizations advocating teachers' welfare and education.[25] Critics criticized that such move is "wasteful" and "disrespectful" towards thousands original human resources employed by the ministry.[21][25]

List of ministers

No. Minister Took Office Left Office Political party Cabinet
1 Nadiem Makarim 28 April 2021 Incumbent Independent Onward Indonesia Cabinet

See also

References

  1. Budiman, Aditya (9 April 2021). "DPR Restui Keinginan Jokowi Bentuk Kementerian Investasi". Tempo (in Indonesian). Retrieved 9 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. Ramadhan, Ardito; Rastika, Icha (9 April 2021). "DPR Setujui Pembentukan Kementerian Investasi serta Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 9 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. detikcom, Tim. "Ngabalin: Insyaallah Reshuffle Kabinet Pekan Ini!". detiknews (in Indonesian). Jakarta: detikcom. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  4. Sekretariat Presiden, Biro Pers, Media dan Informasi (28 April 2021). "Presiden Jokowi Lantik Menteri Investasi, Mendikbudristek, dan Kepala BRIN". Presiden RI (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. Rizqo, Kanavino Ahmad (28 April 2021). "Ada Reshuffle, Ini Daftar Pejabat yang Dilantik Jokowi Hari Ini". detiknews (in Indonesian). Jakarta: detikcom. Retrieved 28 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. Nurita, Dewi (30 April 2021). "Jokowi Keluarkan Perpres 32/2021 soal Kemendikbud-Ristek". Tempo.co. Retrieved 24 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. Nurita, Dewi; Persada, Syailendra (30 July 2021). "Jokowi Terbitkan Perpres, Bentuk Dirjen Pendidikan Tinggi, Riset, dan Teknologi". Tempo (in Indonesian). Retrieved 31 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. "Peraturan Presiden RI Nomor 62 Tahun 2021 tentang Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi". Presidential Decree No. 62 of 2021 (in Indonesian). President of Indonesia.
  9. Waspada (10 April 2021). "PDIP Apresiasi Peleburan Kemendikbud Dan Kemenristek". Waspada (in Indonesian). Retrieved 10 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. Felisiani, Theresia (10 April 2021). "Bambang Pamit Sebagai Menristek, Jokowi Bentuk Kementerian Investasi, Isu Reshuffle Menggema". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 10 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. Ramadhan, Ardito; Krisiandi (9 April 2021). "Kemenristek dan Kemendikbud Bakal Dilebur, F-PKS: Keputusan Sangat Membingungkan". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 10 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. Sumantri, Arga (9 April 2021). "Peleburan Kemenristek, Komisi X Dorong Percepatan Masa Transisi". Medcom.id. Retrieved 10 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. CNN Indonesia (30 July 2021). "Jokowi Gabungkan Ristek dan Dikti dalam Satu Ditjen". nasional. CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 30 July 2021. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. "Pemulihan Pembelajaran" [Learning Recovery]. Sistem Informasi Kurikulum Nasional (in Indonesian). Pusat Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran, Badan Standar, Kurikulum, dan Asesmen Pendidikan, Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi. Retrieved 13 March 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. "Kurikulum Merdeka". Sistem Informasi Kurikulum Nasional. Pusat Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran, Badan Standar, Kurikulum, dan Asesmen Pendidikan, Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi. Retrieved 13 March 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. "Peraturan Presiden RI Nomor 62 Tahun 2021 tentang Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi". Presidential Decree No. 62 of 2021 (in Indonesian). President of Indonesia.
  17. Rizqo, Kanavino Ahmad (31 July 2021). "Jokowi Teken Perpres yang Atur Posisi Wamen Kemendikbud-Ristek". detiknews (in Indonesian). Jakarta: detikcom. Retrieved 30 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. "Peraturan Presiden No. 31/2021 tentang Penataan Tugas dan Fungsi Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi dan Kementerian Investasi/Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal pada Kabinet Indonesia Maju Periode Tahun 2019-2024". Presidential Decree No. 31 of 2021 (PDF) (in Indonesian). President of Indonesia.
  19. "Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi RI Nomor 28 Tahun 2021 Tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi". Ministerial Decree No. 28 of 2021 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology.
  20. Pahlevi, Fahdi (14 July 2021). "Nadiem Beberkan Perbedaan Lingkup Riset di Kemendikbudristek dengan BRIN". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 30 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. Putri, Melani Hermalia. "Shadow Team Kemendibud: Dibanggakan Nadiem di PBB, Dikritik DPR". IDN Times (in Indonesian). Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  22. "Nadiem Ternyata Rekrut 400 Orang, DPR Persoalkan Tim Bayangan Bentukan Mendikbud Ristek". Posbelitung.co (in Indonesian). Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  23. "Nadiem Buka-bukaan soal Polemik 400 Anggota Tim Bayangan Kemendikbud". nasional (in Indonesian). Jakarta: CNN Indonesia. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  24. "Nadiem Makarim Blak-blakan Sosok 'Shadow Team' di Belakangnya". Bisnis.com (in Indonesian). 27 September 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  25. Larasati, Citra (23 September 2022). "P2G Desak BPK Soroti Keberadaan 400 Orang di Tim Bayangan Kemendikbudristek". medcom.id (in Indonesian). medcom id developer. Jakarta. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
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