Military academy

A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.

A graduation parade of the Royal Military College, Duntroon
Armenian soldiers at the Vazgen Sargsyan Military University in 2013

Three types of academy exist: pre-collegiate-level institutions awarding academic qualifications, university-level institutions awarding bachelor's-degree-level qualifications, and those preparing Officer Cadets for commissioning into the armed services of the state.

A naval academy is either a type of military academy (in the broad sense of that term) or is distinguished from one (in the narrow sense). In U.S. usage, the Military, Naval, Coast Guard, and the Air Force Academy serve as military academies under the categorization of service academies in that country.

History

The first military academies were established in the 18th century to provide future officers for technically specialized corps, such as military engineers and artillery, with scientific training.

The Italian Military Academy was inaugurated in Turin on January the 1st, 1678 as the Savoy Royal Academy, making it the oldest military academy in existence.[1] The Royal Danish Naval Academy was set up in 1701.[2] The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich was set up in 1741, after a false start in 1720 because of a lack of funds,[3] as the earliest military academy in Britain. Its original purpose was to train cadets entering the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. In France, the École Royale du Génie at Mézières was founded in 1748, followed by a non-technical academy in 1751, the École Royale Militaire offering a general military education to the nobility. French military academies were widely copied in Prussia, Austria, Russia. The Norwegian Military Academy in Oslo, educates officers of the Norwegian Army. The academy was established in 1750, and is the oldest institution for higher education in Norway.

By the turn of the century, under the impetus of the Napoleonic Wars and the strain that the armies of Europe subsequently came under, military academies for the training of commissioned officers of the army were set up in most of the combatant nations. These military schools had two functions: to provide instruction for serving officers in the functions of the efficient staff-officer, and to school youngsters before they gained an officer's commission.[4] The Kriegsakademie in Prussia was founded in 1801 and the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr was created by order of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802 as a replacement for the École Royale Militaire of the Ancien Régime (the institution that Napoleon himself had graduated from).

The Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England was the brainchild of John Le Marchant in 1801,[5] who established schools for the military instruction of officers at High Wycombe and Great Marlow, with a grant of £30,000 from Parliament. The two original departments were later combined and moved to Sandhurst.

In the United States, the United States Military Academy (USMA) in West Point, New York was founded on March 16, 1802, and is one of five service academies in the nation.

Types

Pre-collegiate institutions

A military school teaches children of various ages (elementary school, middle school or high school) in a military environment which includes training in military aspects, such as drill. Many military schools are also boarding schools, and others are simply magnet schools in a larger school system. Many are privately run institutions, though some are public and are run either by a public school system (such as the Chicago Public Schools) or by a state.

Adult institutions

A college-level military academy is an institute of higher learning of things military. It is part of a larger system of military education and training institutions. The primary educational goal at military academies is to provide a high quality education that includes significant coursework and training in the fields of military tactics and military strategy. The amount of non-military coursework varies by both the institution and the country, and the amount of practical military experience gained varies as well.

Military academies may or may not grant university degrees. In the US, graduates have a major field of study, earning a Bachelor's degree in that subject just as at other universities. However, in British academies, the graduate does not achieve a university degree, since the whole of the one-year course (undertaken mainly but not exclusively by university graduates) is dedicated to military training.

There are two types of military academies: national (government-run) and state/private-run.

  • Graduates from national academies are typically commissioned as officers in the country's military. The new officers usually have an obligation to serve for a certain number of years. In some countries (e.g. Britain) all military officers train at the appropriate academy, whereas in others (e.g. the United States) only a percentage do and the service academies are seen as institutions which supply service-specific officers within the forces (about 15 percent of US military officers).
  • State or private-run academy graduates have no requirement to join the military after graduation, although some schools have a high rate of graduate military service. Today, most of these schools have ventured away from their military roots and now enroll both military and civilian students. The only exception in the United States is the Virginia Military Institute which remains all-military.

Albania

  • Armed Forces Academy

Angola

  • Army Military Academy
  • National Air Force Academy
  • Naval Academy

Argentina

Cristina Fernández de Kirchner addresses the 2010 graduating class of Argentina's National Military College.

Argentine Army:

  • Colegio Militar de la Nación (National Military College), in El Palomar, Buenos Aires (northwestern outskirts of Buenos Aires)

Argentine Navy:

  • Escuela Naval Militar (Naval Military School), in Río Santiago, Buenos Aires (in Ensenada, near La Plata)

Argentine Air Force:

  • Escuela de Aviación Militar (Military Aviation School), in the city of Córdoba

Armenia

  • National Defense Research University
  • Vazgen Sargsyan Military Institute
  • Armenak Khanperyants Military Aviation University

Australia

The Australian Defence Force Academy is a tri-service military college established in 1986.

Austria

Azerbaijan

  • War College of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces
  • Azerbaijan Higher Military Academy

Bangladesh

Colours Contingent of the Bangladesh Military Academy, a training institute for officers of the Bangladesh Army
  • Bangladesh Military Academy
  • Bangladesh Naval Academy
  • Bangladesh Air Force Academy
  • Armed Forces Medical College[6] (AFMC), Airport Road, Dhaka

Belarus

  • Military Academy of Belarus
  • Border Guard Service Institute of Belarus
  • Ministry of the Interior Academy of the Republic of Belarus

Belgium

Bolivia

  • Military College of Bolivia (Colegio Militar del Ejército de Bolivia)[7]
  • Bolivian Military Naval Academy
  • Bolivian Air Force Academy

Brazil

Basic Education

(offers an education with military values for civilians students of primary and secondary school)

Colégio Militar do Rio de Janeiro

Brazilian Army:

Preparatory Schools

(prepares students for admission to one of the official training academies)

Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras

Brazilian Army:[9]

  • Escola Preparatória de Cadetes do Exército (EsPCEx) (Army Cadets Preparatory School)

Brazil's Navy:[10]

Brazilian Air Force:[11]

Sailor and Marine Soldier Training

Escola de Aprendizes-Marinheiros de Santa Catarina

Brazil's Navy:

Sergeants Training

Escola de Especialistas da Aeronáutica

Brazilian Army:

Brazil's Navy:

  • Centro de Instrução Almirante Alexandrino (CIAA) (Admiral Alexandrino Instruction Center)
  • Centro de Instrução Almirante Sylvio de Camargo (CIASC) (Admiral Sylvio de Camargo Instruction Center)

Brazilian Air Force:

Officers Training

Escola Naval

Brazilian Army:

Brazil's navy:

Brazilian Air Force:

  • Academia da Força Aérea (AFA) (Air Force Academy)
  • Centro de Instrução e Adaptação da Aeronáutica (CIAAR) (Air Force Instruction and Adaptation Center)
  • Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA) (Aeronautics Institute of Technology)

Bulgaria

  • Vasil Levski National Military University founded in 1878 as a military school in Plovdiv
  • Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy in Varna and founded in 1881 as Naval Machinery School in Rousse
  • Rakovski Defence and Staff College in Sofia, founded with an Act of the 15th National Assembly of March 1, 1912, in Sofia

Canada

Royal Military College of Canada band piper and bugler. Established in 1876, the College is Canada's only post-secondary military college with degree-granting powers.

Two post-secondary military academies are operated under the Canadian Military Colleges system, the Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC) in Kingston, Ontario; and Royal Military College Saint-Jean (RMC Saint-Jean) in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. RMCC was established in 1876, while RMC Saint-Jean was established in 1954.[12] The two institutions provided military education to officer cadets of all three elements in the Canadian Forces; the navy, army and air force; with RMC granted the authority to confer academic degrees in arts, science and engineering by the 1960s.[13] From 1940 to 1995, the Department of National Defence operated a third military college in Victoria, British Columbia, known as Royal Roads Military College (RRMC).[12]

Graduates of the Colleges are widely acknowledged to have had a disproportionate impact in the Canadian services and society, thanks to the solid foundations provided by their military education.[14] Military discipline and training, as well as a focus on physical fitness and fluency in both of Canada's two official languages, English and French, provided cadets with ample challenges and a very fulfilling experience.[15] In 1995 the Department of National Defence was forced to close RRMC and RMC Saint-Jean due to budget considerations, but RMCC continues to operate.[16] RRMC reopened as a civilian university in the fall of 1995, and is maintained by the Government of British Columbia. In 2007, the Department of National Defence reopened RMC Saint-Jean as a military academy that offers equivalent schooling as CEGEP, a level of post-secondary education in Quebec's education system. In 2021 RMC Saint-Jean was returned to University status and had officer cadets graduate and received their commission for the first time since 1995.[17]

In addition to Canadian Military Colleges, the Canadian Armed Forces also operate a number of training centres and schools, including the Canadian Forces College, and the Canadian Forces Language School. The components of the Canadian Armed Forces also maintain training centres and schools. The Canadian Army Doctrine and Training Centre (CADTC) is a formation in the Army that delivers combat, and doctrinal training. The CADTC includes several training establishments, such as the Canadian Manoeuvre Training Centre, Combat Training Centre, Command and Staff College, and the Peace Support Training Centre. The 2 Canadian Air Division is the formation responsible for training in the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), and includes establishments like the Royal Canadian Air Force Academy, 2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School, and 3 Canadian Forces Flying Training School. The RCAF also maintains the Canadian Forces School of Survival and Aeromedical Training.

In addition to publicly operated institutions, Canada is also home to one private military boarding school, Robert Land Academy, in West Lincoln, Ontario. Founded in 1978, it is an all-boys' institute that is fully accredited by Ontario's Ministry of Education. The school offers elementary and secondary levels of education, providing schooling for students from Grade 6 to Grade 12.

Colombia

The Honour Guard of José María Córdova Military School. Cadets undergo undergraduate studies at the institution.

National Army of Colombia:

  • José María Córdova Military School, in Bogotá.
  • Colombian Army NCO School

Colombian Air Force:

  • Marco Fidel Suarez Military Aviation School, in Cali.

Colombian Naval Infantry and Colombian Navy:

National Police of Colombia:

  • General Santander National Police Academy, in Bogotá.

Czech Republic

  • Univerzita Obrany (University of Defence)
  • Military academy and training command

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  • Kim Jong-un National Defense University
  • Kim Il-sung Military University
  • Kim Il-sung Military Political University
  • Kim Jong-suk Naval Academy
  • Kim Chaek Air Force Academy

Denmark

Established in 1701, the Royal Danish Naval Academy is the oldest-still-existing officers' academy in the world.
  • Royal Danish Defence College
  • Royal Danish Military Academy
  • Royal Danish Naval Academy
  • Royal Danish Air Force Officers School

Egypt

  • Egyptian Air Defense Academy
  • Egyptian Military Technical College
  • Egyptian Military medical college
  • Egyptian Air Academy
  • Egyptian Military Academy
  • Egyptian Naval Academy

El Salvador

  • Captain General Gerardo Barrios Military School

Estonia

The Baltic Defence College is a multinational military college established by Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
  • Estonian Military Academy
  • Baltic Defence College, both in Tartu

Finland

The Raakunamäki Military Academy in Lappeenranta, Finland

France

Students of Prytanée National Militaire having lunch, 1900. The institution is one of several military preparatory schools in France.

High schools

  • Lycée militaire de Saint-Cyr
  • Lycée militaire d'Autun
  • Prytanée National Militaire
  • Lycée militaire d'Aix-en-Provence
  • Lycée naval de Brest
  • École des Pupilles de l'Air

Officer academies

Cadets of École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr during the 2008 Bastille Day military parade. The military college was established in 1802 by Napoleon.
  • École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, literally the "Special Military School of St Cyr") is the French Military Academy. It is often referred to as "Saint-Cyr". Founded by Napoleon in 1802, and initially in Fontainebleau, it was moved first to Saint-Cyr-l'École in 1808, and then to Coëtquidan (Brittany) in 1945.
  • École militaire interarmes (EMIA)
  • École des commissaires des armées (ECA), founded in 2013
  • École de l'air: the French Air Force Academy
  • École Navale: the French Naval Academy
  • École des officiers de la gendarmerie nationale (EOGN): gendarmerie commissioned officers academy
  • École Polytechnique (X): a French engineering grande école of military status. Though all of its French engineering students are enlisted and trained as officers, 5% of its graduates remain in the military after graduation.[18]
  • ENSTA Bretagne: a French engineering grande école of military status. Only 1/4 of its students are actual officers-in-training.
  • École de Santé des Armées: medical school of French army
  • National Military Infrastructure Engineers Academy: trains military engineers of the Armed Forces, opened 2013 (also one of the newest)

Postgraduate academies

  • École d'état-major (Staff school): first step of higher military studies, for officer of OF-2 rank.
  • École de Guerre (War School): second step of higher military studies, mainly for ranks OF-2 and OF-3 who want to continue the command track (e.g. to command battalion or regiment).
  • Collège d'enseignement supérieur de l'armée de terre (Army Higher Education College): second step of military education, but for officers whishing to achieve a high-level specialization.
    • Cours supérieur d'état-major (Advanced Staff Course)
    • Enseignement militaire supérieur scientifique et technique (Higher Technical and Scientific Education).
  • Centre des hautes études militaire (Center for Advanced Military Studies): final step of military education, for very few selected OF-5. Its students also attend the civilian institut des hautes études de défense nationale.

Georgia

  • National Defense Academy
  • Cadet Bachelor School
  • Junior Officer Basic School
  • Aviation Air Defense Officer Basic School
  • Medical Officer School
  • Captain Career School
  • Command and General Staff School
  • School of Advance Defense Studies
  • Language Training School

[19]

Germany

The main complex of the Naval Academy Mürwik of the German Navy
Library of Bundeswehr University Munich, which provides post-secondary education to military personnel and civilians

Germany has a unique system for civil and military education. The only true military academy is the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr where mainly future staff officers and general staff officers are further trained.

The standard education in military leadership is the task of the Offizierschulen (officers' schools) run by the three branches. The contents differ from branch to branch. According to the doctrine "leading by task", in the army all prospective platoon leaders are trained down to the level of a commander of a mixed combat battalion. There they also have to pass an officer exam to become commissioned later on.

Moreover, there exist so called Waffenschulen (school of weapons) like infantry school or artillery school. There the officers learn to deal with the typical tasks of their respective corps.

A specialty of the German concept of officer formation is the academic education. Germany runs two Universities of the German Federal Armed Forces where almost every future officer has to pass non-military studies and achieve a bachelor's or master's degree. During their studies (after at least three years of service) the candidates become commissioned Leutnant (second lieutenant).

The three officer's schools are:

Academic and staff education:

Greece

A sloop of the Hellenic Naval Academy sails past with a crew of naval cadet officers. The Academy is supervised by the Hellenic Navy.

The Hellenic Armed Forces have military academies supervised by each branch of the Armed Forces individually:

Highest Military Academies (ΑΣΣ) or Higher Military Educational Institutions (ΑΣΕΙ):

Higher Military NCO Academies (ΑΣΣΥ):

  • The Hellenic Army supervises the Military Non-commissioned Officers' Academy (ΣΜΥ).
  • The Hellenic Air Force supervises the Air Force Non-commissioned Officers' Academy (ΣΜΥΑ).
  • The Hellenic Navy supervises the Naval Non-commissioned Officers' Academy (ΣΜΥΝ).

It is worth noting that, despite their names (Greek: Σχολές Υπαξιωματικών, lit.'Sub-officers' Academies'), their alumni can advance to the rank of Antisyntagmatarchis/Antipterachos/Antiploiarchos.

Hungary

  • National University of Public Service (Successor of Royal Hungarian Ludovica Military Academy, which founded in 1808)
    • Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training

India

Robin K. Dhowan, Chief of Naval Staff for India, reviews cadets during a passing out parade of the Indian Military Academy. The institution is a training academy of the Indian Army.

Indonesia

Cadets of the Indonesian Military Academy in parade uniform during the Indonesian independence day ceremony. The institution is the military academy of the Indonesian Army.
Cadets from the Indonesian Naval Academy tour the USS Fort Worth on CARAT Indonesia 2015. The Indonesian Naval Academy is part of the Indonesian Navy.
Cadets of the Indonesian Air Force Academy in formation before parading for the Air force anniversary ceremony. The Academy is operated by the Indonesian Air Force.

The Indonesian Military Academy[20] was founded in Yogyakarta, October 13, 1945, by the order of General Staff Chief of Indonesia Army Lieutenant General Urip Sumohardjo as the Militaire Academie (MA) Yogyakarta.

Currently, the Tentara Nasional Indonesia or the TNI (Indonesian National Armed Forces), under the supervision of the Commanding General of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Academy System (a two or three-star officer in billet) in the HQ of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has divided the academies into the three respective services:

  • Indonesian Military Academy (Akademi Militer; Akmil), in Magelang, Central Java, is under the supervision of the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Army, operated since 1946.
  • Indonesian Naval Academy (Akademi Angkatan Laut; AAL), in Surabaya, East Java, is under the supervision of the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy. The Indonesian Naval Academy also educates and forms officers to serve in the Indonesian Marine Corps. In existence since 1951.
  • Indonesian Air Force Academy (Akademi Angkatan Udara; AAU), in Yogyakarta, is under the supervision of the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Air Force. The academy has three majorings which are: electronics, engineering, and administration. Following graduation, students who are selected as Pilot and Navigator conduct further training in the Pilot and Navigator Flight School prior bearing the Pilot/Navigator designation. Active since 1945, but also inherits the traditions of former Dutch military aviation schools.

Each service academy is headed by a two-star general who serves as superintendent, and his/her deputy is a one-star officer. All the students (cadets/midshipman) are recruited from senior high school graduates from all over Indonesia. Shortly after graduation, they are commissioned as Letnan Dua (Second Lieutenant/Ensign)) in their respective service branches and get the Diploma IV (Associate degree, 4th Grade) comparable to civil academies or universities. The length term is now 4 years and is divided into five grades of cadets' ranks, starting from the lowest:

  • Prajurit Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Private), 1st year (4 months)
  • Kopral Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Corporal), 1st year (8 months)
  • Sersan Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Sergeant), 2nd year
  • Sersan Mayor Dua Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Second Sergeant Major), 3rd year
  • Sersan Mayor Satu Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet First Sergeant Major), 4th year

Taruna refers to cadets in the Military Academy, Kadet refers to cadets in the Naval Academy, and Karbol refers to cadets in the Air Force Academy. The term "Taruna" however still applies to all cadets from the three academies.

Until 1999, before the Indonesian National Police officially separated from the armed forces, the Indonesian Police Academy ("AKPOL") also stood under the National Armed Forces Academy but now has separated from the Military and is under the auspices of the President of Indonesia controlled by the National Police Headquarters (Mabes Polri), where in the other hand the Armed Forces (Army, Naval, and Air Force) Academies of Indonesia is under the auspices of the Ministry of Defense controlled by the Armed Forces General Headquarters (Mabes TNI). Presently, the Police Academy is in Semarang (Central Java), and is supervised under the supervision of the Chief of the Indonesian National Police (Kapolri).

All three academies and the Police Academy have a joint 4th class cadet training program since 2008, after completing it the cadets go to their respective academies to continue with the three remaining years of study before commissioning.

Iran

Iran has five main military universities:

Israel

  • Israeli Naval Academy

Italy

A cadet of Italy's Nunziatella military academy in 1787, the year the academy was established

High school level institutions (only for classical and scientific liceum, starting from grade 10):

  • Scuola Militare Nunziatella, founded during the Bourbon Period in 1787, in Italian Army, Naples
  • Scuola Militare Teulié, founded during the Napoleonic period in 1802, Italian Army, Milan
  • Scuola Militare Navale Morosini, Italian Navy, Venice
  • Scuola Militare Aeronautica Douhet, Italian Air Force, Florence

2009–2010 school year was the first school year with girls attending.

Non Commissioned Officer (NCO) schools:

  • Army: Scuola sottufficiali dell'Esercito Italiano, Viterbo
  • Navy: Scuola sottufficiali della Marina Militare, Taranto and Law Maddalena
  • Air Force: Scuola marescialli dell'Aeronautica Militare, Viterbo
  • Carabinieri: Scuola marescialli e brigadieri dei carabinieri, Firenze
  • Guardia di Finanza: Scuola ispettori e sovrintendenti della Guardia di Finanza, L'Aquila

University level institutions:

Japan

  • National Defense Academy of Japan (university level)
  • National Defense Medical College (university level medical school)
  • Officer Candidate Training Schools (for each of Ground, Maritime and Air Self-defense forces)

Kazakhstan

Cadets of the Military Institute of the Kazakh Ground Forces march in the 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade.
  • National Defense University
  • Military Institute of the Kazakh Ground Forces (formerly the Alma-Ata Higher All-Arms Command School)
  • Talgat Bigeldinov Military Institute of the Air Defence Forces
  • Military Engineering Institute of Radio Electronics and Communications

Kyrgyzstan

  • Military Institute of the Armed Forces of the Kyrgyz Republic
  • Center for Advanced Training of Officers

Malaysia

Cadets of National Defence University of Malaysia on an exercise. The institution is a post-secondary school operated by the Malaysian Armed Forces.

Secondary level institutions:

University level:

Specialist training and staff institutions:

  • Officers Cadet School in Port Dickson (OCS)
  • Malaysian Armed Forces Staff College[24] (Maktab Turus Angkatan Tentera)
  • Armed Forces Health Training Institute[25] (Institut Latihan Kesihatan Angkatan Tentera)
  • Malaysian Peacekeeping Training Centre[26] (Pusat Latihan Pengaman Malaysia)

Reserve Officer Training Units (Malay: Pasukan Latihan Pegawai Simpanan or PALAPES) or ROTU exists only in public universities in Malaysia. This is a tertiary institution based officer commissioning program to equip students as officer cadets with military knowledge and understanding for service as Commissioned Officers in the reserve components of the various branches of the Malaysian Armed Forces.

Mexico

A cadet of Mexico's Heroic Military Academy with a golden eagle, the institution's mascot
  • Heroica Escuela Naval Militar
  • Heroico Colegio Militar
  • Colegio del Aire

Moldova

  • Alexandru cel Bun Military Academy

Mongolia

  • National Defense University
    • Military Music College of Mongolia

Myanmar

  • Defence Services Academy
  • Defence Services Technological Academy
  • Defence Services Medical Academy
  • Officer Training School (Myanmar) (OTS)
  • National Defence College (Myanmar) (NDC)
  • Defence Services Institute of Nursing and Paramedical Science

Namibia

  • Namibian Military School

Netherlands

Cadets in a classroom of the Netherlands' Royal Naval Institute. The academy is a part of Nederlandse Defensie Academie.
  • Koninklijke Militaire Academie
  • Royal Naval College (Netherlands)

New Zealand

Tier One – initial officer training

Tier Two – junior officer education

  • NZDF Junior Staff Course, New Zealand Defence College

Tier Three – senior officer education

  • NZDF Staff Course, New Zealand Defence College

Nigeria

Cadets in a lab of Nigeria's Air Force Military School, a boys-only military high school

High school training

Undergraduate officer training

Postgraduate officer training

  • Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji, at Jaji, Kaduna – joint Nigerian Armed Forces higher studies institute for both indigenous and international students
  • Nigerian Army College of Logistics, Lagos – school for training middle career Nigerian Army officers on military logistics
  • National Defence College, Abuja – school for training senior officers of the Nigerian Armed Forces and also some members of the civil service
  • Army War College Nigeria
  • Naval War College Nigeria
  • Air War College Nigeria

Norway

Buildings of the Norwegian Naval Academy, an undergraduate institution intended to instruct officers of the Royal Norwegian Navy

Undergraduate officer training

  • Norwegian Military Academy, Linderud/Oslo (Norwegian Army)
  • Norwegian Naval Academy, Laksevåg/Bergen (Royal Norwegian Navy)
  • Norwegian Air Force Academy, Trondheim (Royal Norwegian Air Force)

Postgraduate training

  • Norwegian Defence Staff College, Oslo (joint)
  • Norwegian National Defence College, Oslo (civil service/very senior officers)

Pakistan

A passing out parade at Pakistan Military Academy

Paraguay

  • Francisco López Military Academy, in Capiatá, Paraguay

People's Republic of China

Main gate of the PLA National Defence University, a national university administered by the People's Liberation Army.

Peru

Undergraduate officer training

  • Chorrillos Military School (Peruvian Army)
  • Peruvian Naval School (Peruvian Navy)
  • Peruvian Air Force Officers' School (Peruvian Air Force)

Philippines

Graduating cadets of Philippine Military Academy at a homecoming
The National Defense College of the Philippines is a graduate-level military college established in 1963.

The Philippines patterned all its service academies after the United States Military Academy (West Point) and the United States Merchant Marine Academy (King's Point).

These higher education institutions are operated by the Philippine Government and grant different baccalaureate degrees.

  • Philippine Military Academy (Akademiyang Militar ng Pilipinas), City of Baguio – It is the primary training school of the Armed Forces of the Philippines for would be regular commissioned officers of the Philippine Army, Philippine Navy, Philippine Marine Corps and the Philippine Air Force. It is under the control of the Department of National Defense. Its former name was the Philippine Constabulary Academy. During the American colonial rule era, U.S. Army Cavalry Officers established the school for the professionalization of the enlisted personnel of the defunct Philippine Constabulary. It was renamed the Philippine Military Academy before the 1930s. In 1992, PMA stopped providing graduates to the Philippine Constabulary after the passage of Republic Act 6975 which resulted in the merger of the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police. The merged institutions was named the Philippine National Police. Beginning in 1993, PMA became a co-educational school.
  • Philippine Merchant Marine Academy, Zambales – It is a school for students who shall serve in different private shipping companies, foreign or local. Its graduates may serve in the Philippine Coast Guard and the Philippine Navy as an ensign after graduation depending upon their choice. All PMMA graduates are also automatically appointed by the president of the Philippines as ensigns (2nd lieutenants) in the Philippine Navy Reserve. This is the oldest of the Philippine service academies having been established in 1820 during the long period of Spanish colonial rule in the country, and was first situated in Manila for many years.

Aside from the PMA and the PMMA, all three branches of the AFP have their own Officer Candidate Course Programs for both men and women, patterned after their US counterparts.

The nation's higher military colleges are:

  • Armed Forces of the Philippines Command and General Staff College, Quezon City – educates officers of the AFP not exceeding the ranks of Colonel or Navy Captain
  • National Defense College of the Philippines, Quezon City – is a school for senior AFP officers for military/naval planning and to ready them in holding the ranks of Brigadier General/Commodore. Notable civilians may enroll and be given the honorary rank of Lieutenant Colonel/Commander in the AFP Reserve upon graduation.

Poland

Cadets of the Polish Naval Academy aboard the ORP Iskra, 1937
  • War Studies University
  • Jarosław Dąbrowski Military University of Technology in Warsaw
  • Tadeusz Kościuszko Land Forces Military Academy in Wrocław
  • Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin
  • Heroes of Westerplatte Naval Academy in Gdynia
  • Faculty of Military Medicine of the Medical University in Łódź

Portugal

Students of Colégio Militar on parade. The school is one of two pre-university institutions in Portugal.

Pre-university level institution

  • Colégio Militar, Lisbon – military basic and high school
  • Instituto dos Pupilos do Exército, Lisbon – vocational education military school

Undergraduate officer training

The Bemposta Palace of the Portuguese Military Academy, an undergraduate-level institution

Postgraduate and staff training

  • Instituto de Estudos Superiores Militares, Lisbon – joint command and staff college

Republic of China (Taiwan)

  • R.O.C. Military Academy
  • R.O.C. Naval Academy
  • R.O.C. Air Force Academy
  • R.O.C. Air Force Institute of Technology
  • Army Academy R.O.C.
  • National Defense University
    • War College
    • Army Command and Staff College
    • Naval Command and Staff College
    • Air Force Command and Staff College
    • Institute of Technology
    • Management College
    • Political Warfare College
  • National Defense Medical Center
  • Chung-cheng Armed Forces Preparatory School

Republic of Ireland

  • Defence Forces Training Centre
  • Naval College
  • Air Corps College

Republic of Korea

Cadets of the Korean Military Academy during a visit to United Nations Command

The three main military academies:

  • Korea Military Academy (Army)
  • Korea Naval Academy
  • Korea Air Force Academy

Other military academies:

  • Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon, formerly Korea Third Military Academy
  • Armed Forces Nursing Academy

Romania

  • Carol I National Defence University (Universitatea Națională de Apărare Carol I), Bucharest
  • Technical Military Academy (Academia Tehnică Militară), Bucharest
  • Land Forces:
    • Nicolae Bălcescu Land Forces Academy, Sibiu
  • Air Forces:
    • Academia Forțelor Aeriene (Air Forces Academy), Braṣov
  • Naval Forces:

Russia

See also: Cadet Corps (Russia), Military academies in Russia

First stage of training

  • The Cadet Corps is an admissions-based military middle school for young boys that was founded in the Russian Empire in 1732, soon becoming widespread throughout the country.
  • The Sea Cadet Corps
  • Kronstadt S.C.C.
  • Moscow Representative Sea Cadet Corps of the Navigation and Mathematics School
  • Moscow Sea Cadet Corps Heroes of Sevastopol

Secondary education

A cadet of Moscow Suvorov Military School, the first of several Suvorov Military Schools established throughout Russia
  • Suvorov Military Schools are a type of boarding school in modern Russia for boys aged 14–18. Education in such these schools focuses on military related subjects.
  • Nakhimov Naval School is a form of higher naval education for teenagers introduced in modern Russia.

Post-secondary education

The Engineers Castle of Russia's Military Engineering-Technical University, with a monument to Peter the Great in the foreground
Established in 1832, the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia is a post-graduate military academy.
  • Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
  • Gagarin Air Force Academy (now the Gagarin-Zhukovsky Combined Air Force Academy)
  • Military Engineering-Technical University
  • Saint Petersburg Mining Institute
  • Alexander Popov Naval Radio-electronic Academy
  • Military Materiel Security Academy
  • Pacific Naval Institute
  • Moscow Peter the Great Strategic Rocket Forces Academy
  • Moscow Higher Military Command School
  • Baltic Naval Institute
  • Sevastopol Black Sea Higher Naval Institute
  • Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
  • Far Eastern Higher Combined Arms Command School
  • Budyonny Military Academy of the Signal Corps
  • Yekaterinburg Force Command School of Artillery
  • Air General Staff Center of Missile and Air Defense Excellence
  • Khabarovsk Military Commanders Training Academy
  • Civil Defense Academy of the Ministry of Emergency Situations
  • Sergey Kirov Military Communications Academy
  • S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy
  • St. Petersburg Military College of Physical Fitness and Sports
  • Marshal Aleksander Vasilevsky Military Academy of the Armed Forces Air Defense Branch
  • Moscow Border Guards Superior College
  • Military University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs

Staff college

Serbia

Cadets fencing at the Serbian Military Academy

Singapore

The Officer Cadet School within the SAFTI Military Institute as seen from the northwest.
  • SAFTI Military Institute
    • Officer Cadet School (OCS): trains officers
    • SAF Advanced Schools: conducts specialised training for officers
    • Goh Keng Swee Command and Staff College: trains senior officers to take up command and staff appointments
  • Specialist and Warrant Officer Institute (SWI)
    • SAFWOS Leadership School: trains warrant officers and military experts
    • Specialist and Warrant Officer Advanced School: conducts advanced courses for warrant officers, military experts and specialists (NCOs)
    • Specialist Cadet School: trains specialists (NCOs)

Somalia

  • Camp TURKSOM trains both officers and NCOs, offers a two-year course for officers and a one-year course for NCOs.

South Africa

  • South African Military Academy provides officers in the SANDF with an opportunity to earn a 3yr BMil degree.

Spain

  • General Military Academy, Zaragoza
  • Academia General del Aire, San Javier
  • Naval Military Academy, Marín
  • Escuela Superior de las Fuerzas Armadas
  • Academia Central de la Defensa
  • Academia de Artillería
  • Academia de Infantería
  • Academia de Caballería
  • Academia de Ingenieros
  • Academia de Logística
  • Academia General Básica de Suboficiales
  • Navy NCO School
  • Academia Básica del Aire
  • Escuela Militar de Montaña y Operaciones Especiales

Sri Lanka

University

Officer training

  • Sri Lanka Military Academy, Diyatalawa
  • Naval and Maritime Academy, Trincomalee
  • Air Force Academy, SLAF China Bay, Trincomalee

Staff training

  • Defence Services Command and Staff College

Sweden

Undergraduate officer training

Karlberg Palace, home of Sweden's Military Academy Karlberg. Established in 1792, it is the oldest military academy in the world to remain in its original location.

Postgraduate training

Tanzania

  • Tanzania Military Academy

Thailand

  • Armed Forces Academies Preparatory School (secondary level)
  • Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy (university level)
  • Phramongkutklao College of Medicine (medicine, university level)
  • Royal Thai Navy Academy (university level)
  • Royal Thai Air Force Academy (university level)
  • Royal Thai Police Cadet Academy
Medicine, University level
  • Phramongkutklao College of Medicine
  • Royal Thai Army Nursing College
  • Royal Thai Navy Nursing College
  • Royal Thai Air Force Nursing College
  • Royal Thai Police Nursing College

Turkey

Cadets of the Turkish Military Academy at 2016 Sandhurst Competition at West Point

Turkmenistan

Cadets of the Berdimuhamed Annayev 1st Specialized Military School
  • Military Academy of Turkmenistan (founded in 2007)
  • Military Institute of the Ministry of Defense of Turkmenistan
    • Berdimuhamed Annayev 1st Specialized Military School (Ashgabat)
    • Alp Arslan 2nd Specialized Military School (Dashoguz)
    • Soltan Sanjar 3rd Specialized Military School (Mary)
  • Turkmen State Border Service Institute
  • Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Turkmenistan
  • Turkmen National Security Institute
  • Turkmen Naval Institute

Uganda

Uganda maintains the followings military training institutions, as of December 2010:[27]

  • Bihanga Military Training School – at Bihanga, in Ibanda District, Western Uganda[28]
  • Kalama Warfare Training School – at Kabamba, Mubende District[29][30][31]
  • National Leadership Institute (NALI) – at Kyankwanzi, Kyankwanzi District
  • Oliver Tambo School of Leadership – at Kaweweta, Nakaseke District[32][33]
  • Uganda Air Defence and Artillery School – at Nakasongola in Nakasongola District
  • Uganda Military Airforce Academy – at Nakasongola in Nakasongola District[34]
  • University of Military Science and Technology – at Lugazi, Buikwe District[35]
  • Uganda Junior Staff College – at Qaddafi Barracks, Jinja
  • Uganda Military Academy – at Kabamba, Mubende District
  • Uganda Senior Command and Staff College – at Kimaka, Jinja
  • Uganda Urban Warfare Training School – at Singo, Kiboga District[36]

Ukraine

A number of universities have specialized military institutes, such as the Faculty of Military Legal Studies at Kharkiv's National Yaroslav Mudryi Law Academy of Ukraine; however, the primary Ukrainian military academies are the following:[37]

  • Hetman Petro Sahaydachnyi Military Academy, Lviv[38]
  • Admiral Pavel Nakhimov Naval Academy, Odessa
  • Ivan Kozhedub Air Force University, Kharkiv

Staff colleges

  • National Defence University of Ukraine "Ivan Chernyakhovsky", Kyiv[39]

United Kingdom

Pre-University level institution

  • Duke of York's Royal Military School – Military based secondary school in Dover, Kent; students are influenced to join the forces after education, but have no commitment to do so.

There are also numerous Cadet forces that operate for all branches of the armed forces for children aged 10–20. These are not designed to recruit people into the armed forces but rather are simply Ministry of Defence sponsored youth organisations.

Undergraduate service

Although an undergraduate degree is not a prerequisite for Officer training, the majority of potential Officers will have attended University before joining the Armed Forces. At some universities there may be the option for people to join either a University Royal Naval Unit, a University Officer Training Corps (UOTC) or a University Air Squadron, which are designed to introduce students to life in the Forces and show them the careers that are available. People sponsored under the Defence Technical Undergraduate Scheme will join one of the four Support Units attached to universities participating in DTUS. There is a requirement for bursars of DTUS to join the military for three years after completion of their degree, there no requirement for students of any other organisation to join the military after they finish their degree programs; and the great majority have no further contact with the armed forces. Although service with these organisations may give some initial benefit to cadets attending the military colleges/academies, the next stage of the officer training programs assumes no prior military experience/knowledge, and those that did not partake in military activities at university are not disadvantaged.

Officer training

The Passing Out Parade at Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, one of four military academies in the United Kingdom.

There are now four military academies in the United Kingdom. Although the curriculum at each varies due to the differing nature of the service a man or woman is joining, it is a combination of military and academic study that is designed to turn young civilians into comprehensively trained military officers.

Officer Training for the Reserve Forces (e.g. Army Reserve, Royal Naval Reserve, RAF Reserves and Royal Marines Reserves) also takes place at the relevant military academies, but under a different curriculum and the courses tend to be concentrated into a much shorter period – a significant amount of the study will be undertaken at the cadet's reserve unit.

Postgraduate and staff training

  • Defence Academy of the United Kingdom
The first RAF staff College course at Andover, 1922. The staff college operated from 1922 to 1970.

United States

Introduction

In the United States, the term "military academy" does not necessarily mean a government-owned institution run by the armed forces to train its own officers. It may also mean a middle school, high school, or college, whether public or private, which instructs its students in military-style education, discipline and tradition. Students at such civilian institutions can earn a commission in the U.S. military through the successful completion of a Reserve Officer Training Corps program along with their college or university's academic coursework.

  • The term military school primarily refers to pre-collegiate secondary-school-level military institutions.
  • The term military academy commonly refers to a pre-collegiate, collegiate, and post-collegiate institution, especially the U.S. military-run academies.
  • The term US military staff colleges refers to separate graduate schools catering to officers on active duty .

Most state-level military academies maintain both a civilian student body and a traditional corps of cadets. The only exception is the Virginia Military Institute, which remains all-military.[40]

Federal service academies

Cadets of the United States Military Academy (USMA) navigate the horizontal ladder and vertical rope obstacle of the Indoor Obstacle Course Test. USMA is one of five federal service academies.

The colleges operated by the U.S. Federal Government, referred to as federal service academies, are:

Post-graduate school

Senior and junior military colleges

Although Texas A&M University has transformed into a state university, it still maintains a corps of cadets along with a civilian student body.
Cadets of Marion Military Institute after the Alumni Weekend parade. The Institute is one of four junior military colleges in the United States.

There is one all-military state-sponsored military academy:

In addition, these five institutions that were military colleges at the time of their founding now maintain both a corps of cadets and a civilian student body. Many of these institutions also offer on-line degree programs:

Along with VMI, these institutions are known as the senior military colleges of the US.

Today four institutions are considered military junior colleges (MJC). These four military schools participate in the Army's two-year Early Commissioning Program, an Army ROTC program where qualified students can earn a commission as a Second Lieutenant after only two years of college. The four military Junior colleges are as follows:

Merchant Marine Academies that have military academy-style operations

Cadets of the Great Lakes Maritime Academy learning how to row a boat. The institution is one of six military-styled maritime academies in the United States.

There are six state-operated Merchant Marine academies:

These merchant marine academies operate on a military college system. Part of the training that the cadets receive is naval and military in nature. Cadets may apply for Naval Reserve commissions upon obtaining their Merchant Marine Officer's licenses. Most if not all also offer some form of military commissioning program into the active duty US Navy, US Marine Corps, or US Coast Guard.

Staff colleges

The United States staff colleges, mandated to serve the needs of officers for post-graduate studies and other such graduate institutions as mandated by the Department of Defense are:

United States Air Force Air University attached staff colleges

Staff colleges of the United States Army

A classroom at the School of Advanced Military Studies, one of four staff colleges of the United States Army

Staff colleges of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps

Joint Service staff colleges

The National War College, a school of the National Defense University, is a multi-service staff college in the United States.

Other post-graduate colleges operated by the DoD

Uzbekistan

The Tashkent Higher Tank Command School during the soviet period
  • Academy of the Armed Forces of Uzbekistan (formerly the Tashkent Higher All-Arms Command School)
  • Joint Service Officer Training Academy
  • Tashkent Higher Tank Command School
  • Samarkand Higher Military Automobile Command School
  • Higher Military Customs Institute
  • Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Uzbekistan
  • Military-Technical Institute of the National Guard of Uzbekistan
  • Uzbekistan Air Academy

Vietnam

Zimbabwe

  • Zimbabwe National Defence University

See also

  • Military high school
  • List of fictional schools
  • List of government-run higher-level national military academies
  • Military building
  • Military education and training

Further reading

  • Cadet, Linton Hall, Linton Hall Military School Memories: One cadet's memoir, Scrounge Press, 2014. ISBN 9781495931963 Memoir of cadet who attended a military school for boys ages 6 to 16.

References

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  4. Richard A Harmon. "Perspectives in the History of Military Education and Professionalism" (PDF).
  5. Major-General John Gaspard Le Marchant (1766–1812) Archived March 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Defence Academy
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  11. "Concursos - Como Ingressar na Aeronáutica". www.concursosmilitares.com.br. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
  12. H16511 Dr. Richard Arthur Preston "To Serve Canada: A History of the Royal Military College of Canada" 1997 Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1969.
  13. 4237 Dr. Adrian Preston & Peter Dennis (Edited) "Swords and Covenants" Rowman And Littlefield, London. Croom Helm. 1976.
  14. H16511 Dr. Richard Preston "R.M.C. and Kingston: The effect of imperial and military influences on a Canadian community" 1968
  15. H1877 R. Guy C. Smith (editor) "As You Were! Ex-Cadets Remember". In 2 Volumes. Volume I: 1876–1918. Volume II: 1919–1984. Royal Military College. [Kingston]. The R.M.C. Club of Canada. 1984
  16. "To Serve Canada: A History of the Royal Military College since the Second World War", Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1991.
  17. News, Mirage (May 14, 2021). "First Bachelor degrees granted at Royal Military College Saint-Jean since 1995". Mirage News. Retrieved October 16, 2021. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  18. DCOM. "Choix de 4A des promotions précédentes – Orientation 4A". portail.polytechnique.edu.
  19. "საქართველოს თავდაცვის სამინისტრო". eta.mod.gov.ge. Archived from the original on December 10, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2012.
  20. "Akademi Militer | Center Of Excellence".
  21. "اسم هاي مخفف در نيروهاي مسلح". www.parsine.com (in Persian). Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  22. "Portal Rasmi Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia". www.upnm.edu.my.
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  24. "Malaysian Armed Forces Staff College (Haigate)". Archived from the original on April 18, 2007. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
  25. "Laman Utama -::INSAN::-". Archived from the original on May 3, 2007. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
  26. "Malaysian Peacekeeping Training Centre". Archived from the original on May 26, 2007. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
  27. List of Uganda Military Schools Archived February 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  28. "1000 TFG Somali soldiers passed out at Bihanga military training". January 25, 2021.
  29. "Kalama Warfare Training School Opened in 2005 at Kabamba". Archived from the original on December 4, 2020.
  30. "Museveni shakes up top army command". January 24, 2021.
  31. Kalama Warfare Training School at Kabamba Archived November 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  32. Oliver Tambo Leadership School at Kaweweta, Nakaseke District Archived September 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  33. South Africa Donates Equipment to Oliver Tambo School Archived November 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  34. "About Uganda Airforce Academy". Archived from the original on December 4, 2020.
  35. The NUST at Lugazi Archived November 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  36. About Uganda Urban Warfare Training School Archived February 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  37. "Факультет підготовки офіцерів запасу Національний університет оборони України Київський (військова кафедра)". www.nudu.io.ua. Archived from the original on January 19, 2021. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
  38. "History of Academy". Army Academy named after hetman Petro Sahaydachyi. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
  39. (in Ukrainian) Official website of National Defense University of Ukraine Archived December 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  40. Standberry, Lee (May 9, 2012). "Top 10 Military Colleges in America". TopTenz.net. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016. Unlike other military colleges (the federal service academies), all of VMI's students are members of the Corps of Cadets. This tradition of not offering civilian programs is in keeping with VMI efforts to offer students 'a Spartan, physically and academically demanding environment combined with strict military discipline.'
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