Indigenous people of New Guinea

The indigenous peoples of Western New Guinea in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, commonly called Papuans,[1] are Melanesians. There is genetic evidence for two major historical lineages in New Guinea and neighboring islands: a first wave from the Malay Archipelago perhaps 50,000 years ago when New Guinea and Australia were a single landmass called Sahul and, much later, a wave of Austronesian people from the north who introduced Austronesian languages and pigs about 3,500 years ago. They also left a small but significant genetic trace in many coastal Papuan peoples.

Dani people from the central highlands of Western New Guinea, Indonesia

Linguistically, Papuans speak languages from the many families of non-Austronesian languages that are found only on New Guinea and neighboring islands, as well as Austronesian languages along parts of the coast, and recently developed creoles such as Tok Pisin, Hiri Motu, Unserdeutsch, and Papuan Malay.[2][3][4]

The term "Papuan" is used in a wider sense in linguistics and anthropology. In linguistics, "Papuan languages" is a cover term for the diverse, mutually unrelated, non-Austronesian language families spoken in Melanesia, the Torres Strait Islands, and parts of Wallacea. In anthropology, "Papuan" is often used to denote the highly diverse aboriginal populations of Melanesia and Wallacea prior to the arrival of Austronesian-speakers, and the dominant genetic traces of these populations in the current ethnic groups of these areas.[3]

Children dressed up for singsing

Languages

The language families in Ross's conception of the Trans-New Guinea language family

Ethnologue's 14th edition lists 826 languages of Papua New Guinea and 257 languages of Western New Guinea, a total of 1083 languages, with 12 languages overlapping. They can be divided into two groups, the Austronesian languages, and all the others, called Papuan languages for convenience. The term Papuan languages refers to an areal grouping, rather than a linguistic one. So-called Papuan languages comprise hundreds of different languages, most of which are not related.[5]

Papuan ethnic groups

Papuans in the Yahukimo Regency, Highland Papua, Indonesia

The following indigenous peoples live within the modern borders of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Austronesian-speaking (AN) groups are given in italics.

West Papua

Papuan ethnic groups / tribes in Indonesian province of West Papua include Abun, Ambel, Arfak, Awe, Ayamaru, Ayfat, Batanta, Biak, Biga, Bira, Borai, Butlih, Domu, Doreri, Emeyode, Fiawat, Hatam, Irarutu, Irires, Iwaro, Kais, Kawe, Koiwai, Kuri, Langanyan, Madekwana, Mairasi, Maniwak, Matbat, Mbaham, Matta, Meiah, Meybrat, Miere, Miyah, Moi, Moire, Moru, Moskona, Mpur, Napiti, Nerigo, Oburauw, Roon, Roswar, Sebyar, Sougb, Soviar, Sumuri, Tehit, Tepin, Wamesa, Warumba, Waruri, Wawiyai, Wondama, Yaban, Konda.[6]

Papua

Papuan ethnic groups/tribes in Indonesian province of Papua include:[7]

Jayapura City
  • Kayu Batu/Kayu Pulau
  • Tobati
  • Enggros
  • Nafri
  • Skouw
  • Sentani
Jayapura Regency
  • Demta
  • Kaureh
  • Kemtuk
  • Kawamsu
  • Mekwei
  • Narau
  • Gresi
  • Nimboran
  • Oria
  • Ormu
  • Kapori
  • Foya
  • Sauso
  • Tabia
  • Tarpia
  • Taworfa
  • Yansu
  • Yamna
  • Kendate
  • Tofamna
  • Bauwi
Sarmi Regency
  • Akwaikai
  • Airoran
  • Anus
  • Baburiwa
  • Bagusa
  • Yarsun
  • Bapu
  • Bonerif
  • Lairawa
  • Kauweraweo
  • Mander
  • Papasena
  • Wakde
  • Baso
  • Bonggo
  • Itik
  • Keder
  • Maremgi
  • Podena
  • Marembori
  • Babe
  • Kabera
  • Kwerba
  • Masimasi
  • Samarokena
  • Wares
  • Berik
  • Dabra
  • Kwesten
  • Massep
  • Sobei
  • Warotai
  • Betaf
  • Foau
  • Kapitiauw
  • Liki
  • Nopuk
Keerom Regency
  • Aywi
  • Janggu
  • Taikat
  • Yafi
  • Manem
  • Sowei
  • Dubu
  • Molof
  • Usku
  • Emumu
  • Sangke
  • Waina
  • Senggi
  • Waris
Biak Numfor Regency
  • Borapasi
  • Bonefa
  • Kofei
  • Sauri
  • Siromi
  • Tafaro
  • Waropen
  • Wairata
  • Burate
  • Sedasi
  • Otodema
  • Demisa
  • Demba
  • Biak
Waropen Regency
  • Amabi
  • Ansus
  • Busami
  • Karema
  • Kurudu
  • Marau
  • Munggui
  • Nisa
  • Papuma
  • Pom
  • Arui
  • Woi
  • Anate
  • Nakabui
  • Waropen
Yapen Islands Regency
  • Borapasi
  • Bonefa
  • Kofei
  • Sauri
  • Siromi
  • Tafaro
  • Waropen
  • Wairata
  • Burate
  • Sedasi
  • Otodema
  • Demisa
  • Demba
Mamberamo Regency

Highland Papua

Papuan ethnic groups/tribes in Indonesian province of Highland Papua include:[7]

Jayawijaya Regency
  • Nduga
  • Walak
  • Hugula
Pegunungan Bintang Regency
  • Yali
  • Ngalum
  • Biksi
  • Ketengban
  • Tyu
  • Sukubatong
  • Una
Tolikara Regency
  • Eiponek
  • Taori
  • Kwerisa
  • Toarikei
  • Turui
Yahukimo Regency
  • Hmanggona
  • Hupla
  • Inlom
  • Korupun
  • Sela
  • Mek Kosarek
  • Momuna
  • Mek Nipsan
  • Ngalik
  • Lani Lembah
  • Mek Nalca

Central Papua

Papuan ethnic groups/tribes in Indonesian province of Central Papua include:[7]

Mimika Regency
  • Kamoro
  • Sempan
  • Damal
  • Amung
Nabire Regency[8]
  • Yerisiam
  • Wate
  • Mora
  • Hegure/Yaur/Yagure
  • Umari/Teluk Umar
  • Gwoa Napan
  • Mee
  • Auwye/Ause
  • Moi
Painai Regency
  • Mee
  • Dou
  • Wodam
  • Wolani
Puncak Jaya Regency
  • Lani Barat
  • Dem
  • Fayu
  • Kiri-kiri
  • Moni
  • Tause
  • Wano
  • Dani

South Papua

Papuan ethnic groups/tribes in Indonesian province of South Papua include:[7]

Merauke Regency
Asmat Regency
  • Asmat
  • Citak
  • Pisa
  • Sawi
  • Tamnim
  • Warkai
  • Biplim
Mappi Regency
  • Airo
  • Awyu
  • Kayagar
  • Siagha
  • Tamagario
  • Yaghay
  • Yaninu
  • Sumaghaghe
Boven Digoel Regency
  • Aghul
  • Iwur
  • Katik
  • Kauwoi
  • Kombai
  • Korowai
  • Kotogut
  • Yanggon
  • Okparimen
  • Ninggerum
  • Wambon
  • Wanggom
  • Yair

Papua New Guinea

  • Abelam
  • Angu
  • Baruya
  • Biangai
  • Bilibil
  • Chambri
  • Duna
  • Etoro
  • Fore
  • Gadsup
  • Gogodala
  • Haroli
  • Hewa
  • Huli
  • Iatmul
  • Kaluli
  • Kwoma
  • Koteka
  • Maisin (AN with many non-AN elements)
  • Melpa
  • Mian
  • Morkai
  • Motu
  • Min
  • Mundugumor
  • Ogea
  • Orokaiva
  • Sambia
  • Swagap
  • Tairora
  • Tanga
  • Telefol
  • Tsembaga
  • Urapmin
  • Wiru
  • Wola
  • Wopkaimin
  • Yaifo
  • Zia

Bismarck Archipelago

Origin and genetics

In a 2005 study of ASPM gene variants, Mekel-Bobrov et al. found that the Papuan people have among the highest rate of the newly evolved ASPM Haplogroup D, at 59.4% occurrence of the approximately 6,000-year-old allele.[9] While it is not yet known exactly what selective advantage is provided by this gene variant, the haplogroup D allele is thought to be positively selected in populations and to confer some substantial advantage that has caused its frequency to rapidly increase.

Main Y-DNA Haplogroups of Papuan people are Haplogroup MS, Haplogroup P and Haplogroup C1b2a; a significant minority belong also to Haplogroup O-M175.[10]

Based on his genetic studies of the Denisova hominin, an ancient human species discovered in 2010, Svante Pääbo claims that ancient human ancestors of the Papuans interbred in Asia with these humans. He has found that people of New Guinea share 4%–7% of their genome with the Denisovans, indicating this exchange.[11]

Phylogenetic data suggests that an early Eastern Eurasian or "eastern non-African" (ENA) meta-population trifurcated, and gave rise to the Australo-Papuans, the Andamanese Onge / AASI, as well as East/Southeast Asians, although Australo-Papuans may have also received some gene flow from an earlier group (xOoA), around 2%,[12] next to additional archaic admixture in the Sahul region.[13][14]

According to one study, Australo-Papuans (such as the indigenous people of New Guinea and Aboriginal Australians) could have either formed from a mixture between an East Asian lineage and lineage basal to West and East Asians, or as a sister lineage of East Asians with or without a minor basal OoA or xOoA contribution.[15]

A 2016 study at the University of Cambridge by Christopher Klein et al. suggests that it was about 50,000 years ago that these peoples reached Sahul (the supercontinent consisting of present-day Australia and its islands and New Guinea). The sea levels rose and isolated New Guinea about 10,000 years ago, but Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from each other genetically earlier, about 37,000 years BP.[16]

Notable people

See also

References

  1. From the Malay word pəpuah 'curly hair'. "Papuan". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  3. Friedlaender J, Friedlaender FR, Reed FA, Kidd KK, Kidd JR (2008). "The Genetic Structure of Pacific Islanders". PLOS Genetics. 4 (3): e19. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0040019. PMC 2211537. PMID 18208337.
  4. Jinam, Timothy A.; Phipps, Maude E.; Aghakhanian, Farhang; Majumder, Partha P.; Datar, Francisco; Stoneking, Mark; Sawai, Hiromi; Nishida, Nao; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Kawamura, Shoji; Omoto, Keiichi; Saitou, Naruya (August 2017). "Discerning the Origins of the Negritos, First Sundaland People: Deep Divergence and Archaic Admixture". Genome Biology and Evolution. 9 (8): 2013–2022. doi:10.1093/gbe/evx118. PMC 5597900. PMID 28854687.
  5. Palmer, Bill (2018). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area. Mouton De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  6. Ronsumbre, Adolof (2020). Ensiklopedia Suku Bangsa di Provinsi Papua Barat. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kepel Press. ISBN 978-602-356-318-0.
  7. "Pemerintah Provinsi Papua". www.papua.go.id. Retrieved 2021-02-16.
  8. "Bupati Mesak Siap Bangun Asrama Siswa Suku Terasing di Nabire – Pemerintah Kabupaten Nabire". Pemerintah Kabupaten Nabire – "Nabire Aman, Mandiri dan Sejahtera". Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  9. "Ongoing Adaptive Evolution of ASPM, a Brain Size Determinant in Homo sapiens", Science, 9 September 2005: Vol. 309. no. 5741, pp. 1720–1722.
  10. 崎谷満『DNA・考古・言語の学際研究が示す新・日本列島史』(勉誠出版 2009年)(in Japanese)
  11. Carl Zimmer (22 December 2010). "Denisovans Were Neanderthals' Cousins, DNA Analysis Reveals". NYTimes.com.
  12. "Almost all living people outside of Africa trace back to a single migration more than 50,000 years ago". www.science.org. Retrieved 2022-08-19.
  13. Yang, Melinda A. (2022-01-06). "A genetic history of migration, diversification, and admixture in Asia". Human Population Genetics and Genomics. 2 (1): 1–32. doi:10.47248/hpgg2202010001. ISSN 2770-5005.
  14. Genetics and material culture support repeated expansions into Paleolithic Eurasia from a population hub out of Africa, Vallini et al. 2022 (April 4, 2022) Quote: "Taken together with a lower bound of the final settlement of Sahul at 37 kya it is reasonable to describe Papuans as either an almost even mixture between East-Eurasians and a lineage basal to West and East-Eurasians which occurred sometimes between 45 and 38kya, or as a sister lineage of East-Eurasians with or without a minor basal OoA or xOoA contribution. We here chose to parsimoniously describe Papuans as a simple sister group of Tianyuan, cautioning that this may be just one out of six equifinal possibilities."
  15. Genetics and material culture support repeated expansions into Paleolithic Eurasia from a population hub out of Afri, Vallini et al. 2021 (October 15, 2021) Quote: "Taken together with a lower bound of the final settlement of Sahul at 37 kya (the date of the deepest population splits estimated by 1) it is reasonable to describe Papuans as either an almost even mixture between East Asians and a lineage basal to West and East Asians occurred sometimes between 45 and 38kya, or as a sister lineage of East Asians with or without a minor basal OoA or xOoA contribution. "
  16. Klein, Christopher (23 September 2016). "DNA Study Finds Aboriginal Australians World's Oldest Civilization". History. Updated Aug 22, 2018

Further reading

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