Mangifera is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains approximately 69 species, with the best-known being the Common Mango (Mangifera indica). The center of diversity of the genus is in the Malesian ecoregion of Southeast Asia; particularly in Sumatra, Borneo, and the Malay peninsula.[3][4] They are generally canopy trees in lowland rainforests, reaching a height of 30–40 m (98–131 ft).[5]

M. indica fruits
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Subfamily: Anacardioideae
Genus: Mangifera

Phanrangia poilanei Tardieu


Mangifera species are widely cultivated in Asia and elsewhere. More than 27 species in the genus bear edible, fleshy fruits, especially the Common Mango (M. indica). Others, such as M. foetida, yield astringent fruits that can be eaten pickled.[6]

Mango wastes, such as the seed kernel and peel, have high functional and nutritional potential. Mango seed contains important bioactive compounds that have high antioxidant activity, lipids that have acceptable physical and chemical characteristics (free of trans fatty acids), and a high protein content.[7] The mango peel contains considerable amounts of antioxidants and dietary fiber.[8]

Fossil record

The earliest fossil species thought to be related to Mangifera is Eomangiferophyllum damalgiriense from the upper Paleocene of northeastern India. Leaves have also been reported from the Paleocene of Japan and the Eocene of Germany, though these have been considered questions. Leaf fossils confidently assignable to Mangifera have been collected from Oligocene or early Miocene sediments in northern Thailand.[9][10]



  • Subgenus Mangifera
    • Section Marchandora Pierre
    • Section Euantherae Pierre
    • Section Rawa Kosterm.
    • Section Mangifera Kosterm.
  • Subgenus Limus (Marchand) Kosterm.


The following species names have been included:

  • Mangifera acutigemma Kosterm.; Unresolved[11]
  • Mangifera altissima Blanco; Unresolved[12]
  • Mangifera amba Forssk.; Unresolved[13]
  • Mangifera andamanica King; Unresolved[14]
  • Mangifera anisodora Blanco; Unresolved[15]
  • Mangifera applanata Kosterm.; Unresolved[16]
  • Mangifera austro-indica Kosterm.; Unresolved[17]
  • Mangifera blommesteinii Kosterm.; Unresolved [18]
  • Mangifera bullata Kosterm. Unresolved [19]
  • Mangifera caesia Jack Accepted [20]
  • Mangifera campnospermoides Kosterm. unresolved [21]
  • Mangifera camptosperma Pierre Unresolved [22]
  • Mangifera casturi Kosterm.; Accepted [23]
  • Mangifera cochinchinensis Engl. Accepted[24] (Indo-China)
  • Mangifera collina Kosterm. Unresolved [25]
  • Mangifera decandra Ding Hou; Unresolved [26]
  • Mangifera dewildei Kosterm. unresolved [27]
  • Mangifera dongnaiensis Pierre Accepted (Vietnam) [28]
  • Mangifera flava Evrard Accepted[29] (Indo-China)
  • Mangifera foetida Lour. Accepted [30]
  • Mangifera gedebi Miq. unresolved [31]
  • Mangifera gracilipes Hook.f. Unresolved [32]
  • Mangifera griffithii Hook.f. Unresolved [33]
  • Mangifera indica L. Accepted: the common mango (type sp.) [34] (synonym M. austroyunnanensis Hu)[35]
  • Mangifera kemanga Blume Unresolved [36]
  • Mangifera lalijiwa Kosterm. Unresolved [37]
  • Mangifera laurina Blume Accepted [38]
  • Mangifera linearifolia (Mukh.) Kosterm. Accepted [39]
  • Mangifera macrocarpa Blume Unresolved [40]
  • Mangifera magnifica Kochummen Unresolved [41]
  • Mangifera merrllii Mukherji Unresolved [42]
  • Mangifera minutifolia Evrard Accepted[43] (Vietnam)
  • Mangifera monandra Merr. Unresolved [44]
  • Mangifera nicobarica Kosterm. Unresolved [45]
  • Mangifera odorata Griff. Accepted [46]
  • Mangifera orophila Kosterm. Unresolved [47]
  • Mangifera pajang Kosterm. Unresolved [48]
  • Mangifera paludosa Kosterm. Unresolved [49]
  • Mangifera parvifolia Boerl. & Koord. Unresolved [50]
  • Mangifera pedicellata Kosterm. Unresolved [51]
  • Mangifera pentandra Hook.f. Unresolved [52]
  • Mangifera persiciformis C.Y. Wu & T.L. Ming; Accepted (synonyms: M. persiciforma C.Y. Wu & T.L. Ming,[53] Mangifera hiemalis J.Y. Liang [54])
  • Mangifera pseudoindica Kosterm. Unresolved [55]
  • Mangifera quadrifida Jack ex Wall. unresolved [56]
  • Mangifera reba Pierre. Accepted[57]
  • Mangifera rubropetala Kosterm. Accepted [58]
  • Mangifera rufocostata Kosterm. Unresolved [59]
  • Mangifera siamensis Warb. ex W. G. Craib Accepted [60]
  • Mangifera similis Blume Unresolved [61]
  • Mangifera sumbawaensis Kosterm. Unresolved [62]
  • Mangifera superba Hook.f. Unresolved [63]
  • Mangifera swintonioides Kosterm. Accepted (Malesia) [64]
  • Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. Accepted [65]
  • Mangifera taipa Buch.-Ham. Unresolved [66]
  • Mangifera torquenda Kosterm. Unresolved [67]
  • Mangifera transversalis Kosterm. Unresolved [68]
  • Mangifera zeylanica (Blume) Hook.f. [69] Unresolved [70]

Formerly placed here

  • Bouea oppositifolia (Roxb.) Meisn. (as M. oppositifolia Roxb.)
  • Buchanania cochinchinensis (Lour.) M.R.Almeida[71] (as M. axillaris Desr.)
  • Elaeodendron glaucum (Rottb.) Pers. (as M. glauca Rottb.)
  • Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O'Rorke) Baill. (as M. gabonensis Aubry-Lecomte ex O'Rorke)
  • Fegimanra africana (Oliv.) Pierre.[72] (as M. africana Oliv.)
  • Spondias pinnata (J.Koenig ex L.f.) Kurz (as M. pinnata J.Koenig ex L.f.)[69]


  1. "Genus: Mangifera L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-11-23. Archived from the original on 2009-06-19. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
  2. "Phanrangia — The Plant List".
  3. Kuhn, David N.; Dillon, Natalie; Bally, Ian; Groh, Amy; Rahaman, Jordon; Warschefsky, Emily; Freeman, Barbie; Innes, David; Chambers, Alan H. (June 2019). "Estimation of genetic diversity and relatedness in a mango germplasm collection using SNP markers and a simplified visual analysis method". Scientia Horticulturae. 252: 156–168. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2019.03.037. S2CID 132739368.
  4. "Mangifera indica". Invasive Species Compendium. CABI. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  5. Litz, Richard E.; Miguel A. Gómez-Lim (2005). "Mangifera indica Mango". In Richard E. Litz (ed.). Biotechnology of Fruit and Nut Crops. CABI. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-0-85199-662-2.
  6. Litz, Richard E. (2009). The Mango: Botany, Production and Uses (2nd ed.). CABI. pp. 5–8. ISBN 978-1-84593-489-7.
  7. Torres-León, Cristian; Rojas, Romeo; Serna, Liliana; Contreras, Juan; Aguilar, Cristobal (2016). "Mango seed: Functional and nutritional properties". Trends in Food Science & Technology. 55: 109–117. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2016.06.009.
  8. Serna, Liliana; García-Gonzales, Estefanía; Torres-León, Cristian (2016). "Agro-industrial potential of the mango peel based on its nutritional and functional properties". Food Reviews International. 32 (4): 364–376. doi:10.1080/87559129.2015.1094815. S2CID 87396909.
  9. Prakart Sawangchote; Paul J. Grote; David L. Dilcher (2009). "Tertiary leaf fossils of Mangifera (Anacardiaceae) from Li Basin, Thailand as examples of the utility of leaf marginal venation characters". American Journal of Botany. 96 (11): 2048–2061. doi:10.3732/ajb.0900086. PMID 21622324. Archived from the original on 2017-02-18.
  10. Mehrota, R.C., D.L. Dilcher and N. Awasthi. 1998. "A Paleocene Mangifera-like leaf fossil from India". Phytomorphology 48(1):91-100.
  11. "Mangifera acutigemma Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  12. "Mangifera altissima Blanco — The Plant List".
  13. "Mangifera amba Forssk. — The Plant List".
  14. "Mangifera andamanica King — The Plant List".
  15. "Mangifera anisodora Blanco — The Plant List".
  16. "Mangifera applanata Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  17. "Mangifera austroindica Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  18. "Mangifera blommesteinii Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  19. "Mangifera bullata Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  20. "Mangifera caesia Jack — The Plant List".
  21. "Mangifera campnospermoides Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  22. "Mangifera camptosperma Pierre — The Plant List".
  23. "Mangifera casturi Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  24. Plants of the World Online (POWO): Mangifera cochinchinensis Engl. (retrieved 3 April 2020)
  25. "Mangifera collina Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  26. "Mangifera decandra Ding Hou — The Plant List".
  27. "Mangifera dewildei Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  28. Plants of the World Online (POWO): Mangifera dongnaiensis Pierre (retrieved 3 April 2020)
  29. Plants of the World Online (POWO): Mangifera flava Evrard (retrieved 3 April 2020)
  30. Plants of the World Online (POWO): Mangifera foetida Lour. (retrieved 3 April 2020)
  31. "Mangifera gedebi Miq. — The Plant List".
  32. "Mangifera gracilipes Hook.f. — The Plant List".
  33. "Mangifera griffithii Hook.f. — The Plant List".
  34. "Mangifera indica L. — The Plant List".
  35. "Mangifera austroyunnanensis Hu — The Plant List".
  36. "Mangifera kemanga Blume — The Plant List".
  37. "Mangifera lalijiwa Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  38. "Mangifera laurina Blume — The Plant List".
  39. "Mangifera lineariflia (Mukh.) Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  40. "Mangifera macrocarpa Blume — The Plant List".
  41. "Mangifera magnifica Kochummen — The Plant List".
  42. "Mangifera merrillii Mukherji — The Plant List".
  43. Plants of the World Online (POWO): Mangifera minutifolia Evrard (retrieved 3 April 2020)
  44. "Mangifera monandra Merr. — The Plant List".
  45. "Mangifera nicobarica Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  46. "Mangifera odorata Griff. — The Plant List".
  47. "Mangifera orophila Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  48. "Mangifera pajang Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  49. "Mangifera paludosa Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  50. "Mangifera parvifolia Boerl. & Koord. — The Plant List".
  51. "Mangifera pedicellata Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  52. "Mangifera pentandra Hook.f. — The Plant List".
  53. "Mangifera persiciforma C.Y. Wu & T.L. Ming — The Plant List".
  54. "Mangifera hiemalis J.Y. Liang — The Plant List".
  55. "Mangifera pseudoindica Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  56. "Mangifera quadrifida Jack — The Plant List".
  57. Plants of the World Online (POWO): Mangifera reba Pierre (retrieved 3 April 2020)
  58. "Mangifera rubropetala Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  59. "Mangifera rufocostata Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  60. "Mangifera siamensis Warb. ex W. G. Craib — The Plant List".
  61. "Mangifera similis Blume — The Plant List".
  62. "Mangifera sumbawaensis Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  63. "Mangifera superba Hook.f. — The Plant List".
  64. Plants of the World Online (POWO): Mangifera swintonioides Kosterm. (retrieved 2 April 2020)
  65. "Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. — The Plant List".
  66. "Mangifera taipa Buch.-Ham. — The Plant List".
  67. "Mangifera torquenda Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  68. "Mangifera transversalis Kosterm. — The Plant List".
  69. "GRIN Species Records of Mangifera". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
  70. "Mangifera zeylanica Hook.f. — The Plant List".
  71. "Mangifera axillaris Desr. — The Plant List".
  72. "Mangifera africana Oliv. — The Plant List".
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