Intergovernmental Authority on Development

The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is an eight-country trade bloc in Africa. It includes governments from the Horn of Africa, Nile Valley and the African Great Lakes. It is headquartered in Djibouti.

Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
الهيئة الحكومية للتنمية
Autorité intergouvernementale pour le développement
  Member states
  Suspended states
Headquarters Djibouti, Djibouti
Official languagesEnglish
Abdalla Hamdok
EstablishmentJanuary 1986 (As IGADD)
5,204,977 km2 (2,009,653 sq mi)
GDP (PPP)estimate
$337.82 billion
GDP (nominal)estimate
$197.202 billion
 Per capita
Time zoneUTC+3 (East Africa Time)

Member states

Horn of Africa
  •  Djibouti (founding member, since 1986)
  •  Ethiopia (founding member, since 1986)
  •  Somalia (founding member, since 1986)
  •  Eritrea (admitted 1993, withdrew 2007, readmitted 2011)[1]
Nile Valley
African Great Lakes
  •  Kenya (founding member, since 1986)
  •  Uganda (founding member, since 1986)


The Intergovernmental Authority on Development was established in 1996. It succeeded the earlier Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD), a multinational body founded in 1986 by Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda and Kenya, with a focus on development and environmental control. IGADD's headquarters were later moved to Djibouti, following an agreement signed in January 1986 by the member states. Eritrea joined the organization in 1993, upon achieving independence.[4]

In April 1995, the Assembly of Heads of State and Government met in Addis Ababa, where they agreed to strengthen cooperation through the organization. This was followed with the signing of a Letter of Instrument to Amend the IGADD Charter / Agreement on 21 March 1996. The Revitalised IGAD, a new organizational structure, was eventually launched on 25 November 1996 in Djibouti.[4]


In September 2006, the AU Peace and Security Council approved an IGAD proposal to deploy an IGAD Peace Support Mission in Somalia (IGASOM).[5]

On 21 February 2007, the United Nations Security Council approved Resolution 1744, which authorized the deployment of a new African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) in place of IGASOM.[6]

Current situation

  • IGAD is a principal supporter of the Federal Government of Somalia and backed it through the AMISOM and ATMIS initiatives.
  • IGAD expanded its activities in 2008 with initiatives to improve the investment, trade and banking environments of member states. The organization stressed the deployment of highly innovative programmes and mechanisms.


  • The Assembly of Heads of State and Government is the supreme policy making organ of the Authority. It determines the objectives, guidelines and programs for IGAD and meets once a year. A Chairman is elected from among the member states in rotation.
  • The Secretariat is headed by an Executive Secretary appointed by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government for a term of four years renewable once. The Secretariat assists member states in formulating regional projects in the priority areas, facilitates the coordination and harmonization of development policies, mobilizes resources to implement regional projects and programs approved by the council and reinforces national infrastructures necessary for implementing regional projects and policies. The current Executive Secretary is Workneh Gebeyehu of Ethiopia (since 29 November 2019).[7]
  • The Council of Ministers is composed of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and one other Minister designated by each member state. The Council formulates policy, approves the work program and annual budget of the Secretariat during its biannual sessions.
  • The Committee of Ambassadors comprises IGAD member states' Ambassadors or Plenipotentiaries accredited to the country of IGAD Headquarters. It convenes as often as the need arises to advise and guide the Executive Secretary.

Ambassador Mahboub Maalim handed over as Executive Secretary [8] to Workneh Gebeyehu in late 2019. Maalim, a Kenyan nominee, had served from 2008 to 2019.

Comparison with other regional trade blocs

African Economic Community
Pillar regional
blocs (REC)
Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Member
(millions) (per capita)
EAC 4,810,363 312,362,653 833,622 3,286 7
ECOWAS/CEDEAO 5,112,903 349,154,000 1,322,452 3,788 15
IGAD 5,233,604 294,197,387 225,049 1,197 7
AMU/UMA a 6,046,441 106,919,526 1,299,173 12,628 5
ECCAS/CEEAC 6,667,421 218,261,591 175,928 1,451 11
SADC 9,882,959 394,845,175 737,392 3,152 15
COMESA 12,873,957 406,102,471 735,599 1,811 20
CEN-SAD a 14,680,111 29
Total AEC 29,910,442 853,520,010 2,053,706 2,406 54
Other regional
Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Member
(millions) (per capita)
WAMZ 1 1,602,991 264,456,910 1,551,516 5,867 6
SACU 1 2,693,418 51,055,878 541,433 10,605 5
CEMAC 2 3,020,142 34,970,529 85,136 2,435 6
UEMOA 1 3,505,375 80,865,222 101,640 1,257 8
UMA 2 a 5,782,140 84,185,073 491,276 5,836 5
GAFTA 3 a 5,876,960 1,662,596 6,355 3,822 5
During 2004. Sources: The World Factbook 2005, IMF WEO Database.
  Smallest value among the blocs compared.
  Largest value among the blocs compared.
1: Economic bloc inside a pillar REC.
2: Proposed for pillar REC, but objecting participation.
3: Non-African members of GAFTA are excluded from figures.
a: The area 446,550 km2 used for Morocco excludes all disputed territories, while 710,850 km2 would include the Moroccan-claimed and partially-controlled parts of Western Sahara (claimed as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic by the Polisario Front). Morocco also claims Ceuta and Melilla, making up about 22.8 km2 (8.8 sq mi) more claimed territory.

See also


  1. "Intergovernmental Authority on Development: About us: History". IGAD. 9 January 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  2. "East African bloc admits South Sudan as member". Reuters Africa. 25 November 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  3. Şafak, Yeni. "Regional bloc suspends South Sudan's membership over failure to pay fees". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-12-11.
  4. "IGAD - About us". Intergovernmental Authority on Development. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  5. "SOMALIA: African Union endorses regional peace plan". IRIN. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  6. "Resolution 1744 (2007)" (PDF). United Nations Security Council. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  7. "IGAD countries leaders applaud Dr Workneh's appointment as executive secretary". Archived from the original on 2020-02-02. Retrieved 2019-12-01.
  8. "Executive Secretary Hails Italy's Support to IGAD". Intergovernmental Authority on Development. Retrieved 24 June 2014.

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