House of Thani

The House of Thani (Arabic: الثاني, romanized: Al Thani) is the ruling family of Qatar, with origins tracing back to the Banu Tamim tribal confederation.[2]

House of Thani
الثاني
Parent houseBanu Hanzala[1]
CountryQatar
Foundedc.1847
FounderMohammed bin Thani
Current headTamim bin Hamad
Titles
TraditionsIslam (Sunni)

History and structure

The Al Thanis[3] can be traced back to Mudar bin Nizar. The tribe were settled at Gebrin oasis in southern Najd (present-day Saudi Arabia) before they moved to Qatar.[4] Around the 17th century, the tribe lived in Ushayqir, a settlement north-east of Riyadh. They settled in Qatar around the 1720s. Their first settlement in Qatar was in the southern town of Sikak, and from there they moved north-west to Zubarah and Al Ruwais.[5] They settled in Doha in the 19th century under their leader Mohammed bin Thani.[4] The group was named after the father of Mohammad, Thani bin Mohammad.[4]

The family is made of four main factions: Bani Qassim, Bani Ahmed, Bani Jaber, and Bani Thamer.[6][7] As of the early 1990s, the number of the family members was estimated to be about 20,000.[7]

The leadership transitions in 1913, 1949, 1960, and 2013 were aII abdications.[6] These abdications were to a nephew in one incident and sons in the others.[6][8]

Rulers

List of Emirs:

Family tree

'Genealogical table of the Ruling Āl Thāni (Ma’ādhīd) Family of Dōhah in Qatar', produced in 1915.
House of Thani
Muhammad
bin Thani

(1)
r. 1847-1878
Jassim
bin Muhammad

(2)
r. 1878-1913
Abdullah
bin Jassim

(3)
r. 1913-1949
Ali
bin Abdullah

(4)
r. 1949-1960
Hamad
bin Abdullah
Ahmad
bin Ali

(5)
r. 1960-1972
Khalifa
bin Hamad

(6)
r. 1972-1995
Hamad
bin Khalifa

(7)
r. 1995-2013
Tamim
bin Hamad

(8)
r. 2013-present

Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani Branch

  • Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani (ca. 1825–1913) Founder of modern Qatar
    • Sheikh Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani I (19th century, died when he was young)
    • Sheikh Khalifa bin Jassim Al Thani (1851–1931)
    • Sheikh Thani bin Jassim Al Thani (1856–1943), Sheikh of Al Gharafa
    • Sheikh Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al Thani (1871–1930), Sheikh of Al Wakra
    • Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani (1880–1957), Former Sheikh of Al Rayyan, Ruler of Qatar (1914–1940, 1948–1949)
    • Sheikh Ali bin Jassim Al Thani (19th century, died when he was young)
    • Sheikh Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani (1881–1971), Sheikh of Umm Salal Mohammed
      • Sheikh Jassim bin Muhammed bin Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikh Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani (19th century–1977)
          • Sheikh Faisal bin Fahad Al Thani
          • Sheikh Hamad bin Fahad Al Thani
          • Sheikh Abdullah bin Fahad Al Thani
        • Sheikh Nasir bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Nasir Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Nasir Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Nasir Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Nasir Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Nasir Al Thani
        • Sheikh Abdulaziz bin Jassim Al Thani (19th century–1970)
        • Sheikh Khalid bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh Fahad bin Khalid bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Khalid Al Thani
        • Sheikh Hamad Bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Hamad Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Hamad Al Thani
        • Sheikh Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Abdulrahman Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Abdulrahman Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Abdulrahman Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Abdulrahman Al Thani
        • Sheikh Ali bin Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Abdullah Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Abdullah Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Abdullah Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Abdullah Al Thani
        • Sheikh Khalifa bin Jassim Al Thani (1959)
          • Sheikh Jassim bin Khalifa Al Thani
          • Sheikh Mohammed bin Khalifa Al Thani
          • Sheikh Sultan bin Khalifa Al Thani
          • Sheikh Ahmed bin Khalifa Al Thani
          • Sheikha Najla bint Khalifa Al Thani
          • Sheikha Reem bint Khalifa Al Thani
        • Sheikh Salman Bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Salman Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Salman Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Salman Al Thani
        • Sheikh Saud Bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Saud Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Saud Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Saud Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Saud Al Thani
        • Sheikh Sultan bin Jassim Al Thani, Married
        • Sheikh Faysal bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? bin Faysal Al Thani
        • Sheikh Hasan bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh ??? Hamid Mohammed
        • Sheikha Noor bint Jassim Al Thani, Married
        • Sheikha Rowdha bint Jassim Al Thani, Married to Abdullah bin Ahmad Bin Abdullah
        • Sheikha Amna bint Jassim Al Thani, Married to Khalid bin Hamad bin Abdullah
        • Sheikha Al-Anoud bint Jassim Al Thani, Married, with 2 sons and 2 daughters
        • Sheikha Tamather bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Fatma bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Muna bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Jawaher bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Sheikha bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Maha bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Moneera bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Khowla bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Leena bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Loolwa bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Mariam bint Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikha Noora bint Jassim Al Thani
    • Sheikh Ghanim bin Jassim Al Thani (1880s 2nd millennium)
    • Sheikh Ali bin Jassim Al Thani II (1893–1972), Sheikh of Umm Salal Ali
    • Sheikh Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani II (19th century, died young)
    • Sheikh Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani III (1897-ca.1980), Sheikh of Al Khiesa, settled in Rumeliah and Adba
    • Sheikh Abdulaziz bin Jassim Al Thani (1896–1985), Sheikh of Al Markhiya
    • Sheikh Salman bin Jassim Al Thani (19th century, died during/soon after his birth)
    • Sheikh Idris bin Jassim Al Thani (19th century, died during/soon after his birth)
    • Sheikh Mubarak bin Jassim Al Thani (19th century, died during/soon after his birth)
    • Sheikh Salman bin Jassim Al Thani II (1899–1984), Sheikh of Dukhan
    • Sheikh Nasser bin Jassim Al Thani (1900s–1978), Sheikh of Nasiriya
    • Sheikh Sultan bin Jassim Al Thani (1900s–1976), Sheikh of Umm Al Amad
    • Sheikh Ahmed bin Jassim Al Thani (1900s–1995), Sheikh of Al Khor
      • Sheikh Khawar bin Ahmed Al Thani Emir of Al Khor since 1996
        • Sheikh Fahad bin Khawar Al Thani
        • Sheikha ??? bint Khawar Al Thani
        • Sheikha ??? bint Khawar Al Thani
    • Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani (ca. 1825–1913) Founder of Modern Qatar
      • Sheikh Muhammed bin Jassim Al Thani- De facto ruler
        • Sheikh Jassim bin Muhammed bin Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikh Ahmed bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Abdullah bin Mohammed Al Thani
          • Sheikh Saoud bin Abdullah bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Thamir bin Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikh Ghanim bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Thani bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Abdulrahman bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Khalid bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Khalifa bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Mubarak bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Musa'id bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Hassan bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Mansoor bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Falih bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Jabor bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Ali bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Saud bin Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikha Fatima bint Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikha Sarah bint Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikha Loulwa bint Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikha Hessa bint Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikha Sheikha bint Mohammed Al Thani
        • Sheikha Noura bint Mohammed Al Thani
      • Sheikh Ali bin Jassim Al Thani
      • Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani – Ruler
        • Sheikh Ali bin Abdullah Al Thani – Ruler
          • Sheikh Ahmad bin Ali Al Thani – Emir
            • Sheikh Abdelaziz bin Ahmed Al Thani (1945–2008), ex-crown Prince (in-exile)
          • Sheikh Muhammed bin Ali Al Thani
            • Sheikh Abdullah bin Mohammed Al Thani (Sharjah)
            • Sheikh Saud bin Muhammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Hassan bin Abdullah Al Thani
          • Sheikh Sultan bin Hassan bin Abdullah Al Thani
            • Sheikh Abdulrahman bin Sultan bin Hassan Al Thani
              • Sheikh Sultan bin Abdulrahman Al Thani
              • Sheikha Sara bint Abdulrahman Al Thani
        • Sheikh Hamad bin Abdullah Al Thani – Crown Prince (died before his father)
          • Sheikh Ahmed bin Hamad Al Thani
            • Sheikh Saud bin Ahmed Al Thani, (born 1969) former Qatari footballer
          • Sheikh Jassim bin Hamad bin Abdullah Al Thani
            • Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim bin Hamad Al Thani
          • Sheikh Abdelaziz bin Hamad Al Thani
            • Sheikh Saud bin Abdelaziz bin Hamad Al Thani
          • Sheikh Mohammed bin Hamad bin Abdullah Al Thani
          • Sheikh Khalid bin Hamad Al Thani
            • Sheikh Abdullah bin Khalid Al Thani
            • Sheikh Hamad bin Khalid Al Thani
          • Sheikh Suhaim bin Hamad Al Thani
            • Sheikh Hamad bin Suhaim Al Thani
              • Sheikha Jawaher bint Hamad Al Thani
          • Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani – Emir
            • Sheikh Abdelaziz bin Khalifa Al Thani
            • Sheikh Abdullah bin Khalifah Al Thani
            • Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani – Emir till 25 June 2013
              • Sheikh Mishaal bin Hamad Al Thani – Heir Apparent (till 1996)
              • Sheikh Jasim bin Hamad Al Thani – Heir Apparent (till 2003)
              • Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani – Emir from 25 June 2013
              • Sheikh Joaan bin Hamad Al Thani
              • Sheikh Mohammed bin Hamad Al Thani
              • Sheikh Khalid bin Hamad Al Thani
              • Sheikh Abdullah bin Hamad Al Thani – Deputy Emir
              • Sheikh Thani bin Hamad Al Thani
              • Sheikh Khalfa bin Hamad Al Thani
      • Sheikh Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani
        • Sheikh Jassim bin Fahad Al Thani
        • Sheikh Saud bin Fahad Al Thani
        • Sheikh Hassan bin Fahad Al Thani
        • Sheikh Mubarak bin Fahad Al Thani
        • Sheikh Faleh bin Fahad Al Thani
        • Sheikh Nasser bin Fahad Al Thani
      • Sheikh Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al Thani
      • Sheikh Thani bin Jassim bin Muhammed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Muhammed bin Thani Al Thani
          • Sheikh Thamir bin Muhammed bin Thani Al Thani
            • Sheikh Hamad bin Thamir Al Thani

The Ahmed bin Muhammed Al Thani Branch

  • Sheikh Thani bin Mohammed
    • Sheikh Mohammed bin Thani
      • Sheikh Ahmed bin Muhammed Al Thani – Governor of Doha
        • Sheikh Saif bin Ahmed Al Thani
          • Sheikh Ahmed bin Saif Al Thani
            • Sheikh Saif bin Ahmed Al Thani
            • Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmed Al Thani
        • Sheikh Khalifa bin Ahmed Al Thani

The Jaber bin Muhammed Al Thani Branch

  • Sheikh Jabr bin Muhammed Al Thani (1878–1934)
    • Sheikh Muhammad bin Jabr Al Thani (1916–1983)
      • Sheikh Jaber bin Muhammad Al Thani
        • Sheikh Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani
          • Sheikh Yousif bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh Jabor bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh Fahad bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani (1959), Foreign Minister of Qatar (1992-today), Prime Minister of Qatar (2007-today) retired (2013)
            • Sheikh Jabor bin Hamad Al Thani
            • Sheikh Jassim bin Hamad Al Thani
            • Sheikh Mohammed bin Hamad Al Thani
            • Sheikh Fahad bin Hamad Al Thani
            • Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
            • Sheikh Falah Bin Hamad Al Thani
          • Sheikh Falah bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh Mansoor bin Jassim Al Thani
          • Sheikh Nawaf bin Jassim Al Thani

Controversies

In 1995, many royal family members staged a successful coup against the then King, King Khalifa Al Thani. His son, Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani became the King. A few months later, there was a failed coup.

Over the years, the Qatar government has revoked the nationality of many Qatari citizens.[11] Criticism of the Royals and other government entities can land people in trouble.[12] Many citizens have protested against the government over discriminatory practices.[13]

See also

References

  1. "The Banu Tamim tribe". 28 February 2019.
  2. "Meet the world's other 25 royal families". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  3. Althani, Mohamed (2013). Jassim the Leader: Founder of Qatar. Profile Books. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-78125-070-9.
  4. "Line of succession: The Al Thani rule in Qatar". Gulf News. 24 June 2013. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
  5. Mohamed Althani, p. 26
  6. Kamrava, Mehran (Summer 2009). "Royal Factionalism and Political Liberalization in Qatar". The Middle East Journal. 63 (3): 401–420. doi:10.3751/63.3.13. S2CID 154521643. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
  7. Helen Chapin Metz, ed. (1993). "The Al Thani". Persian Gulf States: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
  8. Crystal, Jill (July 1989). "Coalitions in Oil Monarchies: Kuwait and Qatar". Comparative Politics. 21 (4): 427–443. doi:10.2307/422006. JSTOR 422006.
  9. "File 160/1903 'Persian Gulf: El Katr; appointment of Turkish Mudirs; question of Protectorate Treaty with El Katr' [170v] (345/860)". Qatar Digital Library. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  10. "Qatari emir Sheikh Hamad hands power to son Tamim". BBC News. 25 June 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  11. "Qatar move to revoke citizenship of clan chief draws flak".
  12. "Qatar, the Gulf emirate famed for openness, is silencing critics". The Economist. 13 February 2020.
  13. "Qatar: Election Law Exposes Discriminatory Citizenship". 9 September 2021.
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