List of national capitals

This is a list of national capitals, including capitals of territories and dependencies, non-sovereign states including associated states and entities whose sovereignty is disputed.

The capitals included on this list are those associated with states or territories listed by the international standard ISO 3166-1, or that are included in the list of states with limited recognition.

Sovereign states and observer states within the United Nations are shown in bold text.

List

City/Town Country/Territory Notes
Abidjan (former capital; still has many government offices) Ivory Coast
Yamoussoukro (official)
Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates
Abuja NigeriaLagos was the capital from 1914 to 1991.
Accra Ghana
Adamstown Pitcairn IslandsBritish Overseas Territory.
Addis Ababa Ethiopia
Aden (de facto, temporary) YemenSana'a has been occupied by Houthi rebels since February 2015. Aden, the former capital of South Yemen, is Yemen's acting capital. See also: Yemeni Civil War (2015–present).
Sana'a (de jure)
Algiers Algeria
Alofi NiueSelf-governing in free association with New Zealand.
Amman Jordan
Amsterdam (official) NetherlandsThe Dutch constitution refers to Amsterdam as the "capital". Also of the public bodies of:  Bonaire,  Saba and  Sint Eustatius.
The Hague (de facto)The Dutch government is located in The Hague, which also hosts the monarch, government ministries, judiciary and diplomatic missions.
Andorra la Vella Andorra
Ankara TurkeyAnkara replaced Istanbul as the capital of the newly-formed Republic of Turkey in 1923, after the Turkish War of Independence. Istanbul was the capital of Turkey's predecessor, the Ottoman Empire.
Antananarivo Madagascar
Apia Samoa
Ashgabat Turkmenistan
Asmara Eritrea
Astana KazakhstanAstana was named Nur-Sultan from 2019 to 2022. Almaty was the capital from 1929 to 1997.
Asunción Paraguay
Athens Greece
Avarua Cook IslandsSelf-governing in free association with New Zealand. Sometimes incorrectly referred to as Rarotonga, the name of the island on which Avarua is located.
Baghdad Iraq
Baku Azerbaijan
Bamako Mali
Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei
Bangkok Thailand
Bangui Central African Republic
Banjul The Gambia
Basseterre Saint Kitts and Nevis
Beijing ChinaSee also: Historical capitals of China.
Sub-divisions of  Hong Kong and  Macau.
Beirut Lebanon
Belgrade Serbia
Belmopan Belize
Berlin GermanyBonn was the capital of West Germany and remained the seat of government for reunified Germany until 1999.
Bern (de facto) SwitzerlandSwitzerland has no official capital.
Bishkek Kyrgyzstan
Bissau Guinea-Bissau
Bloemfontein (judicial) South Africa
Cape Town (legislative)
Pretoria (executive)
Bogotá Colombia
Brades (de facto) MontserratBritish Overseas Territory. Plymouth was abandoned after the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano in 1997. Government offices since then have been moved to Brades, which is in the northwestern part of Montserrat.
Plymouth (official)
Brasília BrazilRio de Janeiro was the capital until 1960. See also: Capitals of Brazil
Bratislava Slovakia
Brazzaville Congo
Bridgetown Barbados
Brussels BelgiumAlso the de facto capital of the  European Union.
Bucharest Romania
Budapest HungarySee also: List of historical capitals of Hungary
Buenos Aires Argentina
Cairo EgyptA new capital is being built at the New Administrative Capital. It could be named Egypt. See also: List of historical capitals of Egypt
Camp Thunder Cove  British Indian Ocean Territory British Overseas Territory.
Canberra AustraliaPlanned city built to overcome the rivalry between Melbourne (de facto capital at the time) and Sydney (economic capital and largest population center), which were both put forward as potential capitals for the nation in the Australasia Federation Conventions of the 1890s. Section 125 of the Constitution gives basic details about the location of the capital, size of the encompassing territory and so forth, while the Seat of Government Act 1908 specified its precise location.
Caracas Venezuela
Castries Saint Lucia
Cetinje (Old Royal Capital, present seat of the President) Montenegro
Podgorica (official)
Charlotte Amalie United States Virgin IslandsTerritory of the United States.
Chișinău Moldova
Cockburn Town Turks and Caicos IslandsBritish Overseas Territory.
Colombo (executive, judicial) Sri LankaUntil the 1980s, the capital was Colombo, where many important governmental institutions still remain and which is still designated as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka.
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (official)Also known as Kotte.
Conakry Guinea
Copenhagen Denmark
Cotonou (de facto) Benin
Porto-Novo (official)
Dakar Senegal
Damascus Syria
Dar es Salaam (de facto, judicial) TanzaniaDar es Salaam, the former capital and largest city, continues to serve as the de facto seat of government, hosting the presidency, government ministries, judiciary and diplomatic missions.
Dodoma (official, legislative)
Dhaka Bangladesh
Dili East Timor
Djibouti City Djibouti
Doha Qatar
Douglas Isle of ManBritish Crown Dependency.
Dublin Ireland
Dushanbe Tajikistan
Flying Fish Cove Christmas IslandExternal territory of Australia.
Freetown Sierra Leone
Funafuti Tuvalu
Gaborone Botswana
George Town Cayman IslandsBritish Overseas Territory.
Georgetown Ascension IslandPart of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
Georgetown Guyana
Gibraltar GibraltarBritish Overseas Territory.
Gitega (official) BurundiBujumbura was the capital from 1962 to 2018.
Bujumbura (de facto)
Guatemala City Guatemala
Gustavia Saint BarthélemyOverseas collectivity of France.
Hagåtña GuamTerritory of the United States.
Hamilton BermudaBritish Overseas Territory.
Hanoi VietnamSee also: List of historical capitals of Vietnam
Harare Zimbabwe
Hargeisa SomalilandUnrecognized and self-declared state, de jure part of Somalia.
Havana Cuba
Helsinki Finland
Honiara Solomon Islands
Islamabad PakistanKarachi was selected as the first capital of Pakistan and served as such until the capital was shifted to Rawalpindi in 1958. Rawalpindi served as an interim capital for almost a decade until the construction of Islamabad was complete.
Jakarta IndonesiaA new purpose-built city named Nusantara in Kalimantan is planned to replace Jakarta as the national capital from the mid-2020s.[1][2]
Jamestown Saint HelenaPart of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
Jerusalem  Israel The Jerusalem Law states that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel" and the city serves as the seat of the Israeli government and its institutions. United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared the Jerusalem Law "null and void" and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from Jerusalem. Most countries currently maintain their embassies in and around Tel Aviv. The United States recognized Jerusalem as the capital and moved its embassy there in May 2018. [3] Many countries officially adhere to the proposal that Jerusalem have international status, as called for in the 1947 Partition Plan.[4]
 Palestine (claimed)
Ramallah (de facto)
Juba South Sudan
Kabul Afghanistan
Kampala Uganda
Kathmandu Nepal
Khartoum Sudan
Kigali Rwanda
King Edward Point South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsBritish Overseas Territory.
Kingston Jamaica
Kingston Norfolk IslandExternal territory of Australia.
Kingstown Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Kinshasa Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kuala Lumpur (official, legislative and royal) Malaysia
Putrajaya (administrative and judicial)
Kuwait City Kuwait
Kyiv Ukraine
La Paz (administrative) BoliviaLa Paz is the highest administrative capital (3,650 m) in the world, higher than Quito.[5]
Sucre (constitutional)
Laâyoune (declared) Western Sahara [c]The Sahrawi Republic, recognized by 82 states, claims the mostly Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara. Moroccan-controlled territory includes Laâyoune, and Morocco claims all Sahrawi-controlled territory. Tifariti is now the temporary capital (instead of Bir Lehlou earlier) of the SADR. Some government and military structures reside in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.[6] See Also: Politics of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
Tifariti (de facto)
Libreville Gabon
Lilongwe Malawi
Lima PeruCusco is declared the "Historical Capital" (Spanish: Capital Historica), a merely symbolic statement, by Article 49 of the Peruvian Constitution. Arequipa is dubbed the "Legal Capital" of Peru for being the seat of the Constitutional Court.
Lisbon Portugal
Ljubljana Slovenia
Lobamba (royal and legislative) Eswatini
Mbabane (administrative)
Lomé Togo
London United KingdomPrior to the Acts of Union in 1707, London was the capital of England only; Edinburgh was the capital of the Kingdom of Scotland.
Sub-divisions of  England,  Scotland,  Wales,  Northern Ireland.
Luanda Angola
Lusaka Zambia
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Madrid Spain
Majuro Marshall IslandsSelf-governing in free association with the United States. The seat of government is at Delpa-Uliga-Djarrit, a settlement on the attoll of Majuro.
Malabo Equatorial GuineaCiudad de la Paz is currently under construction and will become the new capital when complete.[7]
Malé Maldives
Managua Nicaragua
Manama Bahrain
Manila Philippines
Maputo Mozambique
Mariehamn Åland IslandsAutonomous province of Finland.
Marigot Saint MartinOverseas collectivity of France.
Maseru Lesotho
Mata Utu Wallis and FutunaOverseas collectivity of France.
Mexico City Mexico
Minsk Belarus
Mogadishu Somalia
Monaco MonacoCity-state. The Principality of Monaco does not have an official capital designated in its constitution; however, the Commune of Monaco, the country's only commune, is coterminous with the nation, making it the de facto capital.[8][9]
Monrovia Liberia
Montevideo Uruguay
Moroni Comoros
Moscow Russia
Muscat Oman
Nairobi Kenya
Nassau Bahamas
Naypyidaw MyanmarYangon was the capital until 2006.[10] See also: List of capitals of Myanmar
N'Djamena Chad
New Delhi IndiaKolkata was the capital of India until 1911 during the British Raj.
Ngerulmud PalauSelf-governing in free association with the United States. Koror City was the capital of Palau until 2006.
Niamey Niger
Nicosia Cyprus
 Northern Cyprus
See also: List of divided cities
Nouakchott Mauritania
Nouméa New CaledoniaOverseas territory of France.
Nukuʻalofa Tonga
Nuuk GreenlandSelf-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark.
Oranjestad ArubaSelf-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Oslo NorwaySee also: List of historical capitals of Norway
Ottawa Canada
Ouagadougou Burkina Faso
Pago Pago American SamoaTerritory of the United States.
Palikir MicronesiaSelf-governing in free association with the United States. Kolonia is the former capital; and Australia, China, Japan and the United States retain embassies there.

Sub-divisions of  Yap,  Chuuk,  Pohnpei,  Kosrae.

Panama City Panama
Papeete French PolynesiaOverseas collectivity of France.
Paramaribo Suriname
Paris FranceSee also: List of Capitals of France
Philipsburg Sint MaartenSelf-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Phnom Penh Cambodia
Port Louis Mauritius
Port Moresby Papua New Guinea
Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago
Port Vila Vanuatu
Port-au-Prince Haiti
Prague (official, legislative and executive) Czech Republic
Brno (judiciary)
Praia Cape Verde
Pristina Kosovo[g]De facto independent state that is recognized by 114 UN member states and by Taiwan. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Serbia as part of its Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
Pyongyang North Korea
Quito EcuadorHighest official capital (2,850 m).[5]
Rabat Morocco
Reykjavík Iceland
Riga Latvia
Riyadh Saudi Arabia
Road Town British Virgin IslandsBritish Overseas Territory.
Rome Italy
Roseau Dominica
Rothera British Antarctic TerritoryBritish Overseas Territory.
Saipan Northern Mariana IslandsTerritory of the United States. The seat of government is at Capitol Hill, a settlement on the island of Saipan.
San José Costa Rica
San Juan Puerto RicoTerritory of the United States.
San Marino San Marino
San Salvador El Salvador
Santiago (official) Chile
Valparaíso (legislative)The National Congress of Chile is located in Valparaíso.
Santo Domingo Dominican Republic
São Tomé São Tomé and Príncipe
Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina
Seoul South Korea
Sejong City (de facto) On 2 July 2012, some functions of government moved to Sejong, which became the de facto administrative capital of South Korea.
Singapore SingaporeCity-state.
Skopje North Macedonia
Sofia Bulgaria
South Tarawa KiribatiSouth Tarawa is a settlement on the atoll of Tarawa.
St. George's Grenada
St. Helier JerseyBritish Crown Dependency.
St. John's (de facto) Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda has no official capital.
St. Peter Port GuernseyBritish Crown Dependency.
St. Pierre Saint Pierre and MiquelonOverseas collectivity of France.
Stanley Falkland IslandsBritish Overseas Territory.
Stepanakert ArtsakhThe self-declared country remains diplomatically unrecognized by UN-member states, including Armenia. Transnistria, South Ossetia, and Abkhazia all recognize the state. Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.
Stockholm Sweden
Sukhumi AbkhaziaDe facto independent state recognized by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
Suva Fiji
Taipei TaiwanOfficially the Republic of China (ROC), it has been competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the sole Chinese government since 1949. Taiwan controls the island of Taiwan and its associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas, and part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 1] Its territory is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 2] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, the International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly Chinese Taipei.
Tallinn Estonia
Tashkent Uzbekistan
Tbilisi Georgia
Tegucigalpa HondurasComayagüela is declared in the Honduran Constitution as co-official capital with Tegucigalpa.[11] Now they have merged into a single Metropolitan Area.
Tehran Iran
Thimphu Bhutan
Tirana Albania
Tiraspol TransnistriaDe facto independent state, not recognized by any UN-member, but by Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.
Tokyo JapanSee also: Capital of Japan
Tórshavn Faroe IslandsSelf-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark.
Tripoli Libya
Tskhinvali South OssetiaDe facto independent state recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela, Abkhazia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.
Tunis Tunisia
Ulaanbaatar Mongolia
Vaduz Liechtenstein
Valletta Malta
The Valley AnguillaBritish Overseas Territory.
Vatican City Vatican CityCity-state.
Victoria Seychelles
Vienna Austria
Vientiane Laos
Vilnius Lithuania
Warsaw Poland
Washington, D.C. United StatesThe capital of the United States has moved multiple times. See also: National capitals of the United States
Wellington New ZealandSince 1865. Wellington is New Zealand's third capital. See also: Capital of New Zealand.
West Island Cocos (Keeling) IslandsExternal territory of Australia.
Willemstad CuraçaoSelf-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Windhoek Namibia
Yaoundé Cameroon
Yaren (de facto) NauruNauru has no official capital; however, the government offices are in Yaren.
Yerevan Armenia
Zagreb Croatia

Notes

  1. The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by the PRC, the ROC, Vietnam, the Philippines (part), Malaysia (part), and Brunei (part). Except Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  2. In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CCP established the People's Republic. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC instead of the ROC: most states recognize the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.

References

  1. "Indonesia announces site of capital city to replace sinking Jakarta". The Guardian. 26 August 2019.
  2. "Indonesia names new capital that will replace Jakarta". BBC News. 2022-01-18. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  3. See the CIA Factbook and Map of Israel
  4. Sharkansky, Ira (1996). Governing Jerusalem: Again on the world's agenda. Wayne State University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-8143-2592-0.
  5. Jacobs, Frank (19 June 2012). "Amazonia or Bust!". New York Times. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  6. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Western Sahara". June 12, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-06-12.
  7. Fortin, Jacey (19 December 2012). "Poverty-Stricken Equatorial Guinea Builds Expensive Capital City In The Middle Of Nowhere". International Business Times.
  8. "Constitution of the Principality". Gouvernement Princier Principauté de Monaco. Principauté de Monaco. 17 December 1962. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  9. "Monaco". Britannica. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  10. "Nay Pyi Taw | national capital, Myanmar | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  11. "Constitution of Honduras" (PDF). web.archive.org (in Spanish). 2010-07-05. Retrieved 2022-11-17.
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