Health in Indonesia

Health in Indonesia is affected by a number of factors. Indonesia has over 26,000 health care facilities; 2,000 hospitals, 9,000 community health centres and private clinics, 1,100 dentist clinics and 1,000 opticians.[1] The country lacks doctors with only 0.4 doctors per 1,000 population.[1] In 2018, Indonesia's healthcare spending was US$38.3 billion, 4.18% of their GDP, and is expected to rise to US$51 billion in 2020.[2]

In 2014, Indonesia introduced its universal healthcare program, the Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN), which is provided by BPJS Kesehatan (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial Kesehatan, Health Social Security Agency).[3] It is currently covering over 200 million people. Around 20 million people in Indonesia is covered by private health insurance.[1]

The Human Rights Measurement Initiative[4] finds that Indonesia is fulfilling 84.1% of what it should be fulfilling for the right to health based on its level of income.[5] When looking at the right to health with respect to children, Indonesia achieves 93.5% of what is expected based on its current income.[6] In regards to the right to health amongst the adult population, the country achieves only 87.1% of what is expected based on the nation's level of income. [7] Indonesia falls into the "very bad" category when evaluating the right to reproductive health because the nation is fulfilling only 71.9% of what the nation is expected to achieve based on the resources (income) it has available.[8]


As of September 2020, Indonesia has a population of 247 million and a population density of 151 per km2.[9] 29% of the population of Indonesia are under 15 years old, and only 5% are over 65. More than 28 million live below the poverty line of US$17 a month and about half the population have incomes not much above it.

Life expectancy

Life expectancy in Indonesia since 1927
Life expectancy in Indonesia since 1960 by gender
Period Life expectancy in
Period Life expectancy in
1950–1955 41.75 1985–1990 61.29
1955–1960 45.07 1990–1995 63.32
1960–1965 48.18 1995–2000 65.16
1965–1970 51.05 2000–2005 66.40
1970–1975 54.02 2005–2010 68.31
1975–1980 56.69 2010–2015 70.01
1980–1985 59.21 2015–2020 71.41

Source: United Nations[10]

Mortality rate

Observed deaths per 1000 live births 1990 2000 2010 2019
Under 28 days 30.6 22.8 17.4 12.4
Under 1 year 61.8 41 28 20.2
Under 5 years 84 52.2 33.9 23.9

Source: The World Bank[11]


Year Births per women Rate
2017 2.346 1.1% decline from 2016
2018 2.320 1.11% decline from 2017
2019 2.300 0.86% decline from 2018
2020 2.280 0.87% decline from 2019

Source: Macrotrends[12]

Maternal and child healthcare

Newly certified midwives in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Indonesia is 240. This is compared with 228.6 in 2008 and 252.9 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 41 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 49. In Indonesia the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is unavailable and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in 190.[13]

The 2012 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 live births is 359 deaths, a significant increased from 2010 data with 220 deaths and far from the MDGs goal of 102 deaths by the end of 2015. The main cause of deaths are severe post-natal bleeding due to lack of pregnancy regular control, although National Family Planning Coordination Board and the Central Statistics Agency data showed improvement from 93 percent of women received prenatal care in 2007 increased to 96 percent in 2012.[14]

Quality and lifestyle

Water quality

Unsafe drinking water is a major cause of diarrhoea, which is a major killer of young children in Indonesia.[15] According to UNICEF diarrhoea caused by untreated drinking water contributed to the death of 31% of children between the age of 1 month to a year, and 25% of children between a year to 4 years old.[16]

Air quality

1997 Southeast Asian haze, 2006 Southeast Asian haze, 2013 Southeast Asian haze and 2015 Southeast Asian haze - In all countries affected by the smoke haze, an increase of acute health outcomes was observed. Health effects including emergency room visits due to respiratory symptoms such as asthma, upper respiratory infection, decreased lung function as well as eye and skin irritation, were caused mainly by this particulate matter.

Unhealthy diet

At least 1 in 3 children under five are either undernourished or overweight in Indonesia.[17] According to UNICEF, 7 million children under-five are stunted, 2 million are wasted and 2 million are overweight or obese. Also, 1 in 4 adolescents are anaemic, most likely due to deficiency in vitamins and nutrients such as iron, folic acid and vitamin A.[18]

Tobacco and drug use

Indonesia is the fifth largest tobacco market in the world and does not have very strict rules on smoking. Every year, more than 200,000 people are killed by tobacco caused diseases. However, more than 469,000 children (10–14 years) and 64 million adults (15+ years) continue to use tobacco products every day.[19]

Drug use and selling drugs is completely illegal and can result in the death penalty. In 2015, 4.5 million Indonesians need to be rehabilitated due to illicit or illegal drug use and around 45 young people die each day due to drug use.[20]

Mental health and suicide

There is a high stigma against mental illness in Indonesia. The Indonesian government currently uses 1% of its total health budget on mental health with only 48 mental hospitals and 269 psychiatric wards. The conditions of these places are unhygienic and overcrowded with inmates regularly shackled to prevent violence.[21]

Suicide is a problem in Indonesia and in 2018 ranks 65 with 2.9 suicides per 100,000. Suicides are often unreported due to stigma, approximately 10,000 people commit suicide per year.[22]


In 2005 there were 303 reported cases of polio in Indonesia.

Communicable diseases

HIV/AIDS has posed a major public health threat since the early 1990s.[15] In 2003 Indonesia ranked third among ASEAN nations in Southeast Asia, after Myanmar and Thailand, with a 0.1 percent adult prevalence rate, 130,000 HIV/AIDS cases, and 2,400 deaths.[15] In Jakarta it is estimated that 17 percent of prostitutes have contracted HIV/AIDS; in some parts of Papua, it is thought that the rate of infection among village women who are not prostitutes may be as high as 26 percent.[15]

Three other health hazards facing Indonesia in 2004 were dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and avian influenza.[15] All 30 provincial-level units were affected by dengue fever and DHF, according to the WHO. The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (A/H5N1) in chickens and ducks in Indonesia was said to pose a significant threat to human health.[15]

By 2010, there were three malaria regions in Indonesia: Nusa Tenggara Barat with 20 cases per 1,000 citizens, Nusa Tenggara Timur with 20–50, and Maluku and Papua with more than 50 cases per thousand. The medium endemicity in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi, whereas low endemicity is in Java and Bali which almost 100 percent of malaria cases have been confirmed clear.[23] At 1990 malaria average incidence was 4.96 per 1,000 and declined to 1.96 per 1000 at 2010. The government is targeting to rid the country of malaria by 2030 and elimination means to achieve less than 1 incidence per 1,000 people.[24]

Noncommunicable diseases

Noncommunicable diseases are estimated to account for 73% of all deaths in Indonesia. Diabetes is increasing at a rate of about 6% a year.[25]

Disease Proportional mortality
Cardiovascular diseases 35%
Communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions 21%
Other noncommunicable diseases 12%
Cancers 12%
Chronic respiratory diseases 6%
Diabetes 6%
Injuries 6%


While the Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia-IDAI (Indonesian Pediatric Society) recommends vaccinating against 16 different diseases, only five are mandatory and free for all national health insurance (BPJS) participants. The mandatory vaccinations are: Tuberculosis (TB), Hepatitis B, Polio, DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) and Measles.[26] Almost 60% of Indonesians are BPJS participants.[27] Unfortunately, this means that herd immunity is low in Indonesia.

See also


  1. "Indonesia's Healthcare Industry: Growing Opportunities for Foreign Investors". ASEAN Business News. 30 July 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  2. "Healthcare Resource Guide: Indonesia". Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  3. Susanto, Gabriel Abdi (31 December 2013). "Pertanyaan-pertanyaan Dasar Seputar JKN dan BPJS". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  4. "Human Rights Measurement Initiative – The first global initiative to track the human rights performance of countries". Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  5. "Indonesia - HRMI Rights Tracker". Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  6. "Indonesia - HRMI Rights Tracker". Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  7. "Indonesia - HRMI Rights Tracker". Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  8. "Indonesia - HRMI Rights Tracker". Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  9. "Indonesia Population (2020) - Worldometer". Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  10. "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  11. "Indonesia | Data". Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  12. "Indonesia Fertility Rate 1950-2020". Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  13. "The State Of The World's Midwifery". United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original on 17 November 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  14. Gokkon, Basten (29 January 2014). "Indonesia Still Haunted by High Number of Maternal and Post-Natal Deaths". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 30 January 2014.
  15. Indonesia country profile. Archived 26 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (December 2004). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  16. "IssueBriefs: Water, sanitation & hygiene" (PDF). UNICEF Indonesia. October 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  17. "The State of the World's Children 2019". Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  18. "Poor diets damaging children's health worldwide, warns UNICEF". Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  19. "Indonesia". Tobacco Atlas. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  20. Stoicescu, Claudia. "Indonesia uses faulty stats on 'drug crisis' to justify death penalty". The Conversation. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  21. "The future of mental health care in Indonesia". Inside Indonesia. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  22. "Some Facts about Suicide in Indonesia". International Policy Digest. 30 September 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  23. Leksono, Ageng Wibowo (23 April 2011). "Malignant malaria still haunts Indonesia". Antara. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  24. "Govt to rid RI of malaria by 2030". The Jakarta Post. 26 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011.
  25. Britnell, Mark (2015). In Search of the Perfect Health System. London: Palgrave. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-137-49661-4.
  26. dafluff (12 March 2018). "Vaccination for Children in Indonesia: Things you need to know!". Expat Indo. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  27. "Q&A: BPJS Kesehatan, health for all Indonesians". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
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