List of animal rights advocates

Advocates of animal rights support the philosophy of animal rights. They believe that many or all sentient animals have moral worth that is independent of their utility for humans, and that their most basic interests—such as in avoiding suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings. They employ a variety of methods including direct action to oppose animal agriculture. Many animal rights advocates argue that non-human animals should be regarded as persons whose interests deserve legal protection.[1]


The animal rights movement emerged in the 19th century, focused largely on opposition to vivisection, and in the 1960s the modern movement sprang up in England around the Hunt Saboteurs Association. In the 1970s, the Australian and American philosophers, Peter Singer and Tom Regan, began to provide the movement with its philosophical foundations. Singer argued for animal liberation on the basis of utilitarianism, first in 1973 in The New York Review of Books and later in his Animal Liberation (1975), while Regan developed a deontological theory of animal rights in several papers from 1975 onwards, followed by The Case for Animal Rights (1983).[2]

A distinction persists within the movement—based on the utilitarian/deontological divide—between those who seek incremental reform, a position known as animal protectionism, and those on the abolitionist side, who argue that reform that aims to regulate, rather than abolish, the property status of animals is counterproductive.[3]

Historically speaking, it can be argued that the genesis of the animal rights movement was in India given the impact that both Buddhism and Jainism had on people in India and the neighbouring countries in Asia. The country with the largest number and highest percentage of vegetarians is India. Buddhism among the global religions is an animal rights religion par excellence. It has long subscribed to the belief that all life forms including that of non-human animals are sacred and deserving of respect, and extolls kindness and compassion as utmost virtues worthy of cultivation. Buddhism unreservedly embraces all living beings in its ethical cosmology without discrimination on grounds of species, race, or creed. Buddhist tenets—including the first precept, "Do not kill"—extend to both human and non-human sentient beings. The Buddha was so adamant and protective of the more vulnerable members of the moral community—namely the animals—that he declared that: "He who has laid aside the cudgel that injures any creature whether moving or still, who neither slays nor causes to be slain—him I call an Arya (Noble person)" (Dhammapada). The earliest reference to the idea of non-violence to animals (pashu-ahimsa), apparently in a moral sense, is in the Kapisthala Katha Samhita of the Yajurveda (KapS 31.11), a Hindu text written about the 8th century BCE.[4] Several Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist texts appearing in the following centuries, including the Tamil moral texts of the Tirukkural and the Naladiyar,[5][6] emphasize on ahimsa and moral vegetarianism, which is equated to today's veganism.[7]


The following is a list of impactful animal rights advocates from all positions within the movement, from academics to activists.

Name Born Image Country of birth Occupation Source
Elisa Aaltola 1976 Finland Philosopher, author of Animal Individuality: Cultural and Moral Categorisations (2006) and Animal Suffering: Philosophy and Culture (2012) [8]
Carol J. Adams 1951 United States Eco-feminist writer, author of The Sexual Politics of Meat (1990) [9]
Bryan Adams 1959 Canada Musician, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
Douglas Adams 1952–2001 United Kingdom Writer, campaigner for the Great Ape Project [10]
Casey Affleck 1975 United States Actor, animal rights activist [11]
Cleveland Amory 1917–1998 United States Founder of the Fund for Animals, president of the New England Anti-Vivisection Society [12]
Pamela Anderson 1967 Canada Model, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals [13]
Claudine André 1946 Belgium Conservationist, founded the bonobo sanctuary Lola ya bonobo [14]
James Aspey 1986 Australia Fitness trainer, animal rights lecturer [15]
Michael Aufhauser 1952 Germany Founder of Gut Aiderbichl, an animal sanctuary [16]
Greg Avery 1963 United Kingdom Co-founder of the Consort beagles, Hillgrove cats, and SHAC campaigns [17]
Alec Baldwin 1958 United States Actor, narrator of Meet Your Meat (2002) [18]
Matt Ball 1968 United States Co-founder and President of One Step for Animals, Senior Media Relations Specialist for The Good Food Institute, vegan, co-author of The Animal Activist's Handbook (2009) [19]
Martin Balluch 1954 Austria Co-founder of Vegane Gesellschaft Österreich, president of Verein Gegen Tierfabriken [20]
Neal D. Barnard 1953 United States President of Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine [21]
Shane and Sia Barbi 1963 United States Models [22]
Brigitte Bardot 1934 France Former actress, animal rights activist, founder of the Brigitte Bardot Foundation [23]
Bob Barker 1923 United States Former host of The Price Is Right, animal rights activist
Kim Basinger 1953 United States Actress, model, animal rights activist [24]
Gene Baur 1962 United States Founder of Farm Sanctuary [25]
Tom Beauchamp 1939 United States Professor of Philosophy at Georgetown University, co-author of The Human Use of Animals (1998) [26]
Marc Bekoff 1945 United States Professor Emeritus of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder, co-founder with Jane Goodall of Ethologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals [27]
Jeremy Bentham 1748–1832 United Kingdom Philosopher, author of the oft-quoted "The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?" [28]
Steven Best 1955 United States Philosopher, former Animal Liberation Press Office spokesperson [29]
Michela Vittoria Brambilla 1967 Italy Politician [30]
Brigid Brophy 1929–1995 United Kingdom Writer, author of article, "The Rights of Animals", in The Sunday Times, London, 1965. [31]
Mel Broughton 1960 United Kingdom Co-founder of the SPEAK campaign [32]
Joseph Buddenberg 1984 United States Mink liberator, twice indicted on Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act charges. Served two years in federal prison for liberating 5,740 mink from U.S fur farms. [33]
Geezer Butler 1949 United Kingdom Lifelong vegetarian, vegan since 1994, advocate for animal rights, devoted animal lover, bassist and founding member of the rock band Black Sabbath
Ned Buyukmihci United Kingdom Doctor of veterinary medicine, founder of Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights [34]
Lydia Canaan Lebanon Singer-songwriter, first rock star of the Middle East, United Nations delegate, animal rights activist, animal welfare supporter [35][36][37]
Joey Carbstrong 1986 Australia Animal rights activist
Paola Cavalieri 1950 Italy Philosopher, campaigner for the Great Ape Project [38]
Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 1623–1673 United Kingdom Writer, anti-vivisectionist [39]
Cesar Chavez 1927–1993 United States Co-founder of the National Farm Workers Association [40]
Alan Clark 1928–1999 United Kingdom Conservative Member of Parliament (1974–1992 and 1997–1999), historian, diarist [41]
Stephen R. L. Clark 1945 United Kingdom Professor of philosophy at the University of Liverpool (1984–2009), author of The Moral Status of Animals (1977) [42]
Jean Clemens 1880–1909 United States Daughter of Mark Twain [43]
Frances Power Cobbe 1822–1904 United Kingdom Founder of the National Anti-Vivisection Society and the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection [44]
Alasdair Cochrane 1978 United Kingdom Political theorist based at the University of Sheffield; author of An Introduction to Animals and Political Theory and Animal Rights without Liberation [45]
Sue Coe 1951 United Kingdom Artist, illustrator, author of Cruel: Bearing Witness to Animal Exploitation (2012) [46]
J. M. Coetzee 1940 South Africa Novelist, recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature, author of The Lives of Animals (1999) [47]
Priscilla Cohn 1933–2019 United States Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Pennsylvania State University, associate director of the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics [48]
Jake Conroy 1976 United States Member of SHAC7, animal rights activist [49]
Rod Coronado 1966 United States Animal rights activist, formerly for the ALF, Earth First!, and ELF [50]
Scott Crary 1978 United States Film director [51]
James Cromwell 1940 United States Actor, played the farmer in Babe (1995) [52]
Karen Davis 1944 United States President of United Poultry Concerns, author of The Holocaust and the Henmaid's Tale (2005) [53]
David DeGrazia 1962 United States Professor of Philosophy at George Washington University, author of Taking Animals Seriously (1996) [54]
Alain Delon 1935 France Actor, businessman, animal rights activist [55]
Chris DeRose 1948 United States Founder of Last Chance for Animals [56]
Rukmini Devi 1904–1986 India Dancer, founder of the Animal Welfare Board of India [57]
Nina Douglas-Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton 1878–1951 United Kingdom Co-founder of the Animal Defence and Anti-Vivisection Society [58]
Hugh Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding 1882–1970 United Kingdom Commander of RAF Fighter Command, president of the National Anti-Vivisection Society [59]
Muriel Dowding, Baroness Dowding 1908–1981 United Kingdom Founder of Beauty Without Cruelty [60]
Alice Drakoules 1850–1933 United Kingdom Lifelong supporter and treasurer of Humanitarian League et al. [61]
Joan Dunayer United States Author of Animal Equality (2001) and Speciesism (2004) [62]
John Feldmann 1967 United States Musician, appeared in Behind the Mask (2006) [56]
Lawrence Finsen United States Professor of philosophy at University of Redlands, co-author of The Animal Rights Movement in America (1994) [63]
Waka Flocka Flame 1986 United States Rapper
Dian Fossey 1932–1985 United States Primatologist, conservationist, advocate for mountain gorillas [64]
Roger Fouts 1943 United States Primate researcher known for his work with Washoe the chimpanzee, adviser to the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics [65]
Gary L. Francione 1951 United States Distinguished Professor of Law and Nicholas deB. Katzenbach Scholar of Law & Philosophy at Rutgers School of Law–Newark, leading abolitionist, author of Animals, Property, and the Law (2005) [66]
Bruce Friedrich 1969 United States Executive Director, The Good Food Institute [67]
Birutė Galdikas 1946 Canada Primatologist, conservationist, expert on orangutans [68]
Maneka Gandhi 1956 India Politician, founder of People for Animals [69]
Robert Garner 1960 United Kingdom Professor of political theory at the University of Leicester; co-author of The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation? (2010) [70]
Juliet Gellatley United Kingdom Founder and director of Viva! [71]
Ricky Gervais 1961 United Kingdom Stand-up comedian, actor, director, producer and writer [72]
Tal Gilboa 1978 Israel Founder of the Israeli Animal Liberation Front [73]
Dick Goddard 1931–2020 United States Television meteorologist, animal advocate. Ohio 131st General Assembly–House Bill 60 (Dick Goddard's Law) was passed, which is named after him. [74]
Antoine Goetschel 1958 Switzerland Lawyer, animal advocate for the canton of Zurich [75]
Lewis Gompertz c. 1783–1861 United Kingdom Author, Moral Inquiries on the Situation of Man and of Brutes (1824), founder Animals' Friend Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
Jane Goodall 1934 United Kingdom Founder, Jane Goodall Institute, co-founder with Marc Bekoff of Ethologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals [27]
Brigitte Gothière 1973 France Director and spokesman for the animal rights group L214, which she co-founded with Sébastien Arsac [76]
Celia Hammond 1941 United Kingdom Former model, founder of the Celia Hammond Animal Trust [77]
Stevan Harnad 1945 Hungary Cognitive Sciences, Université du Québec à Montreal [78]
Alex Hershaft 1934 United States Founder of Farm Animal Rights Movement and the Chairman of the U.S. Animal Rights National Conference [79]
Barry Horne 1952–2001 United Kingdom Animal rights activist, hunger striker [80]
Oscar Horta 1974 Spain Animal activist and moral philosopher who is currently a professor at the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) and one of the co-founders of the organization Animal Ethics [81]
Wayne Hsiung 1980 United States Lawyer, open rescue activist, co-founder of Direct Action Everywhere [82]
Chrissie Hynde 1951 United States Singer-songwriter [83]
Harish Iyer 1979 India Animal, LGBTIQ and Child Rights Activist
V. R. Krishna Iyer 1915–2014 India Former judge of the Supreme Court of India [84]
pattrice jones 1961 United States Writer, educator, activist, co-founder of VINE Sanctuary [85]
Melanie Joy 1966 United States Social psychologist and vegan activist, primarily notable for promulgating the term carnism
Roberta Kalechofsky 1931–2022 United States Writer, author of Animal Suffering and the Holocaust: The Problem with Comparisons (2003) [86]
Shannon Keith United States Animal rights lawyer, director of Behind the Mask (2006) [87]
Lisa Kemmerer United States Philosopher-activist, author, and educator [88]
Kesha 1987 United States Singer-songwriter and rapper [89]
Marti Kheel 1948–2011 United States Ecofeminist writer, founder of Feminists for Animal Rights [90]
Anna Kingsford 1846–1888 United Kingdom Physician, anti-vivisectionist, author of The Perfect Way in Diet (1881) [91]
Niko Koffeman 1958 Netherlands Senator, Party for the Animals [92]
Christine Korsgaard 1952 United States Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor of Philosophy at Harvard University, author of Fellow Creatures (2018) [93]
Dennis Kucinich 1946 United States Congressman [94]
Elizabeth Kucinich 1977 United Kingdom Director of public affairs for the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine [95]
Tiphaine Lagarde (in French) 1982 France Activist and co-founder of French antispeciesist association "269 Libération animale" [96]
Carla Lane 1928–2016 United Kingdom Television scriptwriter, ran Animaline animal sanctuary [97]
k.d. lang 1961 Canada Musician [98]
Gill Langley 1952 United Kingdom Scientist, campaigner against the use of animals in research [99]
Charlotte Laws 1960 United States Author, TV Host and Animal rights activist [100]
Ronnie Lee 1951 United Kingdom Founder of the Animal Liberation Front [101]
Tobias Leenaert 1973 Belgium Vegan activist, speaker, author of How to Create a Vegan World: a Pragmatic Approach, and blog The Vegan Strategist, co-founder of the Center for Effective Vegan Advocacy (CEVA) and ProVeg International [102]
Lizzy Lind af Hageby 1878–1963 Sweden Founder of the Animal Defence and Anti-Vivisection Society, known for the Brown Dog affair [103]
Bob Linden United States Host of Go Vegan Radio [104]
Ludvig Lindström 1975 Sweden Animal rights activist, founder of Global Happiness Organization [105]
Andrew Linzey 1951 England Theologian, founder of the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics [106]
Howard Lyman 1938 United States Writer and activist, author of Mad Cowboy [107]
Dan Lyons United Kingdom CEO, Centre for Animals and Social Justice [108]
Jo-Anne McArthur 1976 Canada Photographer, founder of the We Animals project and subject of The Ghosts in Our Machine [109]
Linda McCartney 1941–1998 United States Photographer, musician, founder of Linda McCartney Foods [110]
Mary McCartney 1969 England Photographer, has taken photographs for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
Paul McCartney 1942 England Musician, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
Stella McCartney 1971 England Designer, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals [110]
Colin McGinn 1950 England Philosopher [111]
Charles R. Magel 1920–2014 United States Professor emeritus of Philosophy and Ethics at Moorhead State University, animal rights activist and bibliographer [112]
Bill Maher 1956 United States Comedian, board director of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals [113]
Keith Mann England Animal rights activist, author of From Dusk 'til Dawn: An Insider's View of the Growth of the Animal Liberation Movement (2007) [114]
Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson 1941 United States Former psychoanalyst, author of When Elephants Weep (1995) [115]
Dan Mathews 1964 United States Senior Vice-President of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals [116]
Gauri Maulekhi India Animal rights activist, Member Secretary People for Animals Uttarakhand, Trustee People for Animals, Consultant Humane Society International, Trustee People for Animals India [117][118][119][120]
Brian May 1947 United Kingdom Musician/guitarist of Queen and founder of Save Me [121]
Lea Michele 1986 United States Actress, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals [122]
Mary Midgley 1919–2018 England Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at Newcastle University (retired), author of Animals And Why They Matter (1983) [123]
Heather Mills 1968 United Kingdom Campaigner for Viva! [124]
Moby 1965 United States Musician, DJ, released Animal Rights (1996) [125]
Shaun Monson 1958 United States Director of Earthlings (2005) [126]
J. Howard Moore 1862–1916 United States Zoologist, philosopher, educator, socialist and author of The Universal Kinship (1906) [127]
José Ferrater Mora 1912–1991 Spain Philosopher, honoured by the Ferrater Mora Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics [128]
Morrissey 1959 England Musician
Jesús Mosterín 1941–2017 Spain Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science at the University of Barcelona, honorary president of the Spanish Great Ape Project [129]
Ingrid Newkirk 1949 United Kingdom Co-founder and President of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals [130]
David Nibert 1953 United States Abolitionist, Professor of Sociology at Wittenberg University [131]
Heather Nicholson 1967 United Kingdom Co-founder of the Consort beagles, Hillgrove cats, and SHAC campaigns [132]
Jack Norris 1967 United States Co-founder and executive director of Vegan Outreach, vegan, author of Vitamin B12: Are You Getting It? and Staying Healthy On Plant-Based Diets, Animal Rights Hall of Fame member
Martha Nussbaum 1947 United States Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago [133]
Natasja Oerlemans 1969 Netherlands Politician, Party for the Animals [134]
Peggy Oki 1956 United States Skateboarder, animal rights activist, campaigner against whaling [135]
David Olivier 1956 France Philosopher and antispeciesist activist, founder of the journal Les Cahiers antispécistes [136]
Esther Ouwehand 1976 Netherlands Member of Parliament, Party for the Animals [137]
Kelly Overton United States Executive Director of People Protecting Animals & Their Habitats
Alex Pacheco 1958 United States Co-founder of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals [138]
Colleen Patrick-Goudreau 1970 United States Author, Animal Advocate, Podcaster
David Pearce United Kingdom Philosopher, vegan and animal activist [139]
Jill Phipps 1964–1995 England Animal rights activist, campaigner against live export [140]
Joaquin Phoenix 1974 Puerto Rico (United States) Actor, animal rights activist, narrator of Earthlings (2005) and Dominion (2018) [141]
River Phoenix 1970–1993 United States Actor, animal rights activist [142]
Summer Phoenix 1978 United States Actress, animal rights activist [11]
Pink 1979 United States Singer [143]
James Rachels 1941–2003 United States Philosopher [144]
Tom Regan 1938–2017 United States Professor emeritus of philosophy at North Carolina State University, author of The Case for Animal Rights (1983) [145]
Qiu Renzong ca. 1933 China Bioethicist [146]
Dorothy Burney Richards 1894–1985 United States Founder of Beaversprite, director of Defenders of Wildlife 1948–1976 [147]
Nathaniel Peabody Rogers 1794–1846 United States Abolitionist writer [148]
Bernard Rollin 1943-2021 United States Professor of philosophy, animal sciences, and biomedical sciences at Colorado State University [149]
Craig Rosebraugh 1951 United States Writer, environmentalist, animal rights activist [150]
Zoe Rosenberg United States Animal sanctuary founder, animal rights activist [151]
Mark Rowlands 1962 Wales Professor of Philosophy at the University of Miami, author of The Philosopher and the Wolf (2008) [152]
Nathan Runkle ca. 1984 United States Founder and executive director of Mercy for Animals [153]
Regan Russell 1955–2020 Canada The second Canadian to be struck by a pig hauling driver; she was killed on scene while attending an animal vigil through Toronto Pig Save [154]
Richard D. Ryder 1940 England Psychologist, coined the term "speciesism" in 1970 [155]
Henry Stephens Salt 1851–1939 England Civil-rights campaigner, author of Animals' Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress (1892) [156]
Becky Sanstedt ca. 1960 United States Animal rights activist, former investigator for Farm Sanctuary [157]
Steve F. Sapontzis 1945 United States Professor emeritus of philosophy at California State University, East Bay, author of Morals, Reason, and Animals (1987) [158]
Anuradha Sawhney India Head of Indian operations for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals [159]
Jérôme Segal 1970 France-Austria Essayist, historian and author of Animal radical: Histoire et sociologie de l'antispécisme ("Animal radical: The history and sociology of antispeciesism") [160]
Paul Shapiro 1979 United States Vice President of Policy for the Humane Society of the United States [161]
Alicia Silverstone 1976 United States Actress
Isaac Bashevis Singer 1902–1991 Poland Winner of the 1978 Nobel Prize in Literature [162]
Peter Singer 1946 Australia Philosopher, author of Animal Liberation (1975) [163]
Willie Smits 1957 Netherlands Conservationist, founder of the Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation [164]
Amy Soranno 1993/1994 Canada Animal rights activist in British Columbia [165]
Henry Spira 1927–1998 United States Animal rights activist, founder of Animal Rights International [166]
Gary Steiner United States John Howard Harris Professor of Philosophy at Bucknell University [167]
William O. Stephens 1962 United States Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Creighton University [168]
Steve-O 1974 England Stunt performer, animal rights activist [169]
Pelle Strindlund 1971 Sweden Writer, founding member of the Rescue Service [170]
Cass Sunstein 1954 United States Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs [171]
David Sztybel 1967 Canada Philosopher, writer [172]
Peter Tatchell 1952 Australia Civil-rights activist [173]
Sunaura Taylor 1982 United States Artist and writer [174]
Marianne Thieme 1972 Netherlands Member of Parliament, Party for the Animals [175]
Lynda Thomas 1981 Mexico Retired musician/singer-songwriter, anonymous activist [176]
Darren Thurston ca. 1970 Canada Animal rights activist [177]
Bob and Jenna Torres United States Writers, animal rights and vegan activists [178]
Tokugawa Tsunayoshi 1646–1709 Japan The fifth shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan, institutor of animal protection laws in 1695 [179]
Andrew Tyler 1946–2017 United Kingdom Director of Animal Aid [180]
Jane Velez-Mitchell 1955 United States Broadcast journalist [181]
Jerry Vlasak 1958 United States Physician, Animal Liberation Press Office spokesperson [182]
John Vyvyan 1908–1975 England Writer, author of The Dark Face of Science (1971) [183]
Alice Walker 1944 United States Writer [184]
Donald Watson 1910–2005 England Founder of the British Vegan Society [185]
Robin Webb 1945 England Spokesperson for the British Animal Liberation Press Office [186]
Betty White 1922–2021 United States Actress, author, comedian and animal rights activist
Caroline Earle White 1833–1916 United States Co-founder of the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, founder of the American Anti-Vivisection Society [44]
Liz White c. 1950 Canada Leader of the Animal Alliance Environment Voters Party of Canada [187]
Steven M. Wise 1952 United States Law professor, author of Rattling the Case: Toward Legal Rights for Animals (2000) [188]
Ursula Wolf 1951 Germany Philosopher, author of Das Tier in der Moral (1990) [189]
Gretchen Wyler 1932–2007 United States Actress, dancer, animal rights activist, and founder of the Genesis Awards for producing outstanding works which raise public awareness of animal issues [190]
Jon Wynne-Tyson 1924–2020 England Founder of Centaur Press, author of The Extended Circle: A Commonplace Book of Animal Rights (1985) [191]
Roger Yates 1957 England Sociologist, co-founder of Vegan Ireland: The Vegan Society of Ireland [192]
Peter Daniel Young United States Animal rights activist [193]
Gary Yourofsky 1970 United States Animal rights activist and lecturer [194]
Benjamin Zephaniah 1958 England Rastafari poet, honorary patron of The Vegan Society [195]

See also


  1. Taylor, Angus. Animals and Ethics: An Overview of the Philosophical Debate. Broadview Press, 2009, p. 7ff.
  2. Finsen, Susan and Finsen, Lawrence. "Animal rights movement," in Marc Bekoff (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 2009.
    • For more about the history of the ideas, see Kean, Hilda. Animal Rights: Political and Social Change in Britain since 1800. Reaktion Books, 1998.
    • Also see:
    • Singer, Peter. "Animal liberation", The New York Review of Books, Volume 20, Number 5, 5 April 1973.
    • "Food for Thought", letter from David Rosinger and a reply from Peter Singer, The New York Review of Books, Volume 20, Number 10, 14 June 1973.
    • Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation New York Review/Random House, 1975.
    • Regan, Tom. "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism", Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Oct. 1975), pp. 181–214.
    • Regan, Tom. "McCloskey on Why Animals Cannot Have Rights", The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 104 (Jul. 1976), pp. 251–257.
    • Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. University of California Press, 1983.
  3. Francione, Gary L. and Garner, Robert. The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation?. Columbia University Press, 2010, p. 1ff, 103ff.
  4. Tähtinen, Unto (1976). Ahimsa. Non-Violence in Indian Tradition. London. pp. 2–3 (English translation: Schmidt p. 631). ISBN 0-09-123340-2.
  5. Kamil Zvelebil (1973). The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. BRILL Academic. pp. 156–157. ISBN 90-04-03591-5.
  6. Pope, George Uglow (1997). The Naladiyar or Four Hundred Quatrains in Tamil. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 80–82. ISBN 81-206-0023-1.
  7. "Veganism in India and its Growth Over the Years into a Formidable Movement". The Vegan Indians. 26 June 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  8. Cronin, Keri; McArthur, Jo-Anne (December 2015). "Philosophy, Activism, and an 'Attentive Willingness to Reconsider One's Duty Toward Others': Elisa Aaltola's Contributions to Animal Advocacy". Unbound Project. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  9. Adams, Carol J. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. Continuum, 1990.
    • Adams, Carol J. Neither Man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defense of Animals. Continuum, 1994.
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  24. "Basinger is denied beagles" Archived 30 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 4 July 1997.
  25. Jones, Maggie. "The Barnyard Strategist", The New York Times, 24 October 2008, p. 2/5.
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  27. Callahan, Sharon. "Interview with Marc Bekoff", Anaflora, accessed 1 June 2012.
  28. Sunstein, Cass R. "Introduction: What are Animal Rights?," in Sunstein, Cass R. and Nussbaum, Martha (ed.). Animal rights. Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 3–4; also see Francione, Gary. "Animals—Property or Persons", p. 139, footnote 78, in the same volume.
    • For the quote, see Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. University of California Press, 1983, p. 95.
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Further reading

  • Beauchamp, Tom and Frey, R.G. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Bekoff, Marc (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 2009.
  • Linzey, Andrew (ed.). Animal Encyclopedia. University of Princeton Press (forthcoming).
  • Linzey, Andrew (ed.). The Global Guide to Animal Protection. University of Illinois Press (forthcoming).
  • Animal Friendly Cultural Heritage and royal decrees in the legal history of Sri Lanka
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