Macaroni pie

Macaroni pie is a casserole dish based on baked macaroni and cheese.[1][2] Primary ingredients include elbow macaroni, cheese, and milk. Although early records from the 1700s suggest this dish was first created in Barbados, spread across the Americas during the slave-trade era, and eventually made its way back to Europe, various variations now exist. For example, some recipes from 19th-century American cuisine include various meats. In Scotland, it is typically prepared using a hot water crust pastry, while in other areas the dish may not have any crust.

Hot macaroni pie


A slice of macaroni pie

Typical ingredients in macaroni pie include macaroni pasta, cheese, milk, butter, flour, salt, pepper and various spices.[2] Additional ingredients sometimes used include onion and bread crumbs.[2] Other ingredients may also be used. It can be prepared as a low-fat dish using reduced fat cheese and skim milk.[2] Some versions, such as those in Scotland, are prepared using a pie crust,[3] while others are not.[4] It may be served sliced into wedges.[5]

By region


In the Caribbean, macaroni pie is typically prepared without using a pie crust.[6] In the Caribbean, it is sometimes consumed cold, which may be referred to as "Caribbean style".[6]


Macaroni pie is a popular dish in Barbados, where it is commonly consumed as a Main or Side Dish along with fish or meat .[6] It is sometimes prepared as a spicy dish, using spices such as black pepper and hot sauces.[6]

Trinidad and Tobago

The dish is very popular in Trinidad and Tobago and is often available as a common dish at lunches and dinners.[1] It has been described as a staple food in Tobago.[7] Cheddar cheese, a key ingredient in the dish, was brought to Trinidad by English peoples.[1] It is sometimes served as a side dish accompanied with stewed meats.[1]


The Finnish macaroni casserole or makaro(o)nilaatikko is a popular dish made with elbow pasta and egg-and-milk mixture, and baked until it sets. Often sautéed minced meat (and optionally onion) is added, thus creating a lihamakaronilaatikko (literally, meat-macaroni casserole). The casserole may be topped before baking with breadcrumbs and grated cheese and/or knobs of butter, to form a crunchy crust.[8] Makaronilaatikko is typically served with tomato ketchup and pickles such as gherkins.


Pastitsio is a type of macaroni pie in Greek cuisine prepared using elbow macaroni noodles and various additional ingredients.[9]


In Italian cuisine the macaroni pie (Italian: Pasticcio (or Timballo) di maccheroni) is a traditional dish in several cities, with a long tradition originating from the pastizzi prepared by the chefs active in the Italian courts of the Renaissance: the most well known, filled with pigeon meat and truffles, comes from Ferrara,[10] while also Rome (whose pasticcio, filled with chicken innards and topped with cream, has a clear Renaissance origin) Naples and Sicily have their own version.[11] [12] The Sicilian Timballo has been immortalised by Luchino Visconti in his movie Il Gattopardo.[12]


In Scotland, macaroni pie is prepared by filling a Scotch pie shell with macaroni and cheese and baking it.[3][13][14] Greggs sold it in Scotland, but stopped doing so in June 2015, which spurred an online campaign and petition for the company to return the dish.[14] Several prominent Scottish politicians signed the petition, including main party leaders Nicola Sturgeon, Ruth Davidson and Kezia Dugdale.[14]

United States

In the United States, macaroni pie has been and sometimes still is referred to as "baked macaroni and cheese".[2][15] It is a part of the cuisine of the Southern United States.[16] In the United States during the mid-1900s, the word "spaghetti" was typically used to refer to macaroni, and spaghetti noodles were used to prepare macaroni pie during this time period.[16] An American recipe from 1870 includes grated ham as an ingredient in the dish, and also calls for the meat from squirrels, birds or wild ducks.[17] An American recipe from 1892 includes pork and ham in the dish's preparation.[18]

See also

  • List of casserole dishes


  1. Ganeshram, R.; Vellotti, J. P. (2005). Sweet Hands: Island Cooking from Trinidad & Tobago. The Hippocrene cookbook library. Hippocrene Books. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-7818-1125-5. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  2. Rombauer, I. S.; Becker, M. R.; Becker, E.; Guarnaschelli, M. (1997). JOC All New Rev. – 1997. Scribner. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-684-81870-2. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  3. Bartynek, Shirley (July 2, 2015). "Free macaroni pie for every reader in today's Hamilton Advertiser". Daily Record. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  4. Rundell, M. E. K. (1844). A New System of Domestic Cookery: Founded Upon Principles of Economy, and Adapted to the Use of Private Families. Carey and Hart. p. 98. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  5. DellaVecchia, D. (2012). The Diary of a Mad Chef: "A Collection of Culinary Treasures and Short Stories". Trafford Publishing. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-4669-4302-5. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  6. Spieler, M.; Barnhurst, N. (2013). Macaroni & Cheese. Chronicle Books LLC. pp. 104–105. ISBN 978-1-4521-2507-7. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  7. O'Donnell, K. (2013). Tobago Adventure Guide. Hunter Publishing, Incorporated. p. pt117. ISBN 978-1-55650-127-2. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  8. "Makaroonilaatikko - Traditional Finnish Macaroni Bake". Cake Crumbs & Beach Sand. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
  9. Joachim, D. (2005). The Church Supper Cookbook: A Special Collection of Over 400 Potluck Recipes from Families and Churches Across the Country. Rodale. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-59486-202-1. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  10. Savoldi, Giovanna (1977). Cucina Emiliana e Romagnola (in Italian). Firenze: Edizioni del Riccio. p. 41.
  11. Boni, Ada (1983) [1930]. La Cucina Romana (in Italian). Roma: Newton Compton Editori. p. 201.
  12. Cardella, Giovanni. "Timballo del Gattopardo". Ricette di Sicilia. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  13. "Eight Scottish foods that they're too scared to serve anywhere else". Herald Scotland. May 27, 2015. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  14. Wilkie, Stephen (June 25, 2015). "Fury as Greggs says bye-bye macaroni pie". Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  15. Fowler, D. (2014). Beans, Greens & Sweet Georgia Peaches: The Southern Way of Cooking Fruits and Vegetables. Globe Pequot Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-4930-1410-1. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  16. Dupree, N. (2012). Mastering the Art of Southern Cooking. Gibbs Smith. p. pt654. ISBN 978-1-4236-2316-8. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  17. Elliott, S. A. (1870). Mrs. Elliott's Housewife: Containing Practical Receipts in Cookery. Hurd & Houghton. p. 79. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  18. Taylor, M. (1892). Letters to a Young Housekeeper. Cooking in America Series. Applewood Books. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-4290-1095-5.
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