Kashmiri language

Kashmiri (English: /kæʃˈmɪəri/)[7] or Koshur (كٲشُر, कॉशुर, 𑆑𑆳𑆯𑆶𑆫𑇀, /kəːʃur/)[1] is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris of the Kashmir region, primarily in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.[8]

كٲشُر, कॉशुर, 𑆑𑆳𑆯𑆶𑆫𑇀
The word "Koshur" in Perso-Arabic script (contemporary, official status), Sharada script (ancient, liturgical) and Devanagari (contemporary)
Native toIndia and Pakistan
RegionKashmir (Kashmir division and parts of Chenab valley, Jammu and Kashmir,[1] parts of northern Azad Kashmir)
Native speakers
7.1 million (2011)[1]
Perso-Arabic script (contemporary, official status),[4]
Devanagari (contemporary),[4]
Sharada script (ancient/liturgical)[4]
Official status
Official language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1ks
ISO 639-2kas
ISO 639-3kas
Part of a series on
Constitutionally recognised languages of India
22 Official Languages of the Indian Republic

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Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India
Official Languages Commission
Classical Languages of India
List of languages by number of native speakers in India

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In 2020, the Parliament of India passed a bill to make Kashmiri an official language of Jammu and Kashmir along with Dogri, Hindi, Urdu and English.[9] Kashmiri is also among the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Kashmiri has split ergativity and the unusual verb-second word order.

Geographic distribution and status

There are about 6.8 million speakers of Kashmiri and related dialects in Jammu and Kashmir and amongst the Kashmiri diaspora in other states of India.[10] Most Kashmiri speakers are located in the Kashmir Valley and other areas of Jammu and Kashmir.[11] In the Kashmir valley, they form a majority.

Kashmiri is spoken by roughly five percent of Azad Kashmir's population.[12] According to the 1998 Pakistan Census, there were 132,450 Kashmiri speakers in Azad Kashmir.[13] Native speakers of the language were dispersed in "pockets" throughout Azad Kashmir,[14][15] particularly in the districts of Muzaffarabad (15%), Neelam (20%) and Hattian (15%), with very small minorities in Haveli (5%) and Bagh (2%).[13] The Kashmiri spoken in Muzaffarabad is distinct from, although still intelligible with, the Kashmiri of the Neelam Valley to the north.[15] In Neelam Valley, Kashmiri is the second most widely spoken language and the majority language in at least a dozen or so villages, where in about half of these, it is the sole mother tongue.[15] The Kashmiri dialect of Neelum is closer to the variety spoken in northern Kashmir Valley, particularly Kupwara.[15] At the 2017 Census of Pakistan, as many as 350,000 people declared their first language to be Kashmiri.[16][17]

A process of language shift is observable among Kashmiri-speakers in Azad Kashmir according to linguist Tariq Rahman, as they gradually adopt local dialects such as Pahari-Pothwari, Hindko or move towards the lingua franca Urdu.[18][14][19][15] This has resulted in these languages gaining ground at the expense of Kashmiri.[20][21] There have been calls for the promotion of Kashmiri at an official level; in 1983, a Kashmiri Language Committee was set up by the government to patronise Kashmiri and impart it in school-level education. However, the limited attempts at introducing the language have not been successful, and it is Urdu, rather than Kashmiri, that Kashmiri Muslims have seen as their identity symbol.[22] Rahman notes that efforts to organise a Kashmiri language movement have been challenged by the scattered nature of the Kashmiri-speaking community in Azad Kashmir.[22]

The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.[23] It was a part of the eighth Schedule in the former constitution of the Jammu and Kashmir. Along with other regional languages mentioned in the Sixth Schedule, as well as Hindi and Urdu, the Kashmiri language was to be developed in the state.[24]

Persian began to be used as the court language in Kashmir during the 14th centuries, under the influence of Islam. It was replaced by Urdu in 1889 during the Dogra rule.[25][26] In 2020, Kashmiri became an official language in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir for the first time.[27][28][29]

Kashmiri is closely related to Poguli and Kishtwari, which are spoken in the mountains to the south of the Kashmir Valley and have sometimes been counted as dialects of Kashmiri.


Kashmiri has the following phonemes.[30][31]


The oral vowels are as follows:

  Front Central Back
High i ɨ ɨː u
Mid e ə əː o
Low a ɔ ɔː

The short high vowels are near-high, and the low vowels apart from /aː/ are near-low.

Nasalization is phonemic. All sixteen oral vowels have nasal counterparts.


Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Post-alv./
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
voiceless p t t͡s ʈ t͡ʃ k
aspirated t͡sʰ ʈʰ t͡ʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless s ʃ h
voiced z
Approximant w l j
Trill r

Palatalization is phonemic. All consonants apart from those in the post-alveolar/palatal column have palatalized counterparts.


Kashmiri, as also the other Dardic languages, shows important divergences from the Indo-Aryan mainstream. One is the partial maintenance of the three sibilant consonants s ṣ ś of the Old Indo-Aryan period. For another example, the prefixing form of the number 'two', which is found in Sanskrit as dvi-, has developed into ba-/bi- in most other Indo-Aryan languages, but du- in Kashmiri (preserving the original dental stop d). Seventy-two is dusatath in Kashmiri, bahattar in Hindi-Urdu and Punjabi, and dvisaptati in Sanskrit.[32]

Certain features in Kashmiri even appear to stem from Indo-Aryan even predating the Vedic period. For instance, there was an /s/ > /h/ consonant shift in some words that had already occurred with Vedic Sanskrit (This tendency was complete in the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian), yet is lacking in Kashmiri equivalents. The word rahit in Vedic Sanskrit and modern Hindi-Urdu (meaning 'excluding' or 'without') corresponds to rost in Kashmiri. Similarly, sahit (meaning 'including' or 'with') corresponds to sost in Kashmiri.[32]

Writing system

There are three orthographical systems used to write the Kashmiri language: the Perso-Arabic script, the Devanagari script and the Sharada script. The Roman script is also sometimes informally used to write Kashmiri, especially online.[4]

The Kashmiri language was traditionally written in the Sharada script after the 8th Century A.D.[33] The script grew increasingly unsuitable for writing Kashmiri because it couldn't adequately represent Kashmiri peculiar sounds by the usage of its vowel signs.[34] Therefore, it is not in common use today and is restricted to religious ceremonies of the Kashmiri Pandits.[35]

Today it is written in Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts (with some modifications).[36] Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is one of the scripts that regularly indicates all vowel sounds.[37]

The Perso-Arabic script is recognised as the official script of Kashmiri language by the Jammu and Kashmir government and the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages.[38][39][40][41]

Despite, Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script cutting across religious boundaries and being used by both the Kashmiri Hindus and the Kashmiri Muslims,[42] some attempts have been made to give a religious outlook regarding the script and make Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script to be associated with Kashmiri Muslims, while the Kashmiri Devanagari script to be associated with some sections of Kashmiri Hindu community.[43][44][45]


Name Transliteration IPA Isolated glyph
بے b [b] ب
پے p [p] پ
پھَ pha ph [pʰ] پھ
تے t [t] ت
تھَ tha th [tʰ] تھ
ٹے ṭē [ʈ] ٹ
ٹھَ ṭha ṭh [ʈʰ] ٹھ
ثے s [s] ث
جیٖم jīm j [d͡ʒ] ج
چیٖم chīm ch [t͡ʃ] چ
چھَ chha chh [t͡ʃʰ] چھ
حَے hay h [h] ح
خَے khay kh [x], [kʰ] خ
دال dāl d [d] د
ڈال ḍāl [ɖ] ڈ
ذال zāl z [z] ذ
رے r [r] ر
ڑے ṛē [ɽ] ڑ
زے z [z] ز
ژے tsē ts [t͡s] ژ
ژھَ tsha tsh [t͡sʰ] ژھ
سیٖن sīn s [s] س
شـیٖـن shīn sh [ʃ] ش
صۄاد sọ̄d s [s] ص
ضۄاد zọ̄d z [z] ض
طۄے tọy t [t] ط
ظۄے zọy z [z] ظ
عٲن ạ̄n [∅] ع
غٲن gạ̄n g [ɡ], [ɣ] غ
فے f [f], [pʰ] ف
قاف qāf q [k], [q] ق
كیٖف kīf k [k] ک
کھَ kha kh [kʰ] کھ
گاف gāf g [ɡ] گ
لام lām l [l] ل
میٖم mīm m [m] م
نوٗن nūn n, ̃ [n] , [◌̃] ن
نوٗن غۄنَہ nūn gọnā ̃ [◌̃]


واو wāw v/w [w] و
ہے h [h] ہ
لۄکُٹ یے, بۆڈ یے lọkuṭ yē, boḍ yē y [j] ی, ے
گول یایُگ, تالٕرؠ gōl yāyuk, tālür' ya, ' [ʲa], [ʲ] ؠ


Name Transliteration IPA Vowel combined with
consonant ب (be)
Final vowel glyph Medial vowel glyph Initial vowel glyph Isolated vowel glyph Unicode diacritic glyph details
زَبَر zabar a [a] بَ –َ –َ اَ اَ U+064E ARABIC FATHA
مَد mad ā [aː] با ا ا آ آ (آ) U+0622 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH MADDA ABOV (Initial & Isolate)

(ا) U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF (Medial & Final)

اَمالہٕ amālü ạ (ö) [ə] بٔ –ٔ –ٔ أ أ U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE
اَمالہٕ مَد amālü mad ạ̄ (ȫ) [əː] بٲ ٲ ٲ ٲ ٲ (ٲ) U+0672 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA ABOVE
زیر zēr i [i] بِ –ِ –ِ اِ اِ U+0650 ARABIC KASRA
کَشہِ زیر kashi zēr ī [iː] بی ی ـیٖـ ایٖـ ای (ای) U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH & U+0656 ARABIC SUBSCRIPT ALEF (Initial & Medial)


سایہِ sāyi ụ, u', ü [ɨ] بٕ –ٕ –ٕ إ إ U+0655 ARABIC HAMZA BELOW
سایہِ مَد sāyi mad ụ̄, ū', ǖ [ɨː] بٟ –ٟ –ٟ ٳ ٳ (ٳ) U+0673 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA BELOW
پیش pēsh u [u] بُ –ُ –ُ اُ اُ U+064F ARABIC DAMMA
کَشہِ واوُک kashi wāwuk ū [uː] بوٗ ـوٗ ـوٗ اوٗ اوٗ (وٗ) U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW & U+0657 ARABIC INVERTED DAMMA
نیٖمہٕ واوُک nīmü wāwuk o [o] بۆ ـۆ ـۆ اۆ اۆ (ۆ) U+06C6 ARABIC LETTER OE
واوُک wāwuk ō [oː] بو ـو ـو او او (و) U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW
لٔٹؠ واوُک lạṭ' wāwuk [ɔ] بۄ ـۄ ۄ اۄ اۄ (ۄ) U+06C4 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH RING
لٔٹؠ واوُک مَد lạṭ' wāwuk mad ọ̄ [ɔː] بۄا ـۄا ۄا اۄا اۄا (ۄ + ا) U+06C4 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH RING & U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF
نیٖمہٕ یایُک nīmü yāyuk e [e] بـٚے ـٚے ـێـ ێـ اےٚ ( ٚ) U+065A ARABIC VOWEL SIGN SMALL V ABOVE combined with (ے) U+06D2 ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE
یایُک yāyuk ē [eː] بے ے ـیـ یـ اے (ی) U+06D2 ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE


Letter च़छ़ज़
IPA [k][kʰ][g][t͡ʃ][t͡ʃʰ][d͡ʒ][t͡s][t͡sʰ][z][ʈ][ʈʰ][ɖ][t][tʰ][d][n][p][pʰ][b][m][j][r][l][w][ʃ][s][h]
Transliteration kkhgchchhjtstshzṭhtthdnpphbmyrlwshsh


There have been a few versions of the devanagari script for Kashmiri.[46] The 2002 version of the proposal is shown below.[47] This version has readers and more content available on the Internet, even though this is an older proposal.[48][49] This version makes use of the vowels ॲ/ऑ and vowel signs कॅ/कॉ for the schwa-like vowel [ə] and elongated schwa-like vowel [əː] that also exist in other Devanagari-based scripts such as Marathi and Hindi but are used for the sound of other vowels.

Letter -व
IPA [a][aː][ə][əː] [i][iː][ɨ] [ɨː][u][uː][e][eː] [əi][o][oː][ɔː][ɔ][◌̃]
Transliteration aāạ̄iīüǖuūeēaioōọ̄ ̃
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k का कॅ कॉ कि की कॖ कॗ कु कू कॆ के कै कॊ को कौ क्व or कव कं

Tabulated below is the latest (2009) version of the proposal to spell the Kashmiri vowels with Devanagari.[50][51] The primary change in this version is the changed stand alone characters ॳ / ॴ and vowel signs कऺ / कऻ for the schwa-like vowel [ə] & elongated schwa-like vowel [əː] and a new stand alone vowel and vowel sign कॏ for the open-mid back rounded vowel [ɔ] which can be used instead of the consonant व standing-in for this vowel.

IPA [a][aː][ə][əː][i][iː][ɨ][ɨː][u][uː][e][eː][əi][o][oː][ɔː][ɔ][◌̃]
Transliteration[52] aāạ̄iīüǖuūeēaioōọ̄ ̃
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k का कऺ कऻ कि की कॖ कॗ कु कू कॆ के कै कॊ को कौ कॏ कं


Name Transliteration IPA Isolated glyph Remarks[53][54]
𑆑𑆾𑆮𑇀 𑆑 kōv kạ ka [ka] 𑆑
𑆒𑇀𑆮𑆤𑆴 𑆒 khvani khạ kha [kʰa] 𑆒
𑆓𑆓𑆫𑇀 𑆓 gagar gạ ga [ɡa] 𑆓
𑆓𑆳𑆱𑆴 𑆔 gāsi ghạ gha [ɡʰa] 𑆔 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆤𑆳𑆫𑆶𑆓𑇀 𑆕 nārug ṅạ ṅa [ŋa] 𑆕 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆖𑆳𑆛𑆶𑆮𑇀 𑆖 tsāṭuv chạ cha [t͡ʃa] 𑆖
𑆗𑇀𑆮𑆛𑆴𑆚𑇀 𑆗 tshvaṭiñ chhạ chha [t͡ʃʰa] 𑆗
𑆘𑆪𑆴 𑆘 zayi jạ ja [d͡ʒa] 𑆘
𑆘𑆳𑆯𑆴𑆚𑇀 𑆙 zashiñ jhạ jha [d͡ʒʰa] 𑆙 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆒𑇀𑆮𑆤 𑆦𑆶𑆛𑆴 𑆚 khvana phuṭi ñạ ña [ɲa] 𑆚 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆃𑆫𑇀-𑆩𑆳𑆀𑆛 ar mām̐ṭa ṭa [ʈa] 𑆛
𑆱𑆫𑇀-𑆩𑆳𑆀𑆜 sar mām̐ṭha ṭha [ʈʰa] 𑆜
𑆝𑆶𑆝𑇀 𑆝 ḍuḍ ḍạ ḍa [ɖa] 𑆝
𑆝𑆑 𑆞 ḍaka ḍhạ ḍha [ɖʰa] 𑆞 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆤𑆳𑆤𑆓𑆶𑆫𑆴 𑆟 nānaguri ṇạ ṇa [ɳa] 𑆟 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆠𑆾𑆮𑇀 𑆠 tov tạ ta [ta] 𑆠
𑆡𑆳𑆯𑆴 𑆡 thāshi thạ tha [tʰa] 𑆡
𑆢𑆢𑆮𑇀 𑆢 dadav dạ da [da] 𑆢
𑆢𑆷𑆚𑇀 𑆣 dūñ dhạ dha [dʰa] 𑆣 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆤𑆱𑇀𑆠𑆶𑆮𑇀 𑆤 nastūv nạ na [na] 𑆤
𑆥𑆝𑆶𑆫𑆴 𑆥 paḍuri pạ pa [pa] 𑆥
𑆦𑆫𑆴𑆚𑇀 𑆦 phariñ phạ pha [pʰa] 𑆦
𑆧𑆶𑆧𑇀 𑆧 bub bạ ba [ba] 𑆧
𑆧𑆳𑆪𑆴 𑆨 bāyi bhạ bha [bʰa] 𑆨 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆩𑆾𑆮𑇀 𑆩 mōv mạ ma [ma] 𑆩
𑆪𑆳𑆮 𑆪 yāva yạ ya [ja] 𑆪
𑆫𑆑 𑆫 raka rạ ra [ra] 𑆫
𑆬𑆳𑆮 𑆬 lāva lạ la [la] 𑆬
𑆧𑆝𑆶 𑆝𑆶𑆝𑇀 𑆝 boḍu ḍuḍ ḍạ ḷa [ɭa] 𑆭 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆮𑆯𑆴 𑆮 vashi vạ va [wa] 𑆮
𑆯𑆑𑆫𑇀 𑆯 shakar shạ sha [ʃa] 𑆯
𑆦𑆳𑆫𑆴 𑆰 phāri ṣạ ṣa [ʂa] 𑆰 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆱𑆶𑆱𑇀 𑆱 sus sạ sa [sa] 𑆱
𑆲𑆳𑆬 𑆲 hala hạ ha [ha] 𑆲


Name Transliteration IPA Isolated glyph Remarks[53]
𑆄𑆢𑆿 𑆃 ādau a a [a] 𑆃
𑆎𑆠𑆮𑇀 𑆄 aitav ā ā [aː] 𑆄
𑆪𑆪𑆮𑇀 𑆪𑆼 yeyev yē i [i] 𑆅
𑆅𑆯𑆫𑆮𑇀 𑆆 yisherav yī ī [iː] 𑆆
𑆮𑇀𑆮𑆥𑆬𑇀 𑆮𑆾 vọpal vō u [u] 𑆇
𑆮𑇀𑆮𑆥𑆬𑇀 𑆧𑆳 𑆈 vọpal bā ū ū [uː] 𑆈
𑆉𑆤𑆮𑇀 𑆉 r̥enav [r̩] 𑆉 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this vowel.
𑆫𑆒𑆮𑇀 𑆊 rakhav r̥̄ [r̩ː] 𑆊 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this vowel.
𑆬𑇀𑆪𑆪𑆮𑇀 𑆋 leyev [l̩] 𑆋 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this vowel.
𑆬𑆵𑆪𑆮𑇀 𑆌 līsav l̥̄ [l̩ː] 𑆌 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this vowel.
𑆠𑆬𑆮𑇀𑆪𑇀 𑆍 talavya yē ē [eː] 𑆍
𑆠𑆳𑆬𑆵 𑆎 tolī ai ai [əi] 𑆎
𑆮𑆶𑆜𑆾 𑆏 vuṭhō ō ō [oː] 𑆏
𑆃𑆯𑆴𑆢𑆵 𑆐 ashidī au au [ɔː] 𑆐
𑆃𑆝𑆴 𑆖𑆤𑆢𑇀𑆫 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆶 aḍi tsandra phyor am̐ [◌̃] 𑆃𑆀
𑆩𑆱𑇀 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆁 mas phyori aṃ aṃ [n],[m] 𑆃𑆁
𑆢𑆾 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆂 dō phyori aḥ aḥ [h] 𑆃𑆂

Vowel mark

Name Transliteration IPA Isolated vowel mark Vowel mark indicated on consonant pa Distinct ways of indicating vowel marks on special consonants
𑆮𑆲𑆳𑆪𑇀 vahāy [aː] 𑆳 𑆥𑆳 𑆕 = 𑆕𑆳

𑆘 = 𑆘𑆳

𑆛 = 𑆛𑆳

𑆟 = 𑆟𑆳

𑆩𑆷𑆤𑇀𑆡𑆫𑇀 mūnthar -i [i] 𑆴 𑆥𑆴
𑆃𑆫𑇀 𑆩𑆷𑆤𑇀𑆡𑆫𑇀 ar mūnthar [iː] 𑆵 𑆥𑆵
𑆒𑆶𑆫𑆶 khuru -u [u] 𑆶 𑆥𑆶 𑆑 = 𑆑𑆶

𑆓 = 𑆓𑆶

𑆙 = 𑆙𑆶

𑆚 = 𑆚𑆶

𑆝 = 𑆝𑆶

𑆠 = 𑆠𑆶

𑆨 = 𑆨𑆶

𑆫 = 𑆫𑆶

𑆯 = 𑆯𑆶

𑆃𑆫𑇀 𑆒𑆷𑆫𑆷 ar khūrū [uː] 𑆷 𑆥𑆷 𑆑 = 𑆑𑆷

𑆓 = 𑆓𑆷

𑆙 = 𑆙𑆷

𑆚 = 𑆚𑆷

𑆝 = 𑆝𑆷

𑆠 = 𑆠𑆷

𑆨 = 𑆨𑆷

𑆫 = 𑆫𑆷

𑆯 = 𑆯𑆷

𑆉𑆤𑆮𑇀 𑆉 r̥enav r̥a -r̥ [r̩] 𑆸 𑆥𑆸 𑆑 = 𑆑𑆸
𑆫𑆒𑆮𑇀 𑆊 rakhav ru -r̥̄ [r̩ː] 𑆹 𑆥𑆹 𑆑 = 𑆑𑆹
𑆬𑇀𑆪𑆪𑆮𑇀 𑆋 leyev l̥a -l̥ [l̩] 𑆺 𑆥𑆺
𑆬𑆵𑆱𑆮𑇀 𑆌 līsav l̥̄a -l̥̄ [l̩ː] 𑆻 𑆥𑆻
𑆲𑇀𑆮𑆁𑆝𑆷 hvanḍū [eː] 𑆼 𑆥𑆼
𑆲𑇀𑆮𑆁𑆘𑆾𑆫𑇀 hvanjōr -ai [əi] 𑆽 𑆥𑆽
𑆃𑆑𑆶 𑆯𑇀𑆪𑆷𑆫𑆶 oku shyūr [oː] 𑆾 𑆥𑆾
𑆃𑆑𑆶𑆯𑆴 𑆮𑆲𑆳𑆪𑇀 okushi vahāy -au [ɔː] 𑆿 𑆥𑆿
𑆃𑆝𑆴 𑆖𑆤𑇀𑆢𑇀𑆫 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆶 aḍi tsandra phyor -am̐ [◌̃] 𑆀 𑆥𑆀
𑆩𑆱𑇀 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆁 mas phyori aṃ -aṃ [n],[m] 𑆁 𑆥𑆁
𑆢𑆾 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆂 dō phyori aḥ -aḥ [h] 𑆂 𑆥𑆂


Kashmiri is a fusional language[55] with verb-second (V2) word order.[56] Several of Kashmiri's grammatical features distinguish it from other Indo-Aryan languages.[57]


Kashmiri nouns are inflected according to gender, number and case. There are no articles, nor is there any grammatical distinction for definiteness, although there is some optional adverbial marking for indefinite or "generic" noun qualities.[55]


The Kashmiri gender system is divided into masculine and feminine. Feminine forms are typically generated by the addition of a suffix (or in most cases, a morphophonemic change, or both) to a masculine noun.[55] A relatively small group of feminine nouns have unique suppletion forms that are totally different from the corresponding masculine forms.[58] The following table illustrates the range of possible gender forms:[59]

Adding of affix [huːn]




vowel change[gagur]




consonant change[hokʰ]




vowel/consonant change[tot]




suppletive form[marɨd]




masculine only[kaːw]


feminine only---[mət͡ʃʰ]



Some nouns borrowed from other languages, such as Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, Urdu or English, follow a slightly different gender system. Notably, many words borrowed from Urdu have different genders in Kashmiri.[58]


There are five cases in Kashmiri: nominative, dative, ergative, ablative and vocative.[60] Case is expressed via suffixation of the noun.

Kashmiri utilizes an ergative-absolutive case structure when the verb is in simple past tense.[60] Thus, in these sentences, the subject of a transitive verb is marked in the ergative case and the object in nominative, which is identical to how the subject of an intransitive verb is marked.[60][61][62] However, in sentences constructed in any other tense, or in past tense sentences with intransitive verbs, a nominative-dative paradigm is adopted, with objects (whether direct or indirect) generally marked in dative case.[63]

Other case distinctions, such as locative, instrumental, genitive, comitative and allative, are marked by postpositions rather than suffixation.[64]

Noun morphology

The following table illustrates Kashmiri noun declension according to gender, number and case.[63][65]

Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
Erg. -[an]
Dat. -[as] or -[is]
اَس or اِس
Abl. -[i] or -[ɨ]
اِ or إ
Voc. -[aː]


Kashmiri verbs are declined according to tense and person, and to a lesser extent, gender. Tense, along with certain distinctions of aspect, is formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem (minus the infinitive ending - /un/), and in many cases by the addition of various modal auxiliaries.[66] Postpositions fulfill numerous adverbial and semantic roles.[67]


Present tense in Kashmiri is an auxiliary construction formed by a combination of the copula and the imperfective suffix -/aːn/ added to the verb stem. The various copula forms agree with their subject according to gender and number, and are provided below with the verb /jun/ (to come):[68]

Masculine Feminine
1st Person Sing. [t͡ʃʰus jiwaːn]
چھُس یِوان
[t͡ʃʰas jiwaːn]
چھَس یِوان
2nd Person Sing. [t͡ʃʰukʰ jiwaːn]
چھُکھ یِوان
[t͡ʃʰakʰ jiwaːn]
چھَکھ یِوان
3rd Person Sing. [t͡ʃʰu jiwaːn]
چھُ یِوان
[t͡ʃʰe jiwaːn]
چھےٚ یِوان
1st Person Pl. [t͡ʃʰi jiwaːn]
چھِ یِوان
[t͡ʃʰa jiwaːn]
چھَ یِوان
2nd Person Pl. [t͡ʃʰiw jiwaːn]
چھِو یِوان
[t͡ʃʰaw jiwaːn]
چھَو یِوان
3rd Person Pl. [t͡ʃʰi jiwaːn]
چھِ یِوان
[t͡ʃʰe jiwaːn]
چھےٚ یِوان

Past tense in Kashmiri is significantly more complex than the other tenses, and is subdivided into three past tense distinctions.[69] The simple (sometimes called proximate) past refers to completed past actions. Remote past refers to actions that lack this in-built perfective aspect. Indefinite past refers to actions performed a long time ago, and is often used in historical narrative or storytelling contexts.[70]

As described above, Kashmiri is a split-ergative language; in all three of these past tense forms, the subjects of transitive verbs are marked in the ergative case and direct objects in the nominative. Intransitive subjects are marked in the nominative.[70] Nominative arguments, whether subjects or objects, dictate gender, number and person marking on the verb.[70][71]

Verbs of the simple past tense are formed via the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, which usually undergoes certain uniform morphophonemic changes. First and third person verbs of this type do not take suffixes and agree with the nominative object in gender and number, but there are second person verb endings. The entire simple past tense paradigm of transitive verbs is illustrated below using the verb /parun/ ("to read"):[72]

Simple Past (Transitive)
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Person [por]
2nd Person Non-honorific [porutʰ]
Honorific [porwɨ]
3rd Person [por]

A group of irregular intransitive verbs (special intransitives), take a different set of endings in addition to the morphophonemic changes that affect most past tense verbs.[73]

Simple Past (Special Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Person -[us]
2nd Person -[kʰ]
3rd Person -[t͡ʃʰ]

Intransitive verbs in the simple past are conjugated the same as intransitives in the indefinite past tense form.[74]

Simple Past (Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Person -[jas]
یے یہِ
یے یَس
یے یہِ
2nd Person -[jaːkʰ]
یے یِوٕ
یے یَکھ
یے یِوٕ
3rd Person -[joːw]
یے یہِ
یے یہِ
یے یہِ

In contrast to the simple past, verb stems are unchanged in the indefinite and remote past, although the addition of the tense suffixes does cause some morphophonetic change.[75] Transitive verbs are declined according to the following paradigm:[76]

Indefinite Past (Transitive)
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st/3rd Person -[joːw]
ے یہِ
ے یہِ
ے یہِ
2nd Person -[joːtʰ]
ے یَتھ
ے یَتھ
ے یَتھ
Remote Past (Transitive)
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st/3rd Person -[eːjoːw]
ے یوو
ے یایہِ
ے یایہِ
ے یایہِ
2nd Person -[eːjoːtʰ]
ے یوتھ
ے یے یَتھ
ے یے یَتھ
ے یے یَتھ

As in the simple past, "special intransitive" verbs take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past:[77]

Indefinite Past (Special Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Person -[aːs]
2nd Person -[kʰ]
3rd Person -[aw]
Remote Past (Special Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Perso -[aːjaːs]
ے یایہِ
ے یے یَس
ے یے یہِ
2nd Person -[aːkʰ]
ے یِوٕ
3rd Person -[eːjoːw]
ے یوو
ے یے یہِ
ے یایہٕ
ے یایہٕ

Regular intransitive verbs also take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past, subject to some morphophonetic variation:[78]

Indefinite Past (Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Person -[jas]
یے یہِ
یے یَس
یے یہِ
2nd Person -[jaːkʰ]
یے یِوٕ
یے یَکھ
یے یِوٕ
3rd Person -[joːw]
یے یہِ
یے یہِ
یے یہِ
Remote Past (Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Person -[jeːjaːs]
یے یاس
یے یہِ
یے یاس
یے یہِ
2nd Person -[jeːjakʰ]
یے یَکھ
یے یِوٕ
یے یَکھ
یے یِوٕ
3rd Person -[jeːjoːw]
یے یوو
یے یہِ
یے یایہٕ
یے یہٕ

Future tense intransitive verbs are formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem:[79]

Future (Intransitive)
1st Person -[mɨ]
2nd Person -[akʰ]
3rd Person -[ji]

The future tense of transitive verbs, however, is formed by adding suffixes that agree with both the subject and direct object according to number, in a complex fashion:[80]

Future (Transitive)
Singular ObjectPlural Object
1st Person Sing. -[an]
1st Person Pl. -[ɨhoːn]
2nd Person Sing. -[ɨhǝn]
2nd Person Pl. -[ɨhuːn]
3rd Person Sing. -[jas]
3rd Person Pl. -[ɨnas]


There are two main aspectual distinctions in Kashmiri, perfective and imperfective. Both employ a participle formed by the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, as well as the fully conjugated auxiliary /aːsun/ ("to be")—which agrees according to gender, number and person with the object (for transitive verbs) or the subject (for intransitive verbs).[81]

Like the auxiliary, the participle suffix used with the perfective aspect (expressing completed or concluded action) agrees in gender and number with the object (for transitive verbs) or subject (for intransitives) as illustrated below:[81]

Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural

The imperfective (expressing habitual or progressive action) is simpler, taking the participle suffix -/aːn/ in all forms, with only the auxiliary showing agreement.[82] A type of iterative aspect can be expressed by reduplicating the imperfective participle.[83]


Pronouns are declined according to person, gender, number and case, although only third person pronouns are overtly gendered. Also in third person, a distinction is made between three degrees of proximity, called proximate, remote I and remote II.[84]

Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Person [bɨ]
2nd Person [t͡sɨ]
[tohʲ] or [tuhʲ]
تۆہؠ or تُہؠ
[tohʲ] or [tuhʲ]
تۆہؠ or تُہؠ
3rd Person proximate [ji]
remote I [hu]
remote II [su]
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Person [me]
2nd Person [t͡se]
3rd Person proximate [jemʲ]
remote I [humʲ]
remote II [tǝmʲ]
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Person [me]
2nd Person [t͡se]
3rd Person proximate [jemis]
remote I [humis]
remote II [tǝmis]
Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Person [me]
2nd Person [t͡se]
3rd Person proximate [jemi]
remote I [humi]
remote II [tǝmi]

There is also a dedicated genitive pronoun set, in contrast to the way that the genitive is constructed adverbially elsewhere. As with future tense, these forms agree with both the subject and direct object in person and number.[85]

Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
1st Sing.[mjoːn]








1st Pl.[soːn]








2nd Sing.[t͡ʃoːn]








2nd Pl.[tuhund]








3rd Sing. Prox.[jemʲ sund]

یێمؠ سُنٛد

[jemʲ sɨndʲ]

یێمؠ سٕنٛدؠ

[jemʲ sɨnz]

یێمؠ سٕنٛز

[jemʲ sɨnzɨ]

یێمؠ سٕنٛزٕ

3rd Pl. Prox.[jihund]








3rd Sing. R I[humʲ sund]

ہُمؠ سُنٛد

[humʲ sɨndʲ]

ہُمؠ سٕنٛدؠ

[humʲ sɨnz]

ہُمؠ سٕنٛز

[humʲ sɨnzɨ]

ہُمؠ سٕنٛزٕ

3rd Pl. R I[huhund]








3rd Sing. R II[tǝmʲ sund]

تٔمؠ سُنٛد

[tǝmʲ sɨndʲ]

تٔمؠ سٕنٛدؠ

[tǝmʲ sɨnz]

تٔمؠ سٕنٛز

[tǝmʲ sɨnzɨ]

تٔمؠ سٕنٛزٕ

3rd Pl. R II[tihɨnd]









There are two kinds of adjectives in Kashmiri, those that agree with their referent noun (according to case, gender and number) and those that are not declined at all.[86] Most adjectives are declined, and generally take the same endings and gender-specific stem changes as nouns.[87] The declinable adjective endings are provided in the table below, using the adjective /wɔzul/ ("red"):[88][89]

Masculine Feminine
singularplural singularplural
Nom. [wɔzul]
Erg. [wɔzlɨ]
Dat. [wɔzlis]
Abl. [wɔzlɨ]

Among those adjectives not declined are adjectives that end in -lad or -a, adjectives borrowed from other languages, and a few isolated irregulars.[88]

The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are formed with the words tsor ("more") and sitha ("most"), respectively.[90]


Within the Kashmir language, numerals are separated into cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers.[91] These numeral forms, as well as their aggregative (both, all the five, etc.), multiplicative (two times, four times, etc.), and emphatic forms (only one, only three, etc.) are provided by the table below.[91]

Suffix -[jum] for masculine

-[im] for feminine

-[waj]-[ɡun] or -[ɡon] for masculine

-[ɡɨn] for feminine

0. [sifar]




[ǝkjum] or [ǝkim]

أکیُٛم or أکِم

  [oɡun] or [oɡɨn]

اۆگُن or اۆگٕن





[dojum] or [dojim]

دۆیُم or دۆیِم



[doɡun] or [doɡɨn]

دۆگُن or دۆگٕن





[trejum] or [trejim]

ترٛیٚیُم or ترٛیٚیِم



[troɡun] or [troɡɨn]

ترٛۆگُن or ترٛۆگٕن





[t͡suːrjum] or [t͡suːrim]

ژوٗریُٛم or ژوٗرِم



[t͡soɡun] or [t͡soɡɨn]

ژۆگُن or ژۆگٕن



5.[pãːt͡sʰ] or [pə̃ːt͡sʰ]

پانٛژھ or پٲنٛژھ

[pɨ:t͡sjum] or [pɨ:t͡sim]

پٟنٛژیُٛم or پٟنژِم



[pãːt͡sɨɡun] or [pãːt͡sɨɡɨn]

پانٛژٕگُن or پانٛژٕگٕن



6. [ʃe]


[ʃejum] or [ʃejim]

شیٚیُم or شیٚیِم


شیٚنہٕ وَے

[ʃuɡun] or [ʃuɡɨn]

شُگُن or شُگٕن



7. [satʰ]


[sətjum] or [sətim]

سٔتیُٛم or سٔتِم


سَتہٕ وَے

[satɨɡun] or [satɨɡɨn]

سَتہٕ گُن or سَتہٕ گٕن



8. [əːʈʰ]


[ɨːʈʰjum] or [uːʈʰjum]

اٟٹھیُٛم or اوٗٹھیُٛم

[ɨːʈʰim] or [uːʈʰim]

اٟٹھِم or اوٗٹھِم


ٲٹھٕ وَے

[əːʈʰɨɡun] or [əːʈʰɨɡɨn]

ٲٹھٕ گُن or ٲٹھٕ گٕن



9. [naw]


[nəwjum] or [nəwim]

نٔویُٛم or نٔوِم



[nawɨɡun] or [nawɨɡɨn]

نَوٕگُن or نَوٕگٕن



10. [dəh] or [daːh]

دٔہ or داہ

[dəhjum] or [dəhim]

دٔہیُٛم or دٔہِم


دٔہہٕ وَے

[dəhɨɡon] or [dəhɨɡɨn]

دٔہہٕ گۆن or دٔہہٕ گٕن



11. [kah] or [kaːh]

کَہہ or کاہ

[kəhjum] or [kəhim]

کٔہیُٛم or کٔہِم

12. [bah] or [baːh]

بَہہ or باہ

[bəhjum] or [bəhim]

بٔہیُٛم or بٔہِم

13. [truwaːh]


[truwəːhjum] or [truwəːhim]

ترُٛوٲہیُٛم or ترُٛوٲہِم

14. [t͡sɔdaːh]


[t͡sɔdəːhjum] or [t͡sɔdəːhim]

ژۄدٲہیُٛم or ژۄدٲہِم

15. [pandaːh]


[pandəːhjum] or [pandəːhim]

پَنٛدٲہیُٛم or پَنٛدٲہِم

16. [ʃuraːh]


[ʃurəːhjum] or [ʃurəːhim]

شُرٲہیُٛم or شُرٲہِم

17. [sadaːh]


[sadəːhjum] or [sadəːhim]

سَدٲہیُٛم or سَدٲہِم

18. [arɨdaːh]


[arɨdəːhjum] or [arɨdəːhim]

اَرٕدٲہیُٛم or اَرٕدٲہِم

19. [kunɨwuh]

کُنہٕ وُہ

[kunɨwuhjum] or [kunɨwuhim]

کُنہٕ وُہیُٛم or کُنہٕ وُہِم

20. [wuh]


[wuhjum] or [wuhim]

وُہیُٛم or وُہِم

21. [akɨwuh]

اَکہٕ وُہ

[akɨwuhjum] or [akɨwuhim]

اَکہٕ وُہیُٛم or اَکہٕ وُہِم

22. [zɨtoːwuh]


[zɨtoːwuhjum] or [zɨtoːwuhim]

زٕتووُہیُٛم or زٕتووُہِم

23. [trowuh]


[trowuhjum] or [trowuhim]

ترٛۆوُہیُٛم or ترٛۆوُہِم

24. [t͡sowuh]


[t͡sowuhjum] or [t͡sowuhim]

ژۆوُہیُٛم or ژۆوُہِم

25. [pɨnt͡sɨh]


[pɨnt͡sɨhjum] or [pɨnt͡sɨhim]

پٕنٛژٕہیُٛم or پٕنٛژٕہِم

26. [ʃatɨwuh]

شَتہٕ وُہ

[ʃatɨwuhjum] or [ʃatɨwuhim]

شَتہٕ وُہیُٛم or شَتہٕ وُہِم

27. [satoːwuh]


[satoːwuhjum] or [satoːwuhim]

سَتووُہیُٛم or سَتووُہِم

28. [aʈʰoːwuh]


[aʈʰoːwuhjum] or [aʈʰoːwuhim]

اَٹھووُہیُٛم or اَٹھووُہِم

29. [kunɨtrɨh]

کُنہٕ ترٕٛہ

[kunɨtrɨhjum] or [kunɨtrɨhim]

کُنہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or کُنہٕ ترٕٛہِم

30. [trɨh]


[trɨhjum] or [trɨhim]

ترٕٛہیُٛم or ترٕٛہِم

31. [akɨtrɨh]

اَکہٕ ترٕٛہ

[akɨtrɨhjum] or [akɨtrɨhim]

اَکہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or اَکہٕ ترٕٛہِم

32. [dɔjitrɨh]

دۄیہِ ترٕٛہ

[dɔjitrɨhjum] or [dɔjitrɨhjim]

دۄیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or دۄیہِ ترٕٛہِم

33. [tejitrɨh]

تیٚیہِ ترٕٛہ

[tejitrɨhjum] or [tejitrɨhim]

تیٚیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or تیٚیہِ ترٕٛہِم

34. [t͡sɔjitrɨh]

ژۄیہِ ترٕٛہ

[t͡sɔjitrɨhjum] or [t͡sɔjitrɨhim]

ژۄیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or ژۄیہِ ترٕٛہِم

35. [pə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨh] or [pãːt͡sɨtrɨh]

پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہ or پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨhjum] or [pãːt͡sɨtrɨhjum]

پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨhim] or [pãːt͡sɨtrɨhim]

پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہِم or پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہِم

36. [ʃejitrɨh]

شیٚیہِ ترٕٛہ

[ʃejitrɨhjum] or [ʃejitrɨhim]

شیٚیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or شیٚیہِ ترٕٛہِم

37. [satɨtrɨh]

سَتہٕ ترٕٛہ

[satɨtrɨhjum] or [satɨtrɨhim]

سَتہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or سَتہٕ ترٕٛہِم

38. [arɨtrɨh]


[arɨtrɨhjum] or [arɨtrɨhim]

اَرٕترٕٛہیُٛم or اَرٕترٕٛہِم

39. [kunɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [kunɨtəːd͡ʒiː]

کُنہٕ تٲجِہہ or کُنہٕ تٲجی

[kunɨtəːd͡ʒihjum] or [kunɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

کُنہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or کُنہٕ تٲجِہِم

40. [t͡satd͡ʒih] or [t͡satd͡ʒiː]

ژَتجِہہ or ژَتجی

[t͡satd͡ʒihjum] or [t͡satd͡ʒihim]

ژَتجِہیُٛم or ژَتجِہِم

41. [akɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [akɨtəːd͡ʒiː]

اَکہٕ تٲجِہہ or اَکہٕ تٲجی

[akɨtəːd͡ʒihjum] or [akɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

اَکہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or اَکہٕ تٲجِہِم

42. [dɔjitəːd͡ʒih] or [dɔjitəːd͡ʒiː]

دۄیہِ تٲجِہہ or دۄیہِ تٲجی

[dɔjitəːd͡ʒihjum] or [dɔjitəːd͡ʒihim]

دۄیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or دۄیہِ تٲجِہِم

43. [tejitəːd͡ʒih] or [tejitəːd͡ʒiː]

تیٚیہِ تٲجِہہ or تیٚیہِ تٲجی

[tejitəːd͡ʒihjum] or [tejitəːd͡ʒihim]

تیٚیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or تیٚیہِ تٲجِہِم

44. [t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒih] or [t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒiː]

ژۄیہِ تٲجِہہ or ژۄیہِ تٲجی

[t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒihjum] or [t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒihim]

ژۄیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or ژۄیہِ تٲجِہِم

45. [pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒiː] or [pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒiː]

پٲنٛژٕ تٲجِہہ or پانٛژٕ تٲجِہہ or پٲنٛژٕ تٲجی or پانٛژٕ تٲجی

[pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihjum] or [pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

پٲنٛژٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or پانٛژٕ تٲجِہیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim] or [pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

پٲنٛژٕ تٲجِہِم or پانٛژٕ تٲجِہِم

46. [ʃejitəːd͡ʒih] or [ʃejitəːd͡ʒiː]

شیٚیہِ تٲجِہہ or شیٚیہِ تٲجی

[ʃejitəːd͡ʒihjum] or [ʃejitəːd͡ʒihim]

شیٚیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or شیٚیہِ تٲجِہِم

47. [satɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [satɨtəːd͡ʒiː]

سَتہٕ تٲجِہہ or سَتہٕ تٲجی

[satɨtəːd͡ʒihjum] or [satɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

سَتہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or سَتہٕ تٲجِہِم

48. [arɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [arɨtəːd͡ʒiː]

اَرٕتٲجِہہ or اَرٕتٲجی

[arɨtəːd͡ʒihjum] or [arɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

اَرٕتٲجِہیُٛم or اَرٕتٲجِہِم

49. [kunɨwanzaːh]

کُنہٕ وَنٛزاہ

[kunɨwanzəːhjum] or [kunɨwanzəːhim]

کُنہٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or کُنہٕ وَنٛزٲہِم

50. [pant͡saːh]


[pant͡səːhjum] or [pant͡səːhim]

پَنٛژٲہیُٛم or پَنٛژٲہِم

51. [akɨwanzaːh]

اَکہٕ وَنٛزاہ

[akɨwanzəːhjum] or [akɨwanzəːhim]

اَکہٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or اَکہٕ وَنٛزٲہِم

52. [duwanzaːh]


[duwanzəːhjum] or [duwanzəːhim]

دُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or دُوَنٛزٲہِم

53. [truwanzaːh] or [trɨwanzaːh]

ترُٛوَنٛزاہ or ترٕٛوَنٛزاہ

[truwanzəːhjum] or [truwanzəːhim]

ترُٛوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or ترُٛوَنٛزٲہِم

[trɨwanzəːhjum] or [trɨwanzəːhim]

ترٕٛوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or ترٕٛوَنٛزٲہِم

54. [t͡suwanzaːh]


[t͡suwanzəːhjum] or [t͡suwanzəːhim]

ژُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or ژُوَنٛزٲہِم

55. [pə̃ːt͡sɨwanzaːh] or [pãːt͡sɨwanzaːh]

پٲنٛژٕ وَنٛزاہ or پانٛژٕ وَنٛزاہ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨwanzəːhjum] or [pãːt͡sɨwanzəːhjum]

پٲنٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or پانٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨwanzəːhim] or [pãːt͡sɨwanzəːhim]

پٲنٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہِم or پانٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہِم

56. [ʃuwanzaːh]


[ʃuwanzəːhjum] or [ʃuwanzəːhim]

شُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or شُوَنٛزٲہِم

57. [satɨwanzaːh]

سَتہٕ وَنٛزاہ

[satɨwanzəːhjum] or [satɨwanzəːhim]

سَتہٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or سَتہٕ وَنٛزٲہِم

58. [arɨwanzaːh]


[arɨwanzəːhjum] or [arɨwanzəːhim]

اَرٕوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or اَرٕوَنٛزٲہِم

59. [kunɨhəːʈʰ]

کُنہٕ ہٲٹھ

[kunɨhəːʈʰjum] or [kunɨhəːʈʰim]

کُنہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or کُنہٕ ہٲٹھِم

60. [ʃeːʈʰ]


[ʃeːʈʰjum] or [ʃeːʈʰim]

شیٹھیُٛم or شیٹھِم

61. [akɨhəːʈʰ]

اَکہٕ ہٲٹھ

[akɨhəːʈʰjum] or [akɨhəːʈʰim]

اَکہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or اَکہٕ ہٲٹھِم

62. [duhəːʈʰ]

دُ ہٲٹھ

[duhəːʈʰjum] or [duhəːʈʰim]

دُ ہٲٹھیُٛم or دُ ہٲٹھِم

63. [truhəːʈʰ] or [trɨhəːʈʰ]

ترُٛہٲٹھ or ترٕٛہٲٹھ

[truhəːʈʰjum] or [truhəːʈʰim]

ترُٛہٲٹھیُٛم or ترُٛہٲٹھِم

[trɨhəːʈʰjum] or [trɨhəːʈʰim]

ترٕٛہٲٹھیُٛم or ترٕٛہٲٹھِم

64. [t͡suhəːʈʰ]


[t͡suhəːʈʰjum] or [t͡suhəːʈʰim]

ژُہٲٹھیُٛم or ژُہٲٹھِم

65. [pə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰ] or [pãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰ]

پٲنٛژٕ ہٲٹھ or پانٛژٕ ہٲٹھ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰjum] or [pãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰjum]

پٲنٛژٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or پانٛژٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰim] or [pãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰim]

پٲنٛژٕ ہٲٹھِم or پانٛژٕ ہٲٹھِم

66. [ʃuhəːʈʰ]


[ʃuhəːʈʰjum] or [ʃuhəːʈʰim]

شُہٲٹھیُٛم or شُہٲٹھِم

67. [satɨhəːʈʰ]

سَتہٕ ہٲٹھ

[satɨhəːʈʰjum] or [satɨhəːʈʰim]

سَتہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or سَتہٕ ہٲٹھِم

68. [arɨhəːʈʰ]


[arɨhəːʈʰjum] or [arɨhəːʈʰim]

اَرٕہٲٹھیُٛم or اَرٕہٲٹھِم

69. [kunɨsatatʰ]

کُنہٕ سَتَتھ

[kunɨsatatyum] or [kunɨsatatim]

کُنہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or کُنہٕ سَتَتِم

70. [satatʰ]


[satatjum] or [satatim]

سَتَتیُٛم or سَتَتِم

71. [akɨsatatʰ]

اَکہٕ سَتَتھ

[akɨsatatjum] or [akɨsatatim]

اَکہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or اَکہٕ سَتَتِم

72. [dusatatʰ]


[dusatatjum] or [dusatatim]

دُسَتَتیُٛم or دُسَتَتِم

73. [trusatatʰ] or [trɨsatatʰ]

ترُٛسَتَتھ or ترٕٛسَتَتھ

[trusatatjum] or [trusatatim]

ترُٛسَتَتیُٛم or ترُٛسَتَتِم

[trɨsatatjum] or [trɨsatatim]

ترٕٛسَتَتیُٛم or ترٕٛسَتَتِم

74. [t͡susatatʰ]


[t͡susatatjum] or [t͡susatatim]

ژُسَتَتیُٛم or ژُسَتَتِم

75. [pə̃ːt͡sɨsatatʰ] or [pãːt͡sɨsatatʰ]

پٲنٛژٕ سَتَتھ or پانٛژٕ سَتَتھ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨsatatjum] or [pãːt͡sɨsatatjum]

پٲنٛژٕ سَتَتیُٛم or پانٛژٕ سَتَتیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨsatatim] or [pãːt͡sɨsatatim]

پٲنٛژٕ سَتَتِم or پانٛژٕ سَتَتِم

76. [ʃusatatʰ]


[ʃusatatjum] or [ʃusatatim]

شُسَتَتیُٛم or شُسَتَتِم

77. [satɨsatatʰ]

سَتہٕ سَتَتھ

[satɨsatatjum] or [satɨsatatim]

سَتہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or سَتہٕ سَتَتِم

78. [arɨsatatʰ]


[arɨsatatjum] or [arɨsatatim]

اَرٕسَتَتیُٛم or اَرٕسَتَتِم

79. [kunɨʃiːtʰ]

کُنہٕ شيٖتھ

[kunɨʃiːtjum] or [kunɨʃiːtim]

کُنہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or کُنہٕ شيٖتِم

80. [ʃiːtʰ]


[ʃiːtjum] or [ʃiːtjim]

شيٖتیُٛم or شيٖتِم

81. [akɨʃiːtʰ]

اَکہٕ شيٖتھ

[akɨʃiːtjum] or [akɨʃiːtim]

اَکہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or اَکہٕ شيٖتِم

82. [dɔjiʃiːtʰ]

دۄیہِ شيٖتھ

[dɔjiʃiːtjum] or [dɔjiʃiːtjum]

دۄیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or دۄیہِ شيٖتِم

83. [trejiʃiːtʰ]

ترٛیٚیہِ شيٖتھ

[trejiʃiːtjum] or [trejiʃiːtim]

ترٛیٚیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or ترٛیٚیہِ شيٖتِم

84. [t͡sɔjiʃiːtʰ]

ژۄیہِ شيٖتھ

[t͡sɔjiʃiːtjum] or [t͡sɔjiʃiːtim]

ژۄیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or ژۄیہِ شيٖتِم

85. [pə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtʰ] or [pãːt͡sɨʃiːtʰ]

پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتھ or پانٛژٕ شيٖتھ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtjum] or [pãːt͡sɨʃiːtjum]

پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتیُٛم or پانٛژٕ شيٖتیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtim] or [pãːt͡sɨʃiːtim]

پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتِم or پانٛژٕ شيٖتِم

86. [ʃejiʃiːtʰ]

شیٚیہِ شيٖتھ

[ʃejiʃiːtjum] or [ʃejiʃiːtim]

شیٚیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or شیٚیہِ شيٖتِم

87. [satɨʃiːtʰ]

سَتہٕ شيٖتھ

[satɨʃiːtjum] or [satɨʃiːtim]

سَتہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or سَتہٕ شيٖتِم

88. [arɨʃiːtʰ]


[arɨʃiːtjum] or [arɨʃiːtim]

اَرٕشيٖتیُٛم or اَرٕشيٖتِم

89. [kunɨnamatʰ]

کُنہٕ نَمَتھ

[kunɨnamatjum] or [kunɨnamatim]

کُنہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or کُنہٕ نَمَتِم

90. [namatʰ]


[namatjum] or [namatim]

نَمَتیُٛم or نَمَتِم

91. [akɨnamatʰ]

اَکہٕ نَمَتھ

[akɨnamatjum] or [akɨnamatim]

اَکہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or اَکہٕ نَمَتِم

92. [dunamatʰ]


[dunamatjum] or [dunamatim]

دُنَمَتیُٛم or دُنَمَتِم

93. [trunamatʰ] or [trɨnamatʰ]

ترُٛنَمَتھ or ترٕٛنَمَتھ

[trunamatjum] or [trunamatim]

ترُٛنَمَتیُٛم or ترُٛنَمَتِم

[trɨnamatjum] or [trɨnamatim]

ترٕٛنَمَتیُٛم or ترٕٛنَمَتِم

94. [t͡sunamatʰ]


[t͡sunamatjum] or [t͡sunamatim]

ژُنَمَتیُٛم or ژُنَمَتِم

95. [pə̃ːt͡sɨnamatʰ] or [pãːt͡sɨnamatʰ]

پٲنٛژٕ نَمَتھ or پانٛژٕ نَمَتھ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨnamatjum] or [pãːt͡sɨnamatjum]

پٲنٛژٕ نَمَتیُٛم or پانٛژٕ نَمَتیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨnamatim] or [pãːt͡sɨnamatim]

پٲنٛژٕ نَمَتِم or پانٛژٕ نَمَتِم

96. [ʃunamatʰ]


[ʃunamatjum] or [ʃunamatim]

شُنَمَتیُٛم or شُنَمَتِم

97. [satɨnamatʰ]

سَتہٕ نَمَتھ

[satɨnamatjum] or [satɨnamatim]

سَتہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or سَتہٕ نَمَتِم

98. [arɨnamatʰ]


[arɨnamatjum] or [arɨnamatjim]

اَرٕنَمَتیُٛم or اَرٕنَمَتِم

99. [namɨnamatʰ]

نَمہٕ نَمَتھ

[namɨnamatjum] or [namɨnamatim]

نَمہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or نَمہٕ نَمَتِم

100. [hatʰ]


[hatyum] or [hatim]

ہَتیُٛم or ہَتِم

101. [akʰ hatʰ tɨ akʰ]

اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ اَکھ

[akʰ hatʰ tɨ ǝkjum] or [akʰ hatʰ tɨ ǝkim]

اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ أکیُٛم or اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ أکِم

102. [akʰ hatʰ tɨ zɨ]

اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ زٕ

[akʰ hatʰ tɨ dojum] or [akʰ hatʰ tɨ dojim]

اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ دۆیُم or اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ دۆیِم

200. [zɨ hatʰ]

زٕ ہَتھ

[du hatyum] or [duhatim]

دُہَتیُٛم or دُہَتِم

300. [tre hatʰ]

ترٛےٚ ہَتھ

[trɨ hatyum] or [trɨ hatim]

ترٕٛہَتیُٛم or ترٕٛہَتِم

400. [t͡soːr hatʰ]

ژور ہَتھ

[t͡su hatyum] or [t͡su hatim]

ژُہَتیُٛم or ژُہَتِم

500. [pə̃ːt͡sʰ hatʰ] or [pãːt͡sʰ hatʰ]

پٲنٛژھ ہَتھ or پانٛژھ ہَتھ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨ hatyum] or [pãːt͡sɨ hatyum]

پٲنٛژٕ ہَتیُٛم or پانٛژٕ ہَتیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨ hatim] or [pãːt͡sɨ hatim]

پٲنٛژٕ ہَتِم or پانٛژٕ ہَتِم

600. [ʃe hatʰ]

شےٚ ہَتھ

[ʃe hatyum] or [ʃe hatim]

شےٚ ہَتیُٛم or شےٚ ہَتِم

700. [satʰ hatʰ]

سَتھ ہَتھ

[ʃatɨ hatyum] or [ʃatɨ hatim]

سَتہٕ ہَتیُٛم or سَتہٕ ہَتِم

800. [əːʈʰ ʃatʰ]

ٲٹھ شَتھ

[əːʈʰ ʃatjum] or [əːʈʰ ʃatim]

ٲٹھ شَتیُٛم or ٲٹھ شَتِم

900. [naw ʃatʰ]

نَو شَتھ

[naw ʃatjum] or [naw ʃatim]

نَو شَتیُٛم or نَو شَتِم

1000. [saːs]


[səːsjum] or [səːsim]

سٲسیُٛم or سٲسِم

1001. [akʰ saːs akʰ]

اَکھ ساس اَکھ

[akʰ saːs ǝkjum] or [akʰ saːs ǝkim]

اَکھ ساس أکیُٛم or اَکھ ساس أکِم

1002. [akʰ saːs zɨ]

اَکھ ساس زٕ

[akʰ saːs dojum] or [akʰ saːs dojim]

اَکھ ساس دۆیُم or اَکھ ساس دۆیِم

1100. [akʰ saːs hatʰ]

اَکھ ساس ہَتھ


[kah ʃatʰ] or [kaːh ʃatʰ]

کَہہ شَتھ or کاہ شَتھ

[akʰ saːs hatjum] or [akʰ saːs hatim]

اَکھ ساس ہَتیُٛم or اَکھ ساس ہَتِم


[kah ʃatjum] or [kaːh ʃatjum]

کَہہ شَتیُٛم or کاہ شَتیُٛم

[kah ʃatim] or [kaːh ʃatim]

کَہہ شَتِم or کاہ شَتِم

1500. [akʰ saːs pãːt͡sʰ hatʰ]

اَکھ ساس پانٛژھ ہَتھ


[pandaːh ʃatʰ]

پَنٛداہ شَتھ

[akʰ saːs pãːt͡sɨ hatjum] or [akʰ saːs pãːt͡sɨ hatim]

اَکھ ساس پانٛژٕ ہَتیُٛم or اَکھ ساس پانٛژٕ ہَتِم


[pandaːh ʃatjum] or [pandaːh ʃatim]

پَنٛداہ شَتیُٛم or پَنٛداہ شَتِم

10,000. [dəh saːs] or [daːh saːs]

دٔہ ساس or داہ ساس

[dəh səːsjum] or [daːh səːsjum]

دٔہ سٲسیُٛم or داہ سٲسیُٛم

[dəh səːsim] or [daːh səːsim]

دٔہ سٲسِم or داہ سٲسِم

Hundred thousand [lat͡ʃʰ]


[lat͡ʃʰjum] or [lat͡ʃʰim]

لَچھیُٛم or لَچھِم

Million [dəh lat͡ʃʰ] or [daːh lat͡ʃʰ]

دٔہ لَچھ or داہ لَچھ

[dəh lat͡ʃʰjum] or [daːh lat͡ʃʰjum]

دٔہ لَچھیُٛم or داہ لَچھیُٛم

[dəh lat͡ʃʰim] or [daːh lat͡ʃʰim]

دٔہ لَچھِم or داہ لَچھِم

Ten million [kɔroːr] or [karoːr]

کۄرور or کَرور

[kɔroːrjum] or [karoːrjum]

کۄروریُٛم or کَروریُٛم

[kɔroːrim] or [karoːrim]

کۄرورِم or کَرورِم

Billion [arab]


[arabjum] or [arabim]

اَرَبیُٛم or اَرَبِم

Hundred billion [kʰarab]


[kʰarabjum] or [kʰarabim]

کھَرَبیُٛم or کھَرَبِم

The ordinal number "1st" which is [ǝkjum] أکیُٛم for its masculine genre and [ǝkim] أکِم for its feminine genre is also known as [ɡɔɖnjuk] گۄڈنیُٛک and [ɡɔɖnit͡ʃ] گۄڈنِچ respectively.[92]


Kashmiri is an Indo-Aryan language and was heavily influenced by Sanskrit, especially early on.[93][94][95] After the arrival of Islamic administrative rule in India, Kashmiri acquired many Persian loanwords.[95] In modern times, Kashmiri vocabulary has been imported from Hindustani and Punjabi.[96]

Preservation of old Indo-Aryan vocabulary

Kashmiri retains several features of Old Indo-Aryan that have been lost in other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi.[32] Some vocabulary features that Kashmiri preserves clearly date from the Vedic Sanskrit era and had already been lost even in Classical Sanskrit. This includes the word-form yodvai (meaning if), which is mainly found in Vedic Sanskrit texts. Classical Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan use the word yadi instead.[32]

First person pronoun

Both the Indo-Aryan and Iranian branches of the Indo-Iranian family have demonstrated a strong tendency to eliminate the distinctive first person pronoun ("I") used in the nominative (subject) case. The Indo-European root for this is reconstructed as *eǵHom, which is preserved in Sanskrit as aham and in Avestan Persian as azam. This contrasts with the m- form ("me", "my") that is used for the accusative, genitive, dative, ablative cases. Sanskrit and Avestan both used forms such as ma(-m). However, in languages such as Modern Persian, Baluchi, Hindi and Punjabi, the distinct nominative form has been entirely lost and replaced with m- in words such as ma-n and mai. However, Kashmiri belongs to a relatively small set that preserves the distinction. 'I' is ba/bi/bo in various Kashmiri dialects, distinct from the other me terms. 'Mine' is myon in Kashmiri. Other Indo-Aryan languages that preserve this feature include Dogri (aun vs me-), Gujarati (hu-n vs ma-ri), Konkani (hā̃v vs mhazo), and Braj (hau-M vs mai-M). The Iranian Pashto preserves it too (za vs. maa).[97]


There are very minor differences between the Kashmiri spoken by Hindus and Muslims.[98] For 'fire', a traditional Hindu uses the word اۆگُن [oɡun] while a Muslim more often uses the Arabic word نار [naːr].[99]

Sample text

Perso-Arabic script

Art. 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

سٲری اِنسان چھِ آزاد زامٕتؠ۔ وؠقار تہٕ حۆقوٗق چھِ ہِوی۔ تِمَن چھُ سوچ سَمَج عَطا کَرنہٕ آمُت تہٕ تِمَن پَزِ بٲے بَرادٔری ہٕنٛدِس جَذباتَس تَحَت اَکھ أکِس اَکار بَکار یُن ۔ [100]

[səːriː insaːn t͡ʃʰi aːzaːd zaːmɨtʲ . wʲakaːr tɨ hokuːk t͡ʃʰi hiwiː . timan t͡ʃʰu soːt͡ʃ samad͡ʒ ataː karnɨ aːmut tɨ timan pazi bəːj baraːdəriː hɨndis d͡ʒazbaːtas tahat akʰ əkis akaːr bakaːr jun]

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."

Sharada script

Verses by Lalleshwari:[101]

𑆏𑆩𑆶𑆅 𑆃𑆑𑆶𑆪 𑆃𑆗𑆶𑆫 𑆥𑆾𑆫𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆱𑆶𑆪𑆲𑆳 𑆩𑆳𑆬𑆴 𑆫𑆾𑆛𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆮𑆶𑆤𑇀𑆢𑆱𑇀 𑆩𑆁𑆘 𑆱𑆶𑆅 𑆩𑆳𑆬𑆴 𑆑𑆤𑆴 𑆥𑇀𑆪𑆜 𑆓𑆾𑆫𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆠 𑆖𑆾𑆫𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆃𑆱𑆱𑇀 𑆱𑆳𑆱 𑆠 𑆱𑆥𑆤𑇀𑆪𑆱 𑆱𑆾𑆤𑇆

[oːmuj akuj at͡ʃʰur porum, suj maːli roʈum wɔndas manz, suj maːli kani pʲaʈʰ gorum tɨ t͡sorum, əːsɨs saːs tɨ sapnis sɔn.]

"I kept reciting the unique divine word "Om" and kept it safe in my heart through my resolute dedication and love. I was simply ash and by its divine grace got metamorphosed into gold."

𑆃𑆑𑆶𑆪 𑆏𑆀𑆑𑆳𑆫 𑆪𑆶𑆱 𑆤𑆳𑆨𑆴 𑆣𑆫𑆼 𑆑𑆶𑆩𑇀𑆮𑆪 𑆧𑇀𑆫𑆲𑇀𑆩𑆳𑆟𑇀𑆝𑆱 𑆪𑆶𑆱 𑆓𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆒 𑆩𑆶𑆪 𑆩𑆁𑆠𑇀𑆫 𑆪𑆶𑆱 𑆖𑇀𑆪𑆠𑆱 𑆑𑆫𑆼 𑆠𑆱 𑆱𑆳𑆱 𑆩𑆁𑆠𑇀𑆫 𑆑𑇀𑆪𑆳 𑆑𑆫𑆼𑇆

[akuj omkaːr jus naːbi dareː, kumbeː brahmaːnɖas sum gareː, akʰ suj mantʰɨr t͡sʲatas kareː, tas saːs mantʰɨr kjaː kareː.]

One who recites the divine word "Omkār" by devotion is capable to build a bridge between his own and the cosmic consciousness. By staying committed to this sacred word, one doesn't require any other mantra out of thousands others.

See also


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  2. Mahapatra, B. P. (1989). Constitutional languages. Presses Université Laval. p. 270. ISBN 978-2-7637-7186-1.
  3. Nicolaus, Peter (2015). "Residues of Ancient Beliefs among the Shin in the Gilgit-Division and Western Ladakh". Iran & the Caucasus. 19 (3): 201–264. doi:10.1163/1573384X-20150302. ISSN 1609-8498. JSTOR 43899199.
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  7. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  8. Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George (26 July 2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 895. ISBN 978-1-135-79710-2.
  9. "Parliament passes Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Bill, 2020". The Hindu. 23 September 2020.
  10. "Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2 July 2018. The precise figures from the 2011 census are 6,554,36 for Kashmiri as a "mother tongue" and 6,797,587 for Kashmiri as a "language" (which includes closely related smaller dialects/languages).
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  12. Bukhari, Shujaat (14 June 2011). "The other Kashmir". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  13. Shakil, Mohsin (2012). "Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study)". University of Azad Jammu and Kahsmir. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  14. Kachru, Braj B. (3 July 2002). "The Dying Linguistic Heritage of the Kashmiris: Kashmiri Literary Culture and Language" (PDF). Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  15. Akhtar, Raja Nasim; Rehman, Khawaja A. (2007). "The Languages of the Neelam Valley". Kashmir Journal of Language Research. 10 (1): 65–84. ISSN 1028-6640. Additionally, Kashmiri speakers are better able to understand the variety of Srinagar than the one spoken in Muzaffarabad.
  16. Kiani, Khaleeq (28 May 2018). "CCI defers approval of census results until elections". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
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  19. Hock, Hans Henrich; Bashir, Elena (24 May 2016). The Languages and Linguistics of South Asia: A Comprehensive Guide. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 811. ISBN 978-3-11-042338-9. In Pakistan-controlled Kashmir, Kashmiri speakers are shifting to Urdu (Dhar 2009)
  20. "Up north: Call for exploration of archaeological sites". The Express Tribune. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2020. He said Kundal Shahi and Kashmiri languages, which were spoken in the Neelum Valley, were on the verge of dying.
  21. Khan, Zafar Ali (20 February 2016). "Lack of preservation causing regional languages to die a slow death". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 25 October 2020. Dr Khawaja Abdul Rehman, who spoke on Pahari and Kashmiri, said pluralistic and tolerance-promoting Kashmiri literature was fast dying, as its older generation had failed to transfer the language to its youth. He said that after a few decades, not a single Kashmiri-speaking person will be found in Muzaffarabad...
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  32. K.L. Kalla (1985), The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Mittal Publications, ... Kashmiri alone of all the modern Indian languages preserves the dvi (Kashmiri du) of Sanskrit, in numbers such as dusatath (Sanskrit dvisaptati), dunamat (Sanskrit dvanavatih) ... the latter (Yodvai) is archaic and is to be come across mainly in the Vedas ...
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  52. The central vowels are typically transcribed and u’ when transliterating Arabic script, ö and ü when transliterating Nagari.
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  80. Koul & Wali 2006, p. 103.
  81. Koul & Wali 2006, p. 105.
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  95. Gorekar, Niẓāmuddīn Es (2002). Indo-Islamic Relations. KnowledgeCity Books. p. 67. The Kashmiri language was in the beginning greatly influenced by the Sanskrit language, but with the coming of the Muslims and monarchs like Zainu'l-Abedin it began to accept the influence of Persian which was the language of the rulers.
  96. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. 6 April 2010. p. 582. ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4. Kashmiri vocabulary can be broadly categorized into Kashmiri/Dardic, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Hindi/Urdu, Persian, and Arabic origins.
  97. John D. Bengtson, Harold Crane Fleming (2008), In hot pursuit of language in prehistory: essays in the four fields of anthropology, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008, ISBN 978-90-272-3252-6, ... However, Gujarati as well as a Dardic language like Kashmiri still preserve the root alternation between subject and non-subject forms (but they replaced the derivative of the Sanskrit subject form ahám by new forms) ...
  98. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (6 April 2010), Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Elsevier, 2008, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7, ... Kashmiri occupies a special position in the Dardic group, being probably the only dardic language that has a written literature dating back to the early 13th century ...
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  101. "Lal Vakh in Sharada script".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)


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  • Wade, TR (1888). A Grammar of the Kashmiri Language. SPCK.
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