List of fermented foods

This is a list of fermented foods, which are foods produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms. In this context, fermentation typically refers to the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using yeast, but other fermentation processes involve the use of bacteria such as lactobacillus, including the making of foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. Many fermented foods are mass produced using industrial fermentation processes. The science of fermentation is known as zymology.

Tibicos water crystals made with Muscovado

Many pickled or soured foods are fermented as part of the pickling or souring process, but many are simply processed with brine, vinegar, or another acid such as lemon juice.

Fermented foods

Fermented beans and seeds

Name Image Origin Description
Cocoa Cocoa bean fermentation for chocolate, and other cocoa products.
Cheonggukjang Korea A fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine that contains both whole and ground soybeans.
Doenjang Korea A thick bean paste that includes fermentation in its preparation.
Doubanjiang China A spicy, salty paste made from fermented broad beans, soybeans, salt, rice, and various spices.
Douchi A type of fermented and salted black soybean.
Douzhi Beijing This is a fermented dish from Beijing cuisine. It is similar to soy milk, but made from mung beans. It is a by-product of cellophane noodle production. It is generally slightly sour, with an egg-like smell. (Pictured in bowl at bottom left.)
Fermented bean curd China Fermented tofu.
Fermented bean paste East Asia A category of fermented foods typically made from ground soybeans, which are indigenous to the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. In some cases, such as in the production of miso, other varieties of beans such as broad beans may also be used.[1]
Lufu China A type of fermented bean curd.
Miso Japan A bean paste that includes fermentation in its preparation.
Nattō Japan Nattō (なっとう or 納豆) is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis var. natto. Some eat it as a breakfast food.It is served with soy sauce, karashi mustard and Japanese bunching onion. Nattō may be an acquired taste because of its powerful smell, strong flavor, and slimy texture.In Japan nattō is most popular in the eastern regions, including Kantō, Tōhoku, and Hokkaido.
Ogiri West Africa A flavoring made of fermented oil seeds, such as sesame seeds or egusi seeds. The process and product are similar to iru or douchi. Its smell is like cheese, miso, or stinky tofu.
Oncom West Java, Indonesia A traditional staple food closely related to tempeh, usually made from various byproducts of other foods such as tofu. Red and black oncom are made using different varieties of mold.
Pon ye gyi Myanmar (Burma) A fermented bean paste commonly used as a condiment or marinade, traditionally made from horse gram beans, alongside other beans.
Ssamjang Korea A thick, spicy paste used with food wrapped in a leaf in Korean cuisine. The sauce is made of fermented soy beans (doenjang), red chili paste (gochujang), sesame oil, onion, garlic, green onions, and optionally brown sugar.
Stinky tofu (chòu dòufu) China, Hong Kong, Taiwan A variety of fermented tofu.
Tempeh Indonesia A traditional soy product originally from Indonesia that is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form.
Tianmianjiang China A thick, smooth, dark brown or black paste with either a mild, savory or sweet flavor, also known as sweet bean sauce, sweet flour sauce or sweet wheat paste. Peking duck and jajangmyeon (black bean noodles) are two popular dishes that feature the sauce.
Tương Vietnam Originally, the term tương referred to a salty paste made from fermented soybeans. The word tương can also be used to refer to other condiments, such as tương cà (tomato sauce), tương xí muội (plum sauce) or tương ớt (chilli sauce). In southern Vietnam, nước tương refers to soy sauce while Northern Vietnam calls it xì dầu.
Tungrymbai Meghalaya, India A fermented soybean food. Tungrymbai is usually prepared by crushing the fermented beans until it almost becomes a paste, and frying in mustard oil with onion-ginger-garlic paste, black sesame seed paste, aromatics and pork.
Yellow soybean paste (huáng jiàng) Northern China A fermented paste made from yellow soybeans, salt, and water.

Fermented cheeses

Most cheeses (all but fresh cheeses) are fermented as part of their production.

Name Image Origin Description
Ambra di Talamello
Tvorog Russia A white cheese originating in Russia

Fermented condiments

Name Image Origin Description
Bagoong Philippines A Philippine condiment made of partially or completely fermented fish or shrimp and salt.[2] The fermentation process also results in fish sauce (known as patis).[3]
Dayok Philippines A type of fish sauce originating from the Visayas and Mindanao islands of the Philippines made from fermented yellowfin tuna entrails.
Fish sauce East and Southeast Asia A liquid condiment made from fish or krill that have been coated in salt and fermented for up to two years. It is used as a staple seasoning in East Asian cuisine and Southeast Asian cuisine. Some garum-related fish sauces have been used in the West since the Roman times.
Ganjang Korea A kind of Korean soy sauce made from fermented soybeans. Ganjang is a uniquely Korean condiment.
Garum Ancient Rome Garum was a fish sauce made from the fermentation of fish entrails, used as a condiment in the cuisines of ancient Greece, Rome, and Byzantium. It is believed to have resembled the fermented anchovy sauce colatura di alici still produced today in Campania, Italy.
Gochujang Korea A savory, sweet, and spicy fermented condiment popular in Korean cooking. It is made from gochu-garu (chili powder), glutinous rice, meju (fermented soybean) powder, yeotgireum (barley malt powder), and salt.
Iru Nigeria A type of fermented and processed locust beans (Parkia biglobosa) used as a condiment in cooking, very popular among the Yoruba people and Edo people of Nigeria.
Murri (condiment) Middle East A type of fermented condiment made with barley flour, comparable to soy sauce.
Soy sauce Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia Pictured is traditional Korean soy sauce.
Sumbala West Africa A fermented seed condiment, traditionally prepared from néré (Parkia biglobosa) seeds, but also from other kinds of seeds, such as those of Prosopis africana, and, nowadays, soybeans. It is comparable to miso paste.
Vinegar An aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace compounds that may include flavorings. Usually, the acetic acid is produced by a double fermentation, converting simple sugars to ethanol using yeast, and ethanol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria. It is now mainly used in the culinary arts as a flavorful, acidic cooking ingredient, or in pickling. Various types of vinegar are also used as condiments or garnishes, including balsamic vinegar and malt vinegar. As the most easily manufactured mild acid, it has a wide variety of industrial and domestic uses, including use as a household cleaner.
Worcestershire sauce Worcestershire, England A fermented liquid condiment named after the city of Worcester in Worcestershire, England. It is frequently used to augment food and drink recipes, and used directly as a condiment on steaks, hamburgers, and other finished dishes.
Yongfeng chili sauce Yongfeng, Shuangfeng County, Loudi city, Hunan province, China Fermented hot sauce from Hunan.

Fermented creams and yogurts

Name Image Origin Description
Amasi South Africa A type of fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yogurt.
Crème fraîche France A soured cream containing 30–45% butterfat and having a pH of around 4.5.[4] It is soured with bacterial culture, but is less sour than U.S.-style sour cream, and has a lower viscosity and a higher fat content.
Fermented milk products Worldwide Also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, fermented milk products are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc.
Filmjölk Nordic countries A mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting cow's milk with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.[5][6]
Kaymak A fermented, creamy dairy food similar to clotted cream, made from the milk of water buffalo, cows, sheep, or goats.
Matzoon Armenia A fermented milk product of Armenian origin.
Mursik Kenya A traditional fermented milk variant of the Kalenjin people of Kenya. It can be made from cow or goat milk and is fermented in a specially made calabash gourd locally known as a sotet. The gourd is lined with soot from specific trees which add flavor to the fermented milk.
Skyr Iceland A cultured dairy product, with the consistency of strained yogurt, but a milder flavor. Skyr can be classified as a fresh sour milk cheese (similar to curd cheese eaten in Estonia, Germany and Russia), but is consumed like a yogurt. Skyr is mentioned in many medieval Icelandic sagas, and is sometimes described as a shameful food to serve guests.[7]
Smetana, Smântână Central and Eastern Europe A type of sour cream, produced by souring heavy cream. It is similar to crème fraîche.
Sour cream Obtained by fermenting a regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria.[8] The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Pictured is Smetana.
Soured milk Soured milk denotes a range of food products produced by the acidification of milk. Soured milk that is produced by bacterial fermentation is more specifically called fermented milk or cultured milk. Soured milk that is produced by the addition of an acid, with or without the addition of microbial organisms, is more specifically called acidified milk.
Strained yogurt Strained yogurt, Greek yogurt, yogurt cheese, sack yogurt, or kerned yogurt is yogurt that has been strained to remove most of its whey, resulting in a thicker consistency than normal unstrained yogurt, while still preserving the distinctive sour taste of yogurt.
Tarhana Middle East, Southeast Europe A dried food ingredient, based on a fermented mixture of grain and yogurt or fermented milk. It is usually made into a thick soup with water, stock, or milk. Tarhana is very similar to some kinds of kashk.
Viili Nordic countries A fermented milk product. Viili is similar to yoghurt or kefir, but when left unmixed, its texture is malleable, or "long".
Yogurt Unknown; thought to be ancient Mesopotamia A fermented milk product produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk

Fermented grains and grain-based foods

Name Image Origin Description
Appam India A type of South Indian pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. It is a popular food in South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is also very popular in Sri Lanka where it is commonly referred to by its anglicized name, Hoppers.
Balao-balao Philippines A Filipino dish consisting of cooked rice and whole raw shrimp fermented with salt and angkak (red yeast rice).
Bánh cuốn Northern Vietnam[9] Made from a thin, wide sheet of steamed fermented[10] rice batter filled with seasoned ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and minced shallots.
Bread Worldwide Numerous varieties of this staple food are prepared with a biological leavening agent, commonly known as yeast, that produces gas bubbles through fermentation.
Brem Indonesia A traditional fermented food of Indonesia that uses rice.
Chakuli pitha India A rice-based fried pancake traditionally made in the Indian state of Odisha. It is made from fermented rice and black gram.
Dhokla Gujarat, India A vegetarian food item made with a fermented batter derived from rice and chickpea splits.[11]
Dosa India A fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is a staple food in many parts of India. Pictured is rava dosa, a type of dosa.
Enduri Pitha India A traditional pitha made in the northern and central region Indian state of Odisha. A fermented batter made of rice and black gram is steamed with/without stuffing made of coconut, jaggery and black pepper.
Idli Indian subcontinent A type of savoury rice cake, popular as breakfast foods in Southern India and in Sri Lanka. The cakes are made by steaming a batter consisting of fermented black lentils (de-husked) and rice.
Injera Ethiopia A sourdough-risen flatbread with a unique, slightly spongy texture. Traditionally made out of teff flour,[12] it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Kenkey Ghana A fermented maize dumpling.
Khanom chin Thailand Fermented rice noodles.
Kuzhi paniyaram India Steamed rice and black lentils batter.
Mixian (noodle) Yunnan Province, China A type of fermented rice noodle, made from ordinary non-glutinous rice, generally sold fresh rather than dried.
Ogi Nigeria A fermented cereal pudding, typically made from maize, sorghum, or millet.
Palappam South India A type of pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk.
Pesaha Appam Kerala, India A firm rice cake made by the Christians of Kerala, India, to be served on the night of Maundy Thursday (Pesaha). It is made from rice batter like palappam, but is not fermented with yeast in its preparation.
Peuyeum, Tapai Southeast Asia, East Asia A traditional fermented preparation of rice or other starchy foods.
Puto Philippines Philippine rice cakes. Some varieties are fermented.
Sowans Scotland A fermented, sour porridge made using the starch remaining on the inner husks of oats after milling.
Tapai Southeast Asia, East Asia A traditional fermented preparation of rice or other starchy foods.
White sugar sponge cake China A type of Chinese pastry, made from rice flour, white sugar, water, and a leavening agent.

Fermented fruits and vegetables

Name Image Origin Description
Atchara Philippines A pickle made from grated unripe papaya that is popular in the Philippines. It is often served as a side dish for fried or grilled foods such as pork barbecue.
Burong mangga Philippines Made by mixing sugar, salt, and water to mangoes that have previously been salted.
Chinese pickles China Various vegetables or fruits which have been fermented by pickling with salt and brine or marinated in mixtures based on soy sauce or savory bean pastes.
Curtido Central America A type of lightly fermented cabbage relish. It is typical in Salvadoran cuisine and that of other Central American countries, and is usually made with cabbage, onions, carrots, and sometimes lime juice.
Kapusta kiszona duszona Poland A Polish dish of braised or stewed sauerkraut or cabbage, with bacon, mushroom and onion or garlic. It is seasoned with salt, pepper and sometimes bay leaf, caraway seeds, sugar, paprika and apples.
Garri West Africa A popular West African food made from cassava tubers.
Gundruk Nepal Gundruk is made by fermenting leaves of vegetables of Brassica family.
Kimchi Korea Fermented cabbage or radish product.
Meigan cai China A fermented brassica product.
Mohnyin tjin Myanmar A popular Burmese cuisine fermented food dish of vegetables preserved in rice wine and various seasonings, similar to Korean kimchi.
Nata de coco Philippines A jelly-like dessert made from fermented coconut water.
Nata de piña Philippines A jelly-like dessert made from fermented pineapple juice.
Pickles[13] ancient Mesopotamia Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar. The pickling procedure typically affects the food's texture and flavor. The resulting food is called a pickle, or, to prevent ambiguity, prefaced with pickled. Foods that are pickled include vegetables, fruits, meats, fish, dairy and eggs.
Poi Polynesia A traditional staple food paste, with consistency ranging from highly viscous to liquid, made from starchy vegetables, usually breadfruit, taro or plantain.
Portuguese ground red pepper (Pimenta Moida) a.k.a. Massa de pimentão Portugal. Salt substitute staple in the Azores. Base for many Portuguese dishes. Shepherd peppers or Fresno or red Banana pepper or Cubanelle Chile Pepper or even Red bell peppers and salt. The addition of olive oil, paprika, wine vinegar and garlic varies. Wash peppers and de-stem and cut in 1/2 allowing peppers to air dry. Grind peppers with or 1/3 seeds are ground, salt and allow to ferment for 24-72hrs until boiling subsides. Jar adding salt olive oil to top for enhance preservation and taste.
  • Pepper heat range typically from 0-1000 Scoville.
Sauerkraut Germany Finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus.[14][15] It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage.
Sinki Nepal A preserved fermented vegetable, prepared from radish tap roots.
Sour cabbage Vegetable preserve similar to sauerkraut, with the difference that it is prepared through the lacto-fermentation of whole heads of cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var.capitata), not separate leaves or grated mass.
Suan cai Pickled Chinese cabbage (napa cabbage) or Chinese mustard, used for a variety of purposes.
Tianjin preserved vegetable (tung tsai) A preserved vegetable consisting of finely chopped Tianjin cabbage (箭杆菜; a variety of Chinese cabbage with an elongated shape) and salt. Garlic is added during preservation, if the cabbage is not to be consumed by certain Chinese Buddhist sects.
Tsukemono Japan Japanese preserved vegetables (usually pickled in salt, brine, or a bed of rice bran). They are served with rice as an okazu (side dish), with drinks as an otsumami (snack), as an accompaniment to or garnish for meals, and as a course in the kaiseki portion of a Japanese tea ceremony.
Zha cai Chongqing, China A type of pickled mustard plant stem, made from the knobby, fist-sized, swollen green stem of Brassica juncea, subspecies tsatsai. The stem is first salted, pressed, and dried before being rubbed with hot red chili paste and allowed to ferment in an earthenware jar.

Fermented meat and seafood

Name Image Origin Description
Bagoong monamon Philippines Prepared by fermenting salted anchovies.
Bagoong terong Philippines Made by salting and fermenting the bonnetmouth fish.
Burong isda Philippines Raw fish, fermented in red rice and salt for up to one week. Similar to Japanese narezushi.
Burong talangka Philippines Made by mixing crablets, and salt and left in a jar to ferment thoroughly. It can be eaten after 2–5 days. In the some communities, calamansi, chili, dayap, and/or soy sauce is/are added to enhance the flavor while fermentation is occurring.
Cincalok Malaysia Fermented shrimp dish.
Cod liver oil (Traditional preparation method) Cod liver oil was traditionally manufactured by filling a wooden barrel with fresh cod livers and seawater and allowing the mixture to ferment for up to a year before removing the oil.
Fermented fish A traditional preparation of fish. Before refrigeration, canning, and other modern preservation techniques became available, fermenting was an important preservation method.
Gejang Korea Gejang (게장) or gejeot (게젓) is made by marinating fresh raw crabs either in ganjang (soy sauce) or in a sauce based on chili pepper powder.
Hákarl Iceland Made by fermenting shark meat, then hanging it to dry. Pictured is hákarl hanging to dry in Iceland.
Hongeohoe Korea A type of fermented fish dish from Korea's Jeolla province. Hongeo-hoe is made from skate and emits a very strong, characteristic ammonia-like odor.
Igunaq North American Arctic, Northeast Asia A method of preparing meat, particularly walrus and other marine mammals. Meat and fat caught in the summer is buried in the ground as steaks, which then ferment over autumn and freeze over winter, ready for consumption the next year.
Jeotgal Korea A category of salted preserved dishes made with seafood such as shrimps, oysters, clams, fish, and roe. Depending on the ingredients, jeotgal can range from flabby, solid pieces to clear, broth-like liquid.
Jogijeot Korea A variety of jeotgal (salted seafood), made with yellow croakers.
Katsuobushi Japan Simmered, smoked and fermented skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis, sometimes referred to as bonito). It is also known as bonito flakes.
Kiviak Greenland Kiviak or kiviaq is a traditional wintertime Inuit food made of auks, a type of seabird, preserved in a seal skin.
Kusaya Japan A traditional salted and fermented fish dish originating in the Izu Islands, and often eaten with sake, shōchū, or a local drink called Shima Jiman.
Myeolchijeot Korea A variety of jeotgal (salted seafood), made by salting and fermenting anchovies.
Nem chua Vietnam Nem chua is a Vietnamese fermented pork dish, usually rolled or cut in bite sizes. The meat is sweet, sour, salty and spicy. It is often served with bird's eye chili, garlic and Vietnamese coriander.
Ngapi Myanmar A pungent paste made of either fish or shrimp, usually made by fermenting fish or shrimp that is salted and ground then sundried.
Rakfisk Norway A fish dish made from trout or char, salted and autolyzed for two to three months (or even up to a year), then eaten without cooking.
Saeujeot Korea A salted and fermented food made with small shrimp. Saeujeot is a variety of jeotgal.
Salami Europe A cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically pork, popular under various names across Europe.
Shark meat Shark meat is sometimes fermented.
Shiokara Japan A food made from various marine animals that consists of small pieces of meat in a brown viscous paste of the animal's heavily salted, fermented viscera.
Shrimp paste (Belacan) Southeast Asia, China Fermented shrimp paste.
Som moo Thailand A fermented pork sausage with a sour flavor, often eaten in raw form after the fermentation process has occurred.
Surströmming Sweden A lightly-salted fermented Baltic Sea herring.
Taba ng Talangka, aligi Philippines The crab roe and meat of a sack of crablets are carefully taken out and preserved in a single jar using sea salt. Traditionally, the number of female (V-lined underbelly) and 'gay' crabs (D-lined underbelly) should always have more weight than the male crabs (T-lined underbelly). Taba ng talangaka is usually used as a condiment to enhance the flavor of rice and other seafood.

Fermented drinks and beverages

This is a list of fermented drinks. Although many fermented drinks are alcoholic beverages, not all fermented drinks are alcoholic.

Name Image Origin Description
Acidophiline Russia, Ukraine Fermented milk product with Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria.
Amazake Japan A traditional sweet, low- or non-alcohol (depending on recipes) Japanese drink made from fermented rice.
Ayran Middle East A cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt.[16] In addition to Turkey, where it is considered a national drink, ayran is found in Iran (there called doogh), Afghanistan, Armenia (here called tan), Azerbaijan, the Balkans, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Syria and across the Caucasus.[17] Its primary ingredients are water and yogurt.
Beer Middle East A traditional alcoholic (depending on recipes) beverage made from grains and hops.
Blaand Northwestern Scandinavia, Scotland A fermented milk product made from whey with a very low alcohol content.
Borș (bran) Romania Water in which wheat or barley bran, sometimes sugar beet, or a slice of bread have fermented.
Boza Middle East A traditional fermented grain drink with alcohol found in many countries.
Buttermilk A fermented dairy drink.
Calpis Japan An uncarbonated soft drink manufactured by Calpis Co., Ltd. that is produced using lactic acid fermentation.
Chass India The word used for buttermilk in Rajasthani and Gujarati.[18] Chass is the traditional Gujarati beverage from Gujarat, India.
Chicha Latin America In South America and Central America, chicha is a fermented or non-fermented beverage usually derived from maize.[19] Chicha includes corn beer known as chicha de jora and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada.
Doogh Iran A savory yogurt-based beverage similar to Turkish ayran.
Kefir North Caucasus A fermented milk drink, similar to a thin yogurt or ayran, that is made from kefir grains, a specific type of mesophilic symbiotic culture.
Kombucha A fermented, lightly effervescent, sweetened black or green tea drink commonly consumed for its purported health benefits.
Kumis Central Asia Fermented mare's milk product.
Kvass Eastern Europe Fermented low-alcohol beverage based on rye bread.
Lassi India Yogurt drink.
Leben Levant A buttermilk-type drink.
Mageu Southern Africa A fermented maize-based drink.
Nai lao China Nailao, also known as Beijing yogurt (北京酸奶; Běijīng suānnǎi), is a traditional fermented milk drink that is popularly consumed throughout China. The word suānnǎi means "acid milk".
Podpiwek Poland, Lithuania Soft drink usually made from grain coffee, hops, yeast, water and sugar, which undergo fermentation.
Pulque Mexico An ancient drink possibly created by the Olmecs or Toltecs of South-Central Mexico. It is made from the fermented sap of the Agave Americana plant and appears very similar to milk. During the epoch of Mesoamerican history, it was believed by the Indigenous Peoples to be a sacred beverage and contain godly powers when drunk. Pulque is very much like its sister drinks, (however, the more clearer) Tequila and Mezcal. The original Classical Nahuatl name for the drink is Iztāc Octli.
Rượu nếp Northern Vietnam A rice wine made from glutinous rice that has been fermented with the aid of yeast and steamed in a banana leaf.
Ryazhenka Ukraine A traditional fermented milk product in Ukraine and Russia, made from baked milk by lactic acid fermentation.
Şalgam Turkey Şalgam is a popular beverage from southern Turkey's cities of Adana and Mersin. It is made with the juice of red carrot pickles, salted, spiced, and flavoured with aromatic turnip (çelem) fermented in barrels with the addition of ground bulgur.
Tejuino Nayarit, Mexico A cold beverage made from fermented corn. It usually made from corn dough, the same kind used for tortillas and tamales. The dough is mixed with water and piloncillo (cone-shaped unrefined cane sugar) and boiled until the liquid is very thick. The liquid is then allowed to ferment very slightly. The resulting drink is generally served cold, with lime juice, a pinch of salt and a scoop of shaved ice or lime sorbet.
Tepache Central Mexico A fermented beverage made from the peel and the rind of pineapples, and sweetened either with piloncillo or brown sugar, seasoned with powdered cinnamon, and served cold. Though tepache is fermented for several days, the resulting drink does not contain much alcohol. In Mexican culinary practice, the alcoholic content of tepache may be increased with a small amount of beer.
Tesgüino Central Mexico An artisanal corn beer produced by several Uto-Aztec people, from maize.
Tibicos (water kefir) Unknown (worldwide) A traditional fermented drink made with water and a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY).
Wine Caucasus A alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grapes. Wines not made from grapes involve fermentation of other crops including rice wine and other fruit wines such as plum, cherry, pomegranate, currant and elderberry.
Žinčica Žinčica (in Slovakia), Žinčice (in the Czech Republic), Żentyca (in Poland) A drink made of sheep milk whey as a by-product in the process of making bryndza cheese.

See also


  1. The Book of Miso, 2nd ed., by Shurtleff and Aoyagi. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press (1985)
  2. J. Dagoon (2000). Agriculture & Fishery Technology III. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-971-23-2822-0.
  3. National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods (1992). Applications of biotechnology to traditional fermented foods: report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. National Academies. pp. 132–133. ISBN 9780309046855.
  4. Meunier-Goddik, L. (2004). "Sour Cream and Creme Fraiche". Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. CRC Press. doi:10.1201/9780203913550.ch8. ISBN 978-0-8247-4780-0., p. 181f
  5. "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  6. "Ekologisk filmjölk odd milk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  7. Tirosh, Yoav (2020). ""Milk, Masculinity, and Humor-Less Vikings – Gender in the Old Norse Polysystem"". LIMES. 13: 136–150.
  8. "What is sour cream. Sour cream for cooking recipes". 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
  9. Lonely Planet Vietnam (Italian) "bánh cuốn – involtini di carta di riso cotti a vapore, ripieni di carne di maiale tritata e gamberi disidratati;"
  10. T.H. Yellowdawn: Fermented Foods (2008); p.302-p.304
  11. Redhead, J. F. (1989). Utilization of tropical foods. Food & Agriculture Org. p. 26. ISBN 978-92-5-102774-5.
  12. Science of Bread: Ethiopian injera recipe
  13. "Science of Pickles: Fermentation and Food | Exploratorium". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  14. Farnworth, Edward R. (2003). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC. ISBN 0-8493-1372-4.
  15. "Fermented Fruits and Vegetables - A Global SO Perspective". United Nations FAO. 1998. Retrieved 2007-06-10.
  16. A. Y. Tamime, ed. (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387.
  17. For popularity in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan see Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081. For the Balkans, see Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996.
  18. Suresh Singh, Kumar; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. p. 789. ISBN 81-7991-104-7.
  19. Michael Andrew Malpass, Daily Life in the Inca Empire. Retrieved 31 August 2008
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