Meudon

Meudon (French pronunciation: [mødɔ̃] (listen)) is a municipality in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is in the département of Hauts-de-Seine. It is located 9.1 km (5.7 mi) from the center of Paris. The city is known for many historic monuments and some extraordinary trees. One of them, the Imperial Cedar (Cèdre Impérial), attracted the attention of Empress Eugénie and Queen Victoria.[3] As of March 2021, the tree is in good condition, but it is threatened by real estate speculation. Another real estate project is planned for the historic park of the Napoleon III villa built by Charles Schacher. Both projects are controversial and have aroused local opposition.

Meudon
Observatory of Meudon
Paris and inner ring départements
Location of Meudon
Meudon
Meudon
Coordinates: 48°48′44″N 2°14′17″E
CountryFrance
RegionÎle-de-France
DepartmentHauts-de-Seine
ArrondissementBoulogne-Billancourt
CantonMeudon
IntercommunalityGrand Paris
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Denis Larghero[1] (UDI)
Area
1
9.90 km2 (3.82 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019)[2]
45,818
  Density4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
92048 /92190, 92360
Elevation28–179 m (92–587 ft)
(avg. 103 m or 338 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Geography

The town of Meudon is built on the hills and valleys of the Seine. The wood of Meudon lies for the most part to the west of the town. The north-west part of Meudon, overlooking the Seine, is known as Bellevue ("beautiful view").

History

At Meudon, the argile plastique clay was extensively mined in the 19th century. The first fossil of the European diatryma Gastornis parisiensis was discovered in these deposits by Gaston Planté.

Archaeological sites show that Meudon has been populated since Neolithic times.

The Gauls called the area Mol-Dum (sand dune), and the Romans Latinized the name as Moldunum.

The handsome Galliera Institutions, on the hill of Fleury, were founded by the duchess of Galliera for the care of aged persons and orphans. The buildings were completed in 1885.

The old castle of Meudon was rebuilt in Renaissance style in the mid-sixteenth century. It was bought by Louis XIV as a residence for his son Louis, the Dauphin under whom Meudon became a center of aristocratic life. After the death of the Dauphin in 1711, the château was neglected, emptied in the Revolutionary sales, and finally burned in 1871 at the close of the Franco-Prussian War, while it was occupied by Prussian soldiers. A branch of the Paris Observatory was founded on the ruins in 1877. The Meudon town hall is about 43 m (141.08 ft) in altitude above that of Paris and the climb from there to the observatory offers some rewarding views of Paris.

Automotive pioneering

Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, the inventor of the 'world's first automobile', is reported to have carried out some early trials at Meudon in the early 1770s.

Pioneering aviation

Chalais-Meudon was important in the pioneering of aviation, initially balloons and airships, but also the early heavier-than-air machines. A Corps d'Aérostatiers under the command of Jean-Marie-Joseph Coutelle was established in 1794, its balloons being used at the Battle of Fleurus. 'Hangar Y' (at 48.7977°N 2.233°E / 48.7977; 2.233) was built in 1880 at the request of the military engineer Captain Charles Renard (1847–1905), for the construction of balloons and airships. The building is 70 m (230 ft) long, 24 m (79 ft) wide and around 26 m (85 ft) high. The airship La France, designed by Renard and Arthur Krebs, was built in Hangar Y in 1884 and was the first airship which was controllable during flight and which could return to its starting point.

The 1884 Krebs & Renard first fully controllable free-flights with the LA FRANCE electric dirigible in Meudon near Paris (Krebs arch.)

[4]

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 2,250    
1800 2,015−1.56%
1806 2,311+2.31%
1821 2,265−0.13%
1831 3,026+2.94%
1836 3,233+1.33%
1841 3,174−0.37%
1846 3,680+3.00%
1851 3,783+0.55%
1856 4,789+4.83%
1861 5,157+1.49%
1866 6,620+5.12%
1872 12,037+10.48%
1876 6,425−14.53%
1881 6,080−1.10%
1886 7,621+4.62%
1891 8,005+0.99%
1896 8,892+2.12%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 9,702+1.76%
1906 10,289+1.18%
1911 12,292+3.62%
1921 15,649+2.44%
1926 18,123+2.98%
1931 20,870+2.86%
1936 20,749−0.12%
1946 20,797+0.02%
1954 24,729+2.19%
1962 34,878+4.39%
1968 50,623+6.41%
1975 52,806+0.60%
1982 48,450−1.22%
1990 45,339−0.83%
1999 43,663−0.42%
2007 44,873+0.34%
2012 45,107+0.10%
2017 45,352+0.11%
Source: EHESS[5] and INSEE (1968-2017)[6]

Economy

Although a choice residential district, access to the railway (RER) and the Seine river have made Meudon a manufacturing center since the 1840s. Metal products and military explosives have been continuously produced there since then.

Scientific facilities

In addition to the Observatory, what is today ONERA, a national aerospace research institute and wind tunnel has been present since the military opened its aerostatic (lighter-than-air) field in the Chalais park in 1877. From 1921 to 1981 the Air Museum was located here until it moved to Le Bourget Airport.

CNRS has a campus in Bellevue.

Public transport

Meudon Val Fleury Station

Meudon is well served by public transport operated jointly by the SNCF and the RATP.

Réseau Express Régional (RER)Line C

Meudon is served by line C of the RER by Meudon – Val Fleury station.

Transilien – Line N

Meudon is also served by the Transilien Line N through Meudon station and Bellevue station.

TramwayT2 and T6

The T2 tramway line links Pont de Bezons station to Porte de Versailles station. It stops by La Défense. Meudon is served by Brimborion and Meudon-sur-Seine stations.

The T6 tramway line runs from Châtillon to Viroflay. Meudon is served by Georges Millandy and Meudon la Forêt stations.

Buses

Meudon is served by twelve lines of the RATP bus network, that have numerous stops in the city:

  • Line 162 runs from Arceuil – Cachan RER station to Villejuif Louis Aragon.
  • Line 169 runs from Pont de Sèvres to the Georges Pompidou hospital.
  • Line 179 runs from Pont de Sèvres to the Robinson RER station.
  • Line 190 runs from Petit Clamart to Mairie d'Issy.
  • Line 289 runs from Porte de Saint-Cloud to Clamart – Cité de la Plaine.
  • Line 290 runs from Le Plessis-Robinson to Issy-Val-de-Seine.
  • Line 291 runs from Pont de Sèvres to Vélizy Europe Sud.
  • Line 379 runs from Vélizy 2 to Antony – La Croix de Berny RER station.
  • Line 389 runs from Pont de Sèvres to Meudon-la-Forêt.
  • Line 390 runs from Vélizy Villacoublay to the Bourg-la-Reine RER station.

The area was once served by the Bellevue funicular, a model of which is in the local Museum of Art and History.

Education

Public schools:

  • Three groups of preschools and elementary schools[7]
  • Nine standalone preschools[8]
  • Six standalone public elementary schools[9]
  • Three junior high schools: Collège Armande Béjart, Collège Bel Air, Collège Rabelais[10]
  • Two senior high schools: Lycée Rabelais and Lycée des métiers Les Côtes de Villebon[10]

Private schools:

  • One junior and senior high school Institut Notre-Dame[10]
  • One elementary school through junior high school[11]
  • Three preschools-elementary schools[11]

International relations

Meudon is twinned with:[12]

Personalities

  • Émilie Ambre, the French opera singer, lived on an estate in Meudon bought for her by her then-lover William III of the Netherlands in 1877
  • Madame de Pompadour lived in the Château de Bellevue, built for her by Louis XV in 1750; it was demolished in 1823.
  • Sculptor Auguste Rodin's villa "des Brillants", now a museum of his art, is located here, as is his grave.
  • Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich of Russia lived here in exile in Château Sans-Souci (in Bellevue), from 1920.
  • Richard Wagner was a resident (No. 27 Av. du Château), and here composed The Flying Dutchman.
  • Louis-Ferdinand Céline lived here until his death, and is buried in Cimetière Longs Réages, Bas Meudon.
  • The 20th-century French lawyer and Islamologist Georges-Henri Bousquet (1900–1978) was born in Meudon.
  • Painter May Alcott lived here until her death.
  • Jean Robiquet, art historian and curator was born in Meudon 6 July 1874.
  • The artist Jean Metzinger lived and worked in Meudon from around 1911, during some of the crucial years of Cubism.
  • The painter Gwen John lived in Meudon from 1911 until just before her death in 1939.
  • Artists Jean Arp and Sophie Taeuber-Arp were resident here from 1929 to 1940. Their neighbours were the artist and architect Theo van Doesburg and his wife Nelly.
  • The town has a monument to Rabelais who died here as canon of Meudon, where he held the benefice from 1551 to 1552.
  • Charle-Michel Marle, mathematician, born in 1934, has lived in Meudon since 1970.
  • Jean-Luc Marion was born in 1946.
  • Clémence Poésy, French actress attended the bilingual alternative school La Source, Meudon, and is best known for her portrayal of Fleur Delacour in the Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire movie.
  • Lionel Jospin, former France prime minister, was born here.
  • André Kertész, photographer legend, took a famous photo of the train viaduct in Meudon.
  • Marcel Dupré, perhaps the most famous French organist of the 20th century, lived and worked in Meudon. He transformed his home into a small concert hall; the current owners of the home still hold public concerts there.[13]
  • Nicolas Isimat-Mirin, footballer
  • Gregoire Defrel, footballer
  • Souleymane Doukara, footballer
  • Adama Soumare, footballer
  • Lorenzo Callegari, footballer
  • Jean-Paul Sartre grew up at his maternal grandfather's house in Meudon, as recounted in his memoir The Words
  • George Simeon Papadopoulos, OBE, Professor of History, Dep. Director of Education Department of OECD (1925–2012)

See also

References

  1. "Répertoire national des élus: les maires" (in French). data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises. 13 September 2022.
  2. "Populations légales 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  3. History of the Imperial Cedar of Meudon
  4. Ville de Meudon, Aviation, Archdeacon and Wright No 3 Archived 1 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Meudon, EHESS. (in French)
  6. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  7. "Écoles maternelles." Meudon. p. 1–2. Retrieved on 7 September 2016.
  8. "Écoles maternelles." Meudon. p. 1. Retrieved on 7 September 2016.
  9. "Écoles élémentaires." Meudon. p. 1. Retrieved on 7 September 2016.
  10. "Collèges et lycées." Meudon. Retrieved on 7 September 2016.
  11. "Écoles maternelles." Meudon. p. 2. Retrieved on 7 September 2016.
  12. "Jumelages". meudon.fr (in French). Meudon. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  13. l'Association pour la Sauvegarde de l'Orgue de Marcel Dupré Archived 3 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.