List of Christmas dishes

Danish Christmas meal

Albania

  • Byrek me kungull dhe arre – Traditional Albanian pumpkin and walnut pie cooked usually on Christmas Eve, especially in Catholic families.

Argentina

Vitello tonnato is a popular Christmas dish in Argentina, where it is known as vitel toné. The Piedmontese dish is valued during the summer for its cold serving temperature, and is the legacy of the large Italian immigration to the country.[1]

Panettone (known locally as pan dulce) and turrón are the most popular Christmas sweets in Argentina regardless of socioeconomic status, with 76% of Argentines choosing the former and 59% the latter in 2015.[2] Mantecol, a typical peanut dessert, is also popular, being favored by 49% of Argentines in the same survey.[3] Sparkling wines, ciders and frizzantes concentrate most of their sales during Christmas season; sparkling wine is mostly consumed by small families with high and medium socioeconomic status living in Greater Buenos Aires and the country's largest cities, while cider and frizzantes are popular among lower classes and large families.[3]

Australia

Candy Cane can be hung as edible decorations.

Belarus

Belgium

  • Cougnou (with various like cougnolle), sweet bread in the form of the infant Jesus[21]

Brazil

Panettone

Canada

Gingerbread house

Chile

Pan de pascua

China and Taiwan

Colombia

Colombian Buñuelos
Colombian natilla

Colombian Christmas dishes are mostly sweets and desserts. Some of the most popular dishes include:

  • Buñuelos
  • Natilla
  • Manjar blanco
  • Hojaldres
  • Brevas dessert with cheese
  • Christmas cookies
  • Sweet bread filled with fruits like raisins and raspberries.
  • Lechona (rice baked inside a pig, with peas, the meat of the pig and other delicacies)
  • Tamales
  • Ponqué envinado (red wine cake)
  • Turkey
  • Pernil de Cerdo (pork leg, usually roasted)
  • Potato salad
  • Panettone

Cuba

Czech Republic and Slovakia

Christmas cookies (vánoční cukroví)

Before the Christmas holidays, many kinds of sweet biscuits are prepared. These sweet biscuits are then served during the whole Christmas period and exchanged among friends and neighbours. Also very popular are a preparation of small gingerbreads garnished by sugar icing.

Denmark

  • Æbleskiver – traditional Danish dough ball made in a special pan (a type of doughnut with no hole), sprinkled with powdered sugar and served with raspberry or strawberry jam
  • Sylte – a form of head cheese, a terrine or meat jelly made from pork, traditionally pig's head was used
  • Julesild – spiced pickled herring often flavoured with Christmas spices such as cloves and allspice
  • Boiled whole potatoes
  • Brun sovs (brown sauce) – a traditional dark gravy, used to cover meat dishes like roasted pork and duck (flæskesteg, andesteg) and the boiled potato
  • Brunede kartofler – caramelised potatoes
  • Julebryg – Christmas beer[24]
  • Gløggmulled red wine combined with spices, sugar, raisins and chopped almonds typically served warm
  • Risalamanderice pudding. A dish made from rice, whipped cream and almonds, served cold with cherry sauce (kirsebærsauce)[25][26]
  • Flæskesteg – roast pork with cracklings
  • Andesteg – roast duck with apple and prune stuffing
  • Rødkål – red cabbage pickled, sweet-sour red cabbage served hot as a side dish
  • Christmas cookies – Vaniljekranse, klejner, jødekager, pebernødder, honningkager, brunkager and finskbrød
  • Konfekt, marzipan, caramelised fruits, nougat and chocolate-covered nuts
  • Ground nuts

Dominican Republic

Drinks:

Desserts:

  • Buñuelos – fried cassava dough balls covered in spiced flavored syrup
  • Turrón – honey and almond nougat. Tradition from Spain
  • Vaniljekranse – Danish butter cookies
  • Fruits and nuts – a variety of nuts, fresh, and dried fruit

Finland

Christmas smorgasbord from Finland, "Joulupöytä", (translated "Yule table"), a traditional display of Christmas food[27] served at Christmas in Finland, similar to the Swedish smörgåsbord, including:

Other meat dishes could be:

Desserts:

  • Rice pudding or rice porridge topped with cinnamon, sugar and cold milk or with mixed fruit soup (riisipuuro)
  • Joulutorttu, traditionally a star-shaped piece of puff-pastry with prune marmalade in the middle
  • Gingerbread,[27] sometimes in the form of a gingerbread house or gingerbread man (piparkakut)
  • Mixed fruit soup or prune soup, kissel (sekahedelmäkiisseli, luumukiisseli)

Drinks:

  • Glögg or mulled wine (glögi)
  • Christmas beer (Jouluolut); local manufacturers produce Christmas varieties[28]
  • "Home beer" (non-alcoholic beer-like drink, similar to the Russian beverage kvass) (kotikalja)

France

Foie gras en cocotte
Kouglof

Germany

A Christmas Stollen
  • Christstollen[33] – Stollen is a fruitcake with bits of candied fruits, raisins, walnuts and almonds and spices such as cardamom and cinnamon; sprinkled with confectioners sugar. Often there's also a core of marzipan.[34]
  • Pfefferkuchenhaus – a gingerbread house decorated with candies, sweets and sugar icing (in reference to the gingerbread house of the fairy tale Hänsel and Gretel)
  • Printen[35]
  • Oblaten Lebkuchen
  • Springerle
  • Weihnachtsplätzchen (Christmas cookies)
  • Carp
  • Roast goose, often paired with kartoffelklosse
  • Venison – e.g. meat of roe deer usually served with red cabbage, brussels sprout and lingonberry sauce
  • Herring salad – salad of pickled or soused herring, beetroot, potatoes, apple
  • Kartoffelsalat (potato salad) with Wurst (sausages) is traditionally eaten in northern Germany for supper on Christmas Eve
  • Schäufele (a corned, smoked ham) usually served with potato salad in southern Germany for dinner on Christmas Eve
  • Weisswurst – sausages with veal and bacon, usually flavored with parsley, lemon, mace, onions, ginger and cardamom
  • Feuerzangenbowle
  • Glühwein (hot spiced wine)

Greece and Cyprus

Greenland

Guatemala

  • Tamales
  • Ponche (Christmas fruit punch served hot with much fruit)
  • pavo (turkey)
  • Buñuelos (fluffy sweet dessert made with corn with maple syrup)
  • chicken (prepared with different stuffings and accompanied with various side dishes such as salads or rice)

Hong Kong and Macau

Hungary

Töltött káposzta
  • Fish soup (halászlé) various recipes
  • Stuffed cabbage (töltött káposzta)
  • Roast goose
  • Roast duck
  • Pastry roll filled with walnut or poppy seed (bejgli)
  • Bread pudding with poppy seed (mákos guba or bobájka)
  • Szaloncukor
  • Cheesy Garlic Bread Sticks

Iceland

Möndlugrautur
  • Hamborgarhryggur – a smoked, cured pork roast.
  • Ptarmigan – gamebird in the grouse family
  • Hangikjöt
  • Oven-roasted turkey
  • Möndlugrautur – a Christmas rice pudding with an almond hidden inside (the same as the Swedish Julgröt)
  • Caramelised potatoes, Icelandic. Brúnaðar kartöflur (same as in Danish cuisine).
  • Pickled red cabbage
  • Smákökur – small cookies of various sorts
    • Jólasúkkulaðibitakökur
    • Loftkökur
    • Mömmukökur
    • Sörur
    • Spesiur
    • Gyðingakökur
    • Piparkökur
    • Marens Kornflexkökur
  • Laufabrauð – round, very thin flat cakes with a diameter of about 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 inches), decorated with leaf-like, geometric patterns and fried briefly in hot fat or oil

India

Indian Christians in Indian subcontinent celebrate Christmas by enjoying several dishes, such as Allahabadi cake, Candy canes, Plum cakes etc. Some of the popular dishes eaten during Christmas in India are:

Church services are also held in churches throughout India, in which Christmas dinners are held which include dishes such as Allahabadi cake, candy canes, christmas cookies.

The Koswad is a set of sweets and snacks prepared in the Christmastide by people of the Konkan region. South Indian states such as Kerala have traditions observed of home-brewed wine, mostly grapes but sometimes other fruits as well like Apple & Rose Apple; ethnic recipes of slow-cooked beef fry, Rice & Coconut Hoppers, Lamb stew, Fried Rice Indian and Fusion Style; Desserts such as Falooda, pastry, and a whole array of steamed, boiled or baked sweets, often with coconut, jaggery, sugar and spices such as cardamom & cloves (Achappam, Murukku, Tapioca_chip, Sukiyan, Neyyappam).

Indonesia

Italy

Jamaica

  • Christmas (fruit) cake or black cake – a heavy fruit cake made with dried fruit, wine and rum.
  • Sorrel – often served to guests with Christmas cake; Sorrel is made from the same sepals as Latin American drink "Jamaica," but is more concentrated and usually flavored with ginger. Adding rum is traditional at Christmas time.
  • Curry goat
  • Rice and peas – a Sunday staple, at Christmas dinner is usually made with green (fresh) gungo (pigeon) peas instead of dried kidney beans or other dried legumes.
  • Christmas ham
  • Chicken
  • Pine and ginger

Japan

  • Christmas cake – the Japanese style Christmas cake is often a white cream cake, sponge cake frosted with whipped cream, topped with strawberries and with a chocolate plate that says Merry Christmas.[45] Yule logs are also available.
  • Christmas cookies - A Christmas sugar cookie's main ingredients are sugar, flour, butter, eggs, vanilla, and baking powder. Sugar cookies may be formed by hand, dropped, or rolled and cut into shapes. They are commonly decorated with additional sugar, icing, Christmas sprinkles. Decorative shapes and figures can be cut into the rolled-out dough using a cookie cutter.
  • Christmas cupcakes
  • Crème caramel pudding in Japan - a crème caramel ubiquitous in Japanese convenience stores under the name custard pudding. Made with eggs, sugar and milk, sometimes served with whipped cream and a cherry on top.
  • IKEA French fries
  • Fruit parfait - Made by boiling cream, egg, sugar and syrup to create layers differentiated by the inclusion of such ingredients as corn flakes and vanilla ice cream. Topped with melon, banana, peach, orange, apple, kiwi, cherries and strawberries and whipped cream.
  • Gingerbread house
  • Ice cream
  • KFC fried chicken – turkey as a dish is virtually unknown in Japan[46] and the popularity of KFC's fried chicken at Christmas is such that orders are placed as much as two months in advance.[47]
  • Nabemono
  • Poached egg salad
  • Shōyu ramen
  • Tamagoyaki - Japanese Omelette
  • Yakiniku

Korea

Lithuania

  • Twelve-dish Christmas Eve supper – twelve dishes representing the twelve Apostles or twelve months of the year – plays the main role in Lithuanian Christmas tradition. The traditional dishes are served on December 24.
    • Poppy milk (aguonų pienas)
    • Slizikai ( or kūčiukai) – slightly sweet small pastries made from leavened dough and poppy seed
    • Auselės (Deep fried dumplings)
    • Herring with carrots (silkė su morkomis)
    • Herring with mushrooms (silkė su grybais)
    • Cranberry Kissel - thickened & sweetened juice normally served warm

Malaysia

Malta

  • Panettone – from the Italian tradition
  • Fruitcake – from British Influence
  • Christmas/Yule log (cake) – a log (similar to a tree's) that is made from chocolate and candied fruits
  • Mince Pies – from British Influence
  • Timpana – traditionally served as a starter
  • Roast Turkey – from British Influence

Mexico

Christmas roast
  • Meat
    • Roasted turkey – stuffed, roasted turkey served with gravy.
    • Glazed ham – ham glazed with honey or sugar dressed with cherries and pineapples.
    • Jamón (Spanish Dry-Cured Ham)
    • Lechon
    • Seafood
      • Bacalao – cod Basque style. Traditionally eaten in the central and southern states of Mexico.
      • Shrimp – cocktail or prepared in Torrejas (dried shrimp pancakes)
      • Octopus – cocktail
      • Crab
  • Stews
    • Menudo – a Christmas morning tradition in northwestern states, Menudo is a tripe and hominy soup. Menudo is often prepared the night before (Christmas Eve) as its cooking time can take up to 5 hours.
    • Pozole – hominy soup with added pork
  • Salads & other side dishes
    • Tamales – can sometimes replace the traditional turkey or Bacalao with romeritos, particularly in northern and southern parts of Mexico.
    • Ensalada Navideña – Christmas salad with apples, raisins, pecans, and marshmallows.
    • Ensalada de Noche Buena – Christmas Eve salad
    • Ensalada Rusa – potato salad, particularly popular in northern states.
    • Romeritos – also a Christmas tradition of the central region, romeritos are small green leaves similar to Rosemary mixed generally with mole and potatoes.
  • Sweets
  • Fresh Fruit
  • Drinks
    • Champurrado – thick hot chocolate
    • Chocolate – hot chocolate
    • Cidra – apple cider
    • Atole – corn based drink
    • Rompope – similar to eggnog
    • Ponche Navideño – a hot, sweet drink made with apples, sugar cane, prunes and tejocotes. For grown-ups, ponche is never complete without its "piquete" – either tequila or rum

Netherlands

New Zealand

A homemade Christmas pavlova decorated with pomegranate seeds and Chantilly cream.

Norway

Scandinavian-style gingerbread
  • AkevittAkvavit, a spirit flavored with spices like caraway and aniseed
  • Gløggmulled wine
  • Julepølse – pork sausage made with powdered ginger, cloves, mustard seeds and nutmeg. Served steamed or roasted.
  • Lutefisk – fish preserved with lye that has been washed and boiled
  • Pinnekjøtt/Pinnekjøt – salted, dried, and sometimes smoked lamb's ribs which are rehydrated and then steamed, traditionally over birch branches
  • Svineribbe – pork belly roasted whole with the skin on. Usually served with red or pickled cabbage, gravy and boiled potatoes.
  • Julegrøt – Christmas rice porridge with an almond hidden inside
  • Julebrus – Norwegian soft drink, usually with a festive label on the bottle. It is brewed by most Norwegian breweries, as a Christmas drink for minors.
  • Julekake – Norwegian yeast cake with dried fruits and spices
  • Sossiser – small Christmas sausages
  • Medisterkaker – large meatballs made from a mix of pork meat and pork fat
  • Raudkål/Rødkål – sweet and sour red cabbage, as a side dish
  • Kålrabistappe/Kålrotstappe – Purée of rutabaga, as a side dish
  • Peparkake/Pepperkake – gingerbread-like spice cookies flavoured with black pepper
  • Lussekatter – St. Lucia Buns with saffron
  • Multekrem – a dessert consisting of cloudberries and whipped cream
  • RiskremRisalamande

Panama

Paraguay

Philippines

Large bibingka from the Philippines
  • Bibingka – traditional dessert made with rice flour, sugar, clarified butter and coconut milk. baked in layers and topped with butter and sugar.[48]
  • Caldereta
  • Champorado
  • Churro
  • Crema de fruta
  • Embutido
  • Ham[49]
  • Hamonado
  • Kinutil
  • Lechon
  • Mechado
  • Menudo
  • Morcon
  • Pancit – Filipino style noodle dish made with sliced meat and vegetables
  • Puto bumbong – a purple-coloured Filipino dessert made of sweet rice cooked in hollow bamboo tubes placed on a special steamer-cooker. When cooked, they are spread with margarine and sprinkled with sugar and grated coconut.[48]
  • Queso de bola (edam cheese)[49]
  • Salads (either fruit, coconut or garden)
  • Tsokolate
  • Ube halaya

Poland

12 dishes are served as a reminder of the 12 Apostles on Christmas Eve, 24 December. Polish people don't eat meat on this day, instead they choose from variety of fish and vegetable dishes. The meal begins when the first star is seen.

Barszcz with Uszka
  • Barszcz (beetroot soup) with uszka (small dumplings) - a classic Polish Christmas starter.
  • Pierogi with sauerkraut and forest mushrooms; filled with cottage cheese and potatoes
  • Zupa rybna – fish soup
  • Żureksoup made of soured rye flour and meat
  • Zupa grzybowa – mushroom soup made of various forest mushrooms
  • Bigos – savory stew of cabbage and meat
  • Kompot – traditional drink a light, refreshing drink most often made of dried or fresh fruit boiled in water with sugar and left to cool and infuse.
  • Gołąbki – cabbage rolls
  • Pieczarki marynowane – marinated mushrooms
  • Kartofle gotowane – simple boiled potatoes sparkled with parsley or dill
  • Kulebiak – with fish or cabbage and wild mushrooms filling
  • Ryba smażona or ryba po grecku – fried fish laid under lyers of fried shredded carrots, onions, root celery and leek
  • Sałatka jarzynowa – salad made with boiled potatoes and carrots with fresh peas, sweetcorn, dill cucumber, and boiled egg, mixed with mayonnaise.
  • Łamaniec – type of flat and rather hard pancake that is soaked in warm milk with poppy seeds. Eaten in eastern regions such as around * Białystok
  • Makowiec – poppy seed roll

Portugal

Bolo-Rei
  • Bacalhau – codfish
  • Cabrito assado – roasted goat
  • Borrego assado – roasted lamb
  • Polvo cozido – boiled octopus
  • Carne de Vinha d' Alhos – mainly served in Madeira – pork dish
  • Bolo de mel – mainly served in Madeira - Cake made with molasses
  • Bolo Rei (king cake) – a beautifully decorated fluffy fruitcake
  • Bolo-Rei escangalhado (broken king cake) – it is like the first one, but has also cinnamon and chilacayote jam (doce de gila)
  • Bolo-Rainha (queen cake) – similar to Bolo-Rei, but with only nuts, raisins and almonds
  • Bolo-Rei de chocolate – it is like the Bolo-Rei, but has less (or no) fruit, nuts, chilacayote jam and many chocolate chips
  • Broa castelar – a small, soft and thin cake made of sweet potato and orange
  • Fatias douradas – slices of pan bread, soaked in egg with sugar, fried and sprinkled with powdered sugar and cinnamon
  • Rabanadas – they are like fatias douradas, but made with common bread
  • Aletria – composed of pasta, milk, butter, sugar, eggs, lemon peel, cinnamon powder and salt
  • Formigos – a delicious dessert made with sugar, eggs, pieces of bread, almonds, port wine and cinnamon powder
  • Filhós / Filhozes / Filhoses – depending on the region, they may be thin or fluffy pieces of a fried dough made of eggs, honey, orange, lemon, flour and anise, sprinkled - or not with icing sugar
  • Coscorões – thin squares of a fried orange flavoured dough
  • Azevias de grão, batata-doce ou gila – deep fried thin dough pastries filled with a delicious cream made of chickpea, sweet potato or chilacayote, powdered with sugar and cinnamon
  • Tarte de amêndoa – almond pie
  • Tronco de Natal – Christmas log – a Swiss roll, resembling a tree's trunk, filled with chocolate cream, decorated with chocolate and mini – 2 cm Christmas trees
  • Lampreia de ovos – a sweet made of eggs, well decorated
  • Sonhos – an orange flavoured fried yeast dough, powdered with icing sugar
  • Velhoses – they are like the sonhos, but made with pumpkin
  • Bolo de Natal – Christmas cake
  • Pudim de Natal – Christmas pudding, similar to flan
  • Vinho quente – mulled wine made with boiled wine, egg yolk, sugar and cinnamon
  • Turkey – on the island of Terceira, turkey has recently taken over as the traditional Christmas dish over Bacalhau, due to the influence of American culture on the island, home to the United States Air Force's 65th Air Base Wing.

Puerto Rico (U.S.)

  • Arroz con gandules – yellow-rice, pigeon peas, olives, capers, pieces of pork, spices and sofrito cooked in the same pot.
  • Escabeche – pickled green bananas or cassava and chicken gizzards.
  • Macaroni salad – with canned tuna and peppers.
  • Morcilla – blood sausage.
  • Pasteles – Puerto Rican tamle made from milk, broth, root vegetables, squash, green banana, plantain dough, stuffed with meat, and wrapped in banana leaves.
  • Hallaca – tamale made from grated cassava and stuffed with meat wrapped in banana leaves.
  • Pastelón – sweet plantain "lasagna".
  • Pig roast – Puerto Rico is famous for their pig roast. It is also a part (along with arroz con gandules) of their national dish.
  • Potato salad – most commonly made with apples, chorizo and hard-boiled eggs. Potatoes are sometimes replaced with cassava.

Drinks:

  • Bilí – Spanish limes or cherries fermented in rum with spices, brown sugar, citrus peels, bay leaves, avocado leaves, often cucumber, ginger, and coconut shells.
  • Coquito – spiced coconut eggnog.
  • Coquito de guayaba - spiced guava eggnog with cream cheese or coconut milk added.
  • Piña colada
  • Rum punch – rum, orange liqueur, grenadine, ginger ale, grapefruit juice served with fruit, lemon and lime slices.
  • La Danza – champagne with passion fruit juice, orange liqueur, lime juice, lemon juice, and strawberry juice.

Dessert:

  • Arroz con dulce – Spiced coconut and raisin rice pudding.
  • Bread pudding – soaked in coconut milk and served with a guava rum sauce.
  • Dulce de cassabanana – musk cucumber cooked in syrup topped with walnuts and sour cream on the side.
  • Dulce de papaya con queso – Fermented green papaya with spices and sugar syrup served with ausubal cheese or fresh white cheese.
  • Flancocho – Crème caramel with a layer of cream cheese and Puerto Rican style spongecake underneath.
  • Majarete – rice and coconut custard. Made with coconut cream, marshmallows, milk, rice flour, sugar, vanilla and sour orange leaves with cinnamon served on top.
  • Rum cake
  • Tembleque – a pudding made with cornstarch, coconut cream, sugar, milk, orange blossom water and coconut milk.
  • Turrón – Sesame brittle or almond brittle.
  • Mantecaditos – Puerto Rican shortbread cookies. Made with shortening, coconut butter, flour, almond flour, vanilla, nutmeg and almond extract. They are usually filled with guava jam or pineapple jam in the middle.
  • Natilla – Milk, coconut cream and egg yolk custard made with additional cinnamon, cornstarch, sugar, vanilla, lemon zest and orange blossom water. Served in individual ramekins with cinnamon sprinkled on top.

Romania

Cozonac

Romanian Christmas foods are mostly pork-based dishes.[50] Five days before Christmas, Romanians are celebrating the Ignat Day, a religious holy day dedicated to the Holy Martyr Ignatius Theophorus, associated with a practice that takes place especially on villages scattered around the country: the ritual of slaughtering the pigs. And they are using everything from the pigs: from their blood to their ears. Five days later their tables are filled not only with generous pork roasts but also with:

  • Piftiepork jelly, made only with pork meat, vegetables and garlic
  • Lebăr – liver sausages, a local variety of liverwurst
  • Caltaboș – sausages made from organs
  • Cârnaţi – pork-based sausages
  • Sângerete – blood sausages
  • Tobă – head cheese made from various cuttings of pork, liver boiled, diced and "packed" in pork stomach like a salami
  • Sarmale – rolls of cabbage pickled in brine and filled with meat and rice (see sarma)
  • Salată de boeuf – a more recent dish, but highly popular, this type of salad uses boiled vegetables and meat (beef, poultry, even ham). It can include potatoes, carrots, pickled red peppers and cucumbers, egg whites bits. Everything is mixed together with mayonnaise and mustard.
  • Cozonac, the Romanian equivalent of panettone or sweet bread.
  • Strong spirits: Palinka, Rachiu, Ţuică

Russia

Samoa, Tonga and Tuvalu

  • Puaa umu

San Marino

Bustrengo
  • Bustrengo

Serbia

  • Česnica – Christmas soda bread with a silver coin to bring health and good luck baked in the bread.
  • Koljivo – boiled wheat which is used liturgically in the Eastern Orthodox and Greek Catholic Churches.
  • Riblja čorba for Christmas Eve

South Africa

Christmas is in the summer time in South Africa, so lots of summer fruits like Watermelon and cantaloupes are enjoyed around the time. Popular desserts include trifle, melktert and peppermint crisp tart. People in South Africa love to Braai, and would do that for Christmas or New Year's Day.

Spain

Sweden

Julbord Christmas dinner in Sweden
  • Julbord[53] - Christmas smorgasbord ("Christmas table"), a catch-all term for all the dishes served during Christmas Eve:
    • Köttbullar – Swedish meatballs
    • Julskinka – Christmas ham
    • Dopp i grytan ("dipping in the kettle") – dipping bread slices in the ham broth after boiling the Christmas ham.[54]
    • Prinskorv – small hot dog sausages
    • Fläskkorv – big pork sausage
    • Isterband – smoked fresh pork sausage
    • Revbensspjäll – spare ribs
    • Inlagd sill – pickled herring (usually of different types)
    • Gravad laxlox
    • Janssons frestelse ("Jansson's Temptation") – warm, scalloped potato casserole with anchovies
    • Vörtlimpa – Swedish rye bread with grated orange peel made for Christmas, with or without raisins.
    • Knäckebröd – dry crisp bread
    • Rödkål – sweet and sour red cabbage, as a side dish
    • Grönkål – sweet and sour kale as a side dish
    • Brunkål ("brown cabbage") – cabbage flavoured with syrup hence the name
    • Rödbetor – sliced beet root
    • An array of cheeses – bondost, herrgårdsost, prästost, mesost (hard goat milk cheese)
  • Lutfisk[55] – lye-fish (whitefish) that has been boiled served with white gravy
  • Julmust – a traditional, very sweet, stout-like, Christmas soft drink, originally intended as an alternative to alcohol beverage called Mumma
  • Glöggmulled wine
  • Knäck or Christmas Butterscotch – Christmas toffee[56]
  • Pepparkakor (Gingerbread) – brown cookies flavoured with a variety of traditional Christmas spices
  • Julost – Christmas cheese
  • Julgröt – Christmas rice pudding with an almond hidden inside
  • LussekatterSaint Lucy saffron buns
  • Limpa bread – orange and rye spice bread

Trinidad and Tobago

In Trinidad and Tobago traditional meals consists of generous helpings of baked ham, pastelles, black fruit cake, sweet breads, along with traditional drinks such as sorrel, ginger beer, and ponche de crème. The ham is the main item on the Christmas menu with sorrel to accompany it.[57][58]

Ukraine

Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christians in Ukraine traditionally have two Christmas dinners. The first is a Lent Dinner, it is held on the January 6 and should consist of meatless dishes. The second is a Christmas Festive dinner held on January 7, when the meat dishes and alcohol are already allowed on the table. The dinner normally has 12 dishes which represent Jesus's 12 disciples. Both Christmas dinners traditionally include a number of authentic Ukrainian dishes, which have over thousand-year history and date back to pagan times.

United Kingdom

Christmas pudding

In the United Kingdom, what is now regarded as the traditional meal consists of roast turkey with cranberry sauce, served with roast potatoes and parsnips and other vegetables, followed by Christmas pudding, a heavy steamed pudding made with dried fruit, suet, and very little flour. Other roast meats may be served, and in the nineteenth century the traditional roast was goose. The same carries over to Ireland with some variations.

United States (mainland)

Roast turkey

See also: Thanksgiving (the dishes tend to be similar)

Venezuela

Hallaca
  • Hallaca – rectangle-shaped meal made of maize, filled with beef, pork, chicken, olives, raisins and caper, and wrapped in plantain leaves and boiled to cook.
  • Pan de jamón – ham-filled bread with olives and raisins and often sliced cheese.
  • Dulce de lechosa – dessert made of cooked sliced unripe papaya in reduced sugar syrup
  • Ensalada de gallina – salad made of potato, carrot, apple and shredded chicken (hen usually home or locally raised as opposed to store bought chicken)
  • Pernil[79] – commonly referred to as roast pork

Vietnam

See also

References

  1. Fumarola, Leonardo (December 17, 2015). "Vitel toné: la receta de un clásico para las Fiestas" (in Spanish). Clarín.com. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  2. "Armar la mesa de Navidad costará hasta un 37% más caro que hace un año". El Cronista (in Spanish). December 15, 2015. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
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