Jaffna District

Jaffna District (Tamil: யாழ்ப்பாணம் மாவட்டம் Yāḻppāṇam Māvaṭṭam; Sinhala: යාපනය දිස්ත්‍රික්කය yāpanaya distrikkaya) is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country. The district is administered by a District Secretariat headed by a District Secretary (previously known as a Government Agent) appointed by the central government of Sri Lanka. The capital of the district is the city of Jaffna.

Jaffna District
யாழ்ப்பாணம் மாவட்டம்
යාපනය දිස්ත්‍රික්කය
Beach
Location within Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 09°40′N 80°10′E
CountrySri Lanka
ProvinceNorthern
CapitalJaffna
DS Division
List
  • Delft
  • Islands North
  • Islands South
  • Jaffna
  • Karativu
  • Nallur
  • Thenmarachchi
  • Vadamarachchi East
  • Vadamarachchi North
  • Vadamarachchi SW
  • Valikamam East
  • Valikamam North
  • Valikamam South
  • Valikamam SW
  • Valikamam West
Government
  District SecretaryKanapathipillai Mahesan[1]
  MPs
List
  • Silvestri Alantine
  • Murugesu Chandrakumar
  • Douglas Devananda
  • Vijayakala Maheswaran
  • Suresh Premachandran
  • E. Saravanapavan
  • Mavai Senathirajah
  • S. Sritharan
  • A. Vinayagamoorthy
  MPCs
List
  • E. Arnold
  • P. Ayngaranesan
  • B. Gajatheepan
  • K. Kamalendran
  • Vinthan Kanagaratnam
  • A. Paranjothy
  • A. Ramanathan
  • K. Sarveswaran
  • Ananthi Sasitharan
  • K. Sayanthan
  • M. K. Shivajilingam
  • D. Siddarthan
  • C. V. K. Sivagnanam
  • V. Sivayogan
  • C. Sukirthan
  • C. V. Vigneswaran
Area
  Total1,025 km2 (396 sq mi)
  Land929 km2 (359 sq mi)
  Water96 km2 (37 sq mi)  9.37%
  Rank24th (1.56% of total area)
Population
 (2012 census)[3]
  Total583,378
  Rank16th (2.88% of total pop.)
  Density570/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Ethnicity
(2012 census)[3]
  Sri Lankan Tamil577,246 (98.95%)
  Sinhalese3,366 (0.58%)
  Sri Lankan Moors2,139 (0.37%)
  Indian Tamil499 (0.09%)
  Other128 (0.02%)
Religion
(2012 census)[4]
  Hindu483,900 (82.95%)
  Christian94,146 (16.14%)
  Buddhist2,533 (0.43%)
  Muslim2,455 (0.42%)
  Other344 (0.06%)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (Sri Lanka)
Post Codes
40000-40999
Telephone Codes021
ISO 3166 codeLK-41
Vehicle registrationNP
Official LanguagesTamil, Sinhala
WebsiteJaffna District Secretariat

History

Between the 5th century BC and the 13th century AD present day Jaffna District was part of various Kingdoms such as Pandya, Chola, Pallava, Kalinga, Rajarata. Jaffna District was thereafter part of the pre-colonial Jaffna kingdom.[5] The district then came under Portuguese, Dutch and British control. In 1815 the British gained control of the entire island of Ceylon. They divided the island into three ethnic-based administrative structures: Low Country Sinhalese, Kandyan Sinhalese and Tamil. Jaffna District was part of the Tamil administration. In 1833, in accordance with the recommendations of the Colebrooke-Cameron Commission, the ethnic based administrative structures were unified into a single administration divided into five geographic provinces.[6] Jaffna District, together with Mannar District and Vanni District, formed the new Northern Province.[7] At the time that Ceylon gained independence, Jaffna was one of the three districts located in the Northern Province. Parts of the district were transferred to newly created Mullaitivu District in September 1978. Kilinochchi District was carved out of the southern part of Jaffna District in February 1984.

Geography

Jaffna District is located in the far north of Sri Lanka in the Northern Province and occupies most of the Jaffna Peninsula. It has an area of 1,025 square kilometres (396 sq mi).[2] It is divided into four areas geographically:

  • Thenmarachchi or Thenmaradchi
  • Vadamarachchi or Vadamaradchi
  • Valikamam
  • Jaffna Islands

Administrative units

Jaffna District is divided into 15 Divisional Secretary's Division (DS Divisions), each headed by a Divisional Secretary (previously known as an Assistant Government Agent).[8] The DS Divisions are further sub-divided into 435 Grama Niladhari Divisions (GN Divisions).[8]

DS Division Main Town Divisional Secretary GN
Divisions
[8]
Area
(km2)
[8][9]
Population (2012 Census)[10] Population
Density
(/km2)
Sri Lankan
Tamil
SinhaleseSri Lankan MoorsIndian
Tamil
OtherTotal
DelftA. Siri6453,780380103,81985
Islands NorthKaytsAnton Yoganayagam15309,84612931909,997333
Islands SouthVelanaiManchulathevi Satheesan307816,379612515016,525212
JaffnaJaffnaSugunarathy Theivendram281748,4135041,6821045650,7592,986
KarainagarKarainagarThevanthini Babu9229,53300929,544434
NallurNallurPalasingam Senthilnanthanan403867,7771994521668,0481,791
ThenmarachchiChavakachcheriAnjalidevi Santhaseelan6022164,162247621694564,685293
Vadamarachchi EastMaruthankerneyNadarajah Thirulinganathan1817912,7181316012,73871
Vadamarachchi NorthPoint PedroR. T. Jeyaseelan352947,1831671226147,3891,634
Vadamarachchi South WestKaraveddyS. Sivasri358845,495731838445,628519
Valikamam EastKopayMaruthalingam Pradeepan3110272,90825210135273,298719
Valikamam NorthTellippalaiKanagarajah Shrimohanan455728,1791,336214629,546518
Valikamam SouthUduvilM. Nanthagopalan303052,5741904425052,8331,761
Valikamam South WestSandilipaySubramaniyam Muralitharan284552,039159188252,2261,161
Valikamam WestChankanai254446,2606559446,3431,053
Total4351,025577,2463,3662,139499128583,378569

Demographics

Population

Jaffna District's population was 583,378 in 2012.[3] It is one of the most densely populated districts of Sri Lanka. The population of the district is almost exclusively Sri Lankan Tamil.

The population of the district, like the rest of the north and east of Sri Lanka, has been heavily affected by the civil war. The war killed an estimated 100,000 people.[11] Several hundred thousand Sri Lankan Tamils, possibly as much as one million, emigrated to the West during the war.[12] Many Sri Lankan Tamils also moved to the relative safety of the capital Colombo. Most of the Sri Lankan Moors and Sinhalese who lived in the district fled to other parts of Sri Lanka or were forcibly expelled by the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

Ethnicity

Population of Jaffna District by ethnic group 1881 to 2012[3][13][14][15][lower-alpha 1]
Year Tamil[lower-alpha 2] Sinhalese Muslim[lower-alpha 3] Other Total
No.
No.%No.%No.%No.%
1881 Census261,90298.61%800.03%2,6481.00%9530.36%265,583
1891 Census275,22798.55%1310.05%3,0491.09%8770.31%279,284
1901 Census296,80598.66%2260.08%3,0781.02%7420.25%300,851
1911 Census321,90898.53%4030.12%3,4851.07%9160.28%326,712
1921 Census324,87498.29%1,0420.32%3,7481.13%8770.27%330,541
1946 Census413,26497.29%4,5461.07%5,6201.32%1,3580.32%424,788
1963 Census597,92097.50%5,6300.92%8,6001.40%1,0800.18%613,230
1971 Census673,04395.56%20,4022.90%10,3121.46%5930.08%704,350
1981 Census812,24797.73%4,6150.56%13,7571.66%4930.06%831,112
1997 Estimaten/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a466,937
1998 Estimaten/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a457,264
1999 Estimaten/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a491,007
2000 Estimaten/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a502,356
2001 Estimate[lower-alpha 4]541,13399.95%490.01%2010.04%00.00%541,383
2002 Estimaten/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a574,164
2003 Estimate590,29999.74%400.01%1,2410.21%2480.04%591,828
2004 Estimate583,06499.73%880.02%1,3840.24%1310.02%584,667
2005 Estimate595,65199.69%750.01%1,7050.29%690.01%597,500
2006 Estimate650,33999.72%540.01%1,7250.26%660.01%652,184
2007 Enumeration559,18899.92%670.01%3500.06%140.00%559,619
2008 Estimate559,66599.91%290.01%4520.08%500.01%560,196
2009 Estimate623,84199.87%260.00%7770.12%00.00%624,644
2011 Enumeration564,45599.51%7460.13%1,8740.33%1540.03%567,229
2012 Census577,74599.03%3,3660.58%2,1390.37%1280.02%583,378

Religion

Population of Jaffna District by religion 1971 to 2012[4][16][17][18]
Year Hindu Christian[lower-alpha 5] Buddhist Muslim Others Total
No.
No.%No.%No.%No.%No.%
1971 Census585,41883.11%85,03112.08%18,2102.59%15,5202.20%1710.02%704,350
1981 Census705,70584.97%104,76612.61%5,1040.61%14,8441.79%1330.02%830,552
2008 Estimate484,30886.45%75,35713.45%290.01%4520.08%500.01%560,196
2012 Census483,90082.95%94,14616.14%2,5330.43%2,4550.42%3440.06%583,378

Politics and government

Local government

Jaffna District has 17 local authorities of which one is a Municipal Council, three are Urban Councils and the remaining 13 are Divisional Councils (Pradesha Sabhai or Pradeshiya Sabha).[8]

Local Authority Area
(km2)
[8]
Population
(2011)
[15]
Registered
Electors
(2011)[lower-alpha 6]
Elected Members
(2011)[lower-alpha 7]
TNA[lower-alpha 8]UPFAUNPOtherTotal
Chavakacheri Divisional Council200.9048,16637,0151221015
Chavakacheri Urban Council31.2915,78010,987920011
Delft Divisional Council47.163,8613,08518009
Jaffna Municipal Council20.2076,080100,4179130123
Karainagar Divisional Council21.749,5058,14031105
Kayts Divisional Council45.1110,5346,34914005
Nallur Divisional Council20.5936,47222,0121020012
Point Pedro Divisional Council220.0039,65125,37572009
Point Pedro Urban Council4.6212,1617,37672009
Vadamarachchi South West Divisional Council68.9545,38632,5391530018
Valikamam East Divisional Council102.2070,06446,5701650021
Valikamam North Divisional Council58.5026,04963,2241560021
Valikamam South Divisional Council33.2651,61232,8571330016
Valikamam South West Divisional Council55.2450,97131,0221240016
Valikamam West Divisional Council47.3045,98330,2141130014
Valvettithurai Urban Council5.368,3825,55072009
Velanai Divisional Council94.8016,57212,028380011
Total1,077.22567,2291517021224

Twinned Regions

On 18 October 2016, Jaffna District twinned with the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in London.[19] This has been a milestone to build “greater understanding and sharing knowledge” in the fields of governance, healthcare and education.[20]

Notes

  1. Pre-1984 figures include Kilinochchi District which was carved out of the southern part of Jaffna district in February 1984.
  2. Sri Lankan Tamil and Indian Tamil.
  3. Sri Lankan Moors and Indian Moors.
  4. 2001 Census was not carried out in Jaffna District.
  5. Roman Catholic and Other Christian.
  6. 2009 for Jaffna Municipal Council.
  7. 2009 for Jaffna Municipal Council.
  8. Includes TULF.

References

  1. "District Secretary - Jaffna". Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  2. "Area of Sri Lanka by province and district" (PDF). Statistical Abstract 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-13.
  3. "A2 : Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012". Census of Population & Housing, 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  4. "A3 : Population by religion according to districts, 2012". Census of Population & Housing, 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  5. de Silva, K. M. (1981). A History of Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. xvii.
  6. Mills, Lennox A. (1933). Ceylon Under British Rule (1795–1932). London: Oxford University Press. pp. 67–68.
  7. Medis, G. C. (1946). Ceylon Under the British (2nd (revised) ed.). Colombo: The Colombo Apothecaries Co. pp. 39–40.
  8. "Statistical Information 2012". Northern Provincial Council.
  9. "Land area by province, district and divisional secretariat division" (PDF). Statistical Abstract 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-13.
  10. "A6 : Population by ethnicity and district according to Divisional Secretary's Division, 2012". Census of Population & Housing, 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  11. "Up to 100,000 killed in Sri Lanka's civil war: UN". ABC News (Australia). 20 May 2009.
  12. Harrison, Frances (23 July 2003). "Twenty years on – riots that led to war". BBC News.
  13. "Basic Population Information on Jaffna District – 2007" (PDF). Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  14. "Statistical Information 2010" (PDF). Northern Provincial Council.
  15. "Enumeration of Vital Events 2011 – Northern Province" (PDF). Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  16. "Population by religion and district, Census 1981, 2001" (PDF). Statistical Abstract 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-13.
  17. "Jaffna District in Facts and Figures". Balasundarapillay.P, Rupamoorthy.k. Teepam Institute. Retrieved 21 Oct 2013.
  18. Jaffna District Statistical Information 2009. Jaffna District Secretariat. June 2009. p. 32.
  19. Hammond, Michael. "International partnerships". www.kingston.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 2016-12-21.
  20. "New ties for borough as Kingston twins with Jaffna in Sri Lanka". Surrey Comet. Retrieved 2016-12-21.
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