Macaranga

Macaranga is a large genus of Old World tropical trees of the family Euphorbiaceae and the only genus in the subtribe Macaranginae (tribe Acalypheae). Native to Africa, Australasia, Asia and various islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the genus comprises over 300 different species.[4][5] It was first described as a genus in 1806, based on specimens collected on the Island of Mauritius.[1][3]

Macaranga
Macaranga peltata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Acalyphoideae
Tribe: Acalypheae
Subtribe: Macaranginae
Genus: Macaranga
Thouars 1806[1]
Type species
Macaranga mauritiana
Bojer ex Baill.[2][3]
Synonyms[4]
  • Adenoceras Rchb.f. & Zoll. ex Baill.
  • Mappa A.Juss
  • Mecostylis Kurz ex Teijsm. & Binn.
  • Pachystemon Blume
  • Panopia Noronha ex Thouars
  • Phocea Seem.
  • Tanarius Kuntze

Macaranga is noted for being recolonizers. Macaranga species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Endoclita malabaricus. Macaranga species often form symbioses with ant (Formicidae) species (particularly Crematogaster ants of the subgenus Decacrema) because they have hollow stems that can serve as nesting space and occasionally provide nectar. The trees benefit because the ants attack herbivorous insects and either drive them away or feed on them.[6]

Use

  • Macaranga gum, a crimson resin, is obtained from Macaranga indica.
  • Macaranga tanarius leaves are used by the Rungus indigenous people in Sabah, Malaysia to pack cooked rice into bundles to preserve it and impart a pleasant aroma.[7]

Species

Plants of the World Online currently includes:[8]

  • Macaranga acerifolia Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga advena Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga aenigmatica Whitmore
  • Macaranga aetheadenia Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga albescens L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga alchorneifolia Baker
  • Macaranga alchorneoides Pax & Lingelsh.
  • Macaranga aleuritoides F.Muell.
  • Macaranga allorobinsonii Whitmore
  • Macaranga alnifolia Baker
  • Macaranga amentifera Whitmore
  • Macaranga amissa Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga amplifolia Merr.
  • Macaranga anceps Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga andamanica Kurz
  • Macaranga angolensis (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga angulata S.J.Davies
  • Macaranga angustifolia K.Schum. & Lauterb.
  • Macaranga ashtonii S.J.Davies
  • Macaranga assas Amougou
  • Macaranga astrolabica Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga attenuata J.W.Moore
  • Macaranga auctoris Whitmore
  • Macaranga baccaureifolia Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga bailloniana Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga balabacensis Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga bancana (Miq.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga barkeriana Whitmore
  • Macaranga barteri Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga beccariana Merr.
  • Macaranga beillei Prain
  • Macaranga belensis L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga bicolor Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga bifoveata J.J.Sm.
  • Macaranga boutonioides Baill.
  • Macaranga brachythyrsa Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga brachytricha Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga brevipetiolata Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga brooksii Ridl.
  • Macaranga brunneofloccosa Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga bullata Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga caesariata A.C.Sm.
  • Macaranga caladiifolia Becc.
  • Macaranga calcicola Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga capensis (Baill.) Sim
  • Macaranga carolinensis Volkens
  • Macaranga carrii L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga cassandrae Whitmore
  • Macaranga caudata Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga caudatifolia Elmer
  • Macaranga celebica Koord.
  • Macaranga chlorolepis Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga choiseuliana Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga chrysotricha K.Schum. & Lauterb.
  • Macaranga cissifolia (Zoll. & Rchb.f.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga clavata Warb.
  • Macaranga clemensiae L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga coggygria Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga congestiflora Merr.
  • Macaranga conglomerata Brenan
  • Macaranga conifera (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga constricta Whitmore & Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga cordifolia (Roxb.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga coriacea (Baill.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga corymbosa (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga costulata Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga crassistipulosa Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga cucullata J.J.Sm.
  • Macaranga cuernosensis Elmer
  • Macaranga cumingii (Baill.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga cuneifolia (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga cupularis Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga cuspidata Boivin ex Baill.
  • Macaranga dallachyana (Baill.) Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga darbyshirei Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga daviesii W.N.Takeuchi
  • Macaranga decaryana Leandri
  • Macaranga decipiens L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga densiflora Warb.
  • Macaranga denticulata (Blume) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga depressa (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga dibeleensis De Wild.
  • Macaranga didymocarpa Whitmore
  • Macaranga diepenhorstii (Miq.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga digyna (Wight) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga dioica (G.Forst.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga domatiosa Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga ducis Whitmore
  • Macaranga ebolowana Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga echinocarpa Baker
  • Macaranga eloba Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga endertii Whitmore
  • Macaranga esseriana W.N.Takeuchi
  • Macaranga eymae L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga faiketo Whitmore
  • Macaranga fallacina Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga ferruginea Baker
  • Macaranga fragrans L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga fulva Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga gabunica Prain
  • Macaranga galorei Whitmore
  • Macaranga gamblei Hook.f.
  • Macaranga gigantea (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga gigantifolia Merr.
  • Macaranga glaberrima (Hassk.) Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga glabra (Juss.) Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga glandibracteolata S.J.Davies
  • Macaranga glandulifera L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga gracilis Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga graeffeana Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga grallata McPherson
  • Macaranga grandifolia (Blanco) Merr.
  • Macaranga grayana Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga griffithiana Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga hageniana Gilli
  • Macaranga hartleyana Whitmore
  • Macaranga harveyana (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga havilandii Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga hengkyana Whitmore
  • Macaranga henryi (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Rehder
  • Macaranga herculis Whitmore
  • Macaranga heterophylla (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga heudelotii Baill.
  • Macaranga hexandra (Roxb.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga heynei I.M.Johnst.
  • Macaranga hispida (Blume) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga hoffmannii L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga hosei King ex Hook.f.
  • Macaranga huahineensis J.Florence
  • Macaranga hullettii King ex Hook.f.
  • Macaranga humbertii Leandri
  • Macaranga hurifolia Beille
  • Macaranga hypoleuca (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga hystrichogyne Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga inamoena F.Muell. ex Benth.
  • Macaranga indica Wight
  • Macaranga indistincta Whitmore
  • Macaranga induta L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga inermis Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga intonsa Whitmore
  • Macaranga involucrata Baill.
  • Macaranga javanica (Blume) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga johannium Whitmore
  • Macaranga kanehirae Hosok.
  • Macaranga kilimandscharica Pax
  • Macaranga kinabaluensis Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga kingii Hook.f.
  • Macaranga klaineana Pierre ex Prain
  • Macaranga kostermansii L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga kurzii (Kuntze) Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga laciniata Whitmore & Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga lamellata Whitmore
  • Macaranga lanceolata Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga letestui Pellegr.
  • Macaranga leytensis Merr.
  • Macaranga lineata Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga loheri Elmer
  • Macaranga longicaudata L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga longipetiolata De Wild.
  • Macaranga longistipulata (Kurz ex Teijsm. & Binn.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga lophostigma Chiov.
  • Macaranga louisiadum Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga lowii King ex Hook.f.
  • Macaranga lugubris Whitmore
  • Macaranga lumiensis Whitmore
  • Macaranga lutescens (Pax & Lingelsh.) Pax
  • Macaranga macropoda Baker
  • Macaranga magna Turrill
  • Macaranga magnifolia L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga magnistipulosa Pax
  • Macaranga mappa (L.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga marikoensis A.C.Sm.
  • Macaranga mauritiana Bojer ex Baill.
  • Macaranga megacarpa Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga meiophylla S.Moore
  • Macaranga melanosticta Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga mellifera Prain
  • Macaranga membranacea Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga minahassae Whitmore
  • Macaranga misimae Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga mista S.Moore
  • Macaranga modesta Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga monandra Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga monostyla Whistler
  • Macaranga montana Merr.
  • Macaranga motleyana (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga myriantha Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga myriolepida Baker
  • Macaranga necopina Whitmore
  • Macaranga neobritannica Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga neodenticulata Whitmore
  • Macaranga nicobarica N.P.Balakr. & Chakr.
  • Macaranga noblei Elmer
  • Macaranga novoguineensis J.J.Sm.
  • Macaranga nusatenggarensis Whitmore
  • Macaranga oblongifolia Baill.
  • Macaranga obovata Boivin ex Baill.
  • Macaranga occidentalis (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga ovatifolia Merr.
  • Macaranga pachyphylla Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga palustris Whitmore
  • Macaranga papuana (J.J.Sm.) Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga parabicolor Whitmore
  • Macaranga parvibracteata Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga paxii Prain
  • Macaranga pearsonii Merr.
  • Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga pentaloba S.J.Davies
  • Macaranga pepysiana Whitmore
  • Macaranga petanostyla Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga pierreana Prain
  • Macaranga pilosula Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga platyclada Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga pleioneura Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga pleiostemon Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga pleytei L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga poggei Pax
  • Macaranga polyadenia Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga polyneura Gilli
  • Macaranga praestans Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga pruinosa (Miq.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga puberula Heine
  • Macaranga punctata K.Schum.
  • Macaranga puncticulata Gage
  • Macaranga quadriglandulosa Warb.
  • Macaranga racemohispida Whitmore
  • Macaranga racemosa Baker
  • Macaranga raivavaeensis H.St.John
  • Macaranga ramiflora Elmer
  • Macaranga rarispina Whitmore
  • Macaranga recurvata Gage
  • Macaranga reiteriana Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga repandodentata Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga rhizinoides (Blume) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga rhodonema Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga ribesioides Baker
  • Macaranga robinsonii Merr.
  • Macaranga rorokae Whitmore
  • Macaranga rostrata Heine
  • Macaranga rufescens S.J.Davies
  • Macaranga rufibarbis Warb.
  • Macaranga saccifera Pax
  • Macaranga salicifolia Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga salomonensis L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga sampsonii Hance
  • Macaranga sandsii Whitmore
  • Macaranga sarcocarpa Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga schweinfurthii Pax
  • Macaranga secunda Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga seemannii (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga serratifolia Whitmore
  • Macaranga setosa Gage
  • Macaranga siamensis S.J.Davies
  • Macaranga similis Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga sinensis (Baill.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga spathicalyx Whitmore & S.J.Davies
  • Macaranga sphaerophylla Baker
  • Macaranga spinosa Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga staudtii Pax
  • Macaranga stellimontium Whitmore
  • Macaranga stenophylla Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga sterrophylla L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga stipulosa Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga stonei Whitmore
  • Macaranga strigosa Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga strigosissima Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga subdentata Benth.
  • Macaranga subpeltata K.Schum. & Lauterb.
  • Macaranga suleensis Whitmore
  • Macaranga sumatrana Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga suwo Whitmore
  • Macaranga sylvatica Elmer
  • Macaranga taitensis (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga tchibangensis Pellegr.
  • Macaranga tentaculata Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga tessellata Gage
  • Macaranga teysmannii (Zoll.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga thomasii Whitmore
  • Macaranga thompsonii Merr.
  • Macaranga thorelii Gagnep.
  • Macaranga trachyphylla Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga trichanthera L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga trichocarpa (Zoll.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga triloba (Thunb.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga truncata J.Florence
  • Macaranga tsonane Whitmore
  • Macaranga umbrosa S.J.Davies
  • Macaranga uxoris Whitmore
  • Macaranga vanderystii De Wild.
  • Macaranga vedeliana (Baill.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga velutina (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga velutiniflora S.J.Davies
  • Macaranga venosa J.W.Moore
  • Macaranga vermoesenii De Wild.
  • Macaranga versteeghii L.M.Perry
  • Macaranga vieillardii (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
  • Macaranga villosula Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga vitiensis Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga warburgiana Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga waturandangii Whitmore
  • Macaranga whitmorei Airy Shaw
  • Macaranga winkleri Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Macaranga winkleriella Whitmore
  • Macaranga yakasii Airy Shaw

References

  1. Du Petit-Thouars (1806). Genera nova madagascariensia secundum methodum jussiaeanam disposita. Paris. 29pp
  2. neotype, mistakenly called lectotype, designated by M. J. E. Coode, Taxon 25: 184 (1976). Cannot be lectotype because not described until 1859
  3. Tropicos, genus Macaranga
  4. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  6. Federle, W.; Maschwitz, U.; Fiala, B. (1998). "The two-partner ant-plant system of Camponotus (Colobopsis) sp. 1 and Macaranga puncticulata (Euphorbiaceae): Natural history of the exceptional ant partner". Insectes Sociaux. 45 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1007/s000400050064. S2CID 26704950.
  7. https://www.facebook.com/pg/geraioa/photos/?tab=album&album_id=10157033718332367
  8. Plants of the World Online: Macaranga Thouars (retrieved 13 June 2020)
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