Merauke

Merauke, also known as the Municipality of Merauke, is a large town and the capital of the South Papua province, Indonesia. It is also the administrative centre of Merauke Regency in South Papua. It is considered the easternmost city in Indonesia. The town was originally called Ermasoe.[2] It is next to the Maro River where the Port of Merauke is located.[3] As of the 2010 census, Merauke had a population of 87,634[4] which at the 2020 Census had increased to 102,351.[5]

Merauke
Lingkaran Brawijaya (Libra) 969 monument in Merauke
OpenStreetMap
Merauke
Merauke
Merauke (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 8°28′S 140°20′E
Country Indonesia
ProvinceSouth Papua
RegencyMerauke Regency
Government
  Head of districtKristian Ndiken
Area
  Total1,445.63 km2 (558.16 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 Census)
  Total102,351
  Density71/km2 (180/sq mi)
 [1]
Demographics
  LanguagesAuyu, Kolopom, Mandobo, Marind, Muyu, Mombum (natives) Javanese (dominant), and others
Time zoneUTC+9 (Indonesia Eastern Time)
Area code(+62) 975
ClimateAw
Websitehttp://www.merauke.go.id

History

Merauke was established in February 1902 as a military post by the Dutch, to prevent raids by the Marind-anim into neighbouring British New Guinea and the northwest Torres Strait Islands (Boigu, Dauan and Saibai). The Dutch also tried to establish a rice colony there to no avail.

The Cathedral of St. Francis Xavier in Merauke is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Merauke.

RAAF No. 12 Squadron pilots in the mess at Merauke in December 1943

Merauke was the site of an Allied air and naval base, Naval Base Merauke, during World War II and there was ground fighting between Australian and Japanese patrols in the area.[6]

In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Merauke was used as a transit point between Java, and the Boven-Digoel internment camp where many Indonesian Communist Party members were being sent.

The expression "Sabang to Merauke" is used as shorthand for the territorial extent of Indonesia from west to east, for instance in the name of Sabang Merauke Raya Air Charter. For instance, President Suharto stated in 1968 that "independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity from Sabang to Merauke are for the Indonesian people matters of principle".[7]

Climate

Merauke has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) with moderate to little rainfall from May to November and heavy rainfall from December to April.

Climate data for Merauke
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.9
(93.0)
32.8
(91.0)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
32.2
(90.0)
32.2
(90.0)
32.8
(91.0)
33.3
(91.9)
35.6
(96.1)
36.1
(97.0)
35.0
(95.0)
36.1
(97.0)
Average high °C (°F) 30.7
(87.3)
30.5
(86.9)
30.5
(86.9)
30.8
(87.4)
30.2
(86.4)
29.3
(84.7)
28.3
(82.9)
29.1
(84.4)
30.5
(86.9)
31.2
(88.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.6
(88.9)
30.4
(86.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.9
(80.4)
26.8
(80.2)
26.8
(80.2)
26.8
(80.2)
26.2
(79.2)
25.2
(77.4)
24.9
(76.8)
24.8
(76.6)
25.5
(77.9)
26.5
(79.7)
27.1
(80.8)
27.3
(81.1)
26.2
(79.2)
Average low °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
22.9
(73.2)
22.4
(72.3)
21.3
(70.3)
21.1
(70.0)
20.6
(69.1)
20.7
(69.3)
21.8
(71.2)
22.4
(72.3)
23.0
(73.4)
22.1
(71.8)
Record low °C (°F) 20.0
(68.0)
21.1
(70.0)
20.6
(69.1)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
16.7
(62.1)
17.2
(63.0)
14.4
(57.9)
14.4
(57.9)
15.6
(60.1)
17.2
(63.0)
20.6
(69.1)
14.4
(57.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 226
(8.9)
352
(13.9)
202
(8.0)
186
(7.3)
83
(3.3)
53
(2.1)
37
(1.5)
16
(0.6)
8
(0.3)
27
(1.1)
62
(2.4)
204
(8.0)
1,456
(57.4)
Average rainy days 17 18 17 13 10 9 8 5 4 5 9 13 128
Average relative humidity (%) 84 85 84 84 84 82 81 81 80 81 82 83 83
Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes & temperature)[8]
Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute (rain & humidity)[9]

Education

Merauke hosts the Musamus Merauke University, a state-run public university. It was founded as an academy in 2001 and officially became university in 2006.

Merauke as the name

Merauke is used for the name of United States navy ship, USS Merauke (ID-2498).

See also

  • Merauke Five
  • Mopah Airport

References

  1. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  2. A Dictionary of the Aneityumese Language: In Two Parts, I. Aneityumese and English, II. English and Aneityumese; Also, Outlines of Aneityumese Grammar, and an Introduction by John Inglis, Williams & Norgate, 1882
  3. Port of Merauke
  4. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  5. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  6. Klemen, L. "The last Dutch fortress in the East Indies - Merauke, Dutch New Guinea, 1942". The Netherlands East Indies 1941-1942.
  7. "Transcript: Speech given by President Suharto at state dinner in honour of the Australian prime minister, Mr. John Gorton" (PDF). Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. 13 June 1968.
  8. "Klimatafel von Merauke" (PDF) (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  9. "STATION NUMMER 97980" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2020.

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