Environmental impacts of animal agriculture

The environmental impacts of animal agriculture vary because of the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. Despite this, all agricultural practices have been found to have a variety of effects on the environment. Animal agriculture, in particular meat production can cause pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity loss, disease, and significant consumption of land, food, and water. Meat is obtained through a variety of methods, including organic farming, free range farming, intensive livestock production and subsistence agriculture. The livestock sector also includes wool, and egg and dairy production, the livestock used for tillage, and fish farming.

Examples of environmental impacts of animal agriculture, clockwise from top left: Meat production is a main driver of deforestation in Venezuela; Pigs in intensive farming; Testing Australian sheep for exhaled methane production to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture; Farms often pump their animal waste directly into a large lagoon, which has environmental consequences.

Cows, sheep and other ruminants digest their food by enteric fermentation, and their burps are the main methane emissions from land use, land-use change, and forestry: together with methane and nitrous oxide from manure this makes livestock the main source of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.[1]

According to a 2022 study quickly stopping animal agriculture would provide half the GHG emission reduction needed to meet the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C.[2]

The global food system is responsible for one-third of the global anthropogenic GHG emissions,[3][4] of which meat accounts for nearly 60%.[5][6]

Mitigation options for reducing methane emission from livestock are a change in diet, that is consuming less meat and dairy.[7] A significant reduction in meat consumption will be essential to mitigate climate change, especially as the human population increases by a projected 2.3 billion by the middle of the century.[8]

Cereal-use statistic showing an estimated large fraction of crops used as fodder
Nutritional value and environmental impact of animal products, compared to agriculture overall[9]
Categories Contribution of farmed animal product [%]
Land use
Greenhouse gases
Water pollution
Air pollution
Freshwater withdrawals

Multiple studies have found that increases in meat consumption are currently associated with human population growth and rising individual incomes or GDP and therefore, the environmental impacts of meat will increase unless behaviours change.[10][11][12][8]

Changes in demand for meat may change the environmental impact of meat production by influencing how much meat is produced. It has been estimated that global meat consumption may double from 2000 to 2050, mostly as a consequence of increasing world population, but also partly because of increased per capita meat consumption (with much of the per capita consumption increase occurring in the developing world).[13] The human population is projected to grow to 9 billion by 2050, and meat production is expected to increase by 40%.[14] Global production and consumption of poultry meat have recently been growing at more than 5 percent annually.[13] Meat consumption typically increases as people and countries get richer.[15] According to an article written by Dave Roos "industrialised Western nations average more than 220 pounds of meat per person per year, while the poorest African nations average less than 22 pounds per person."[16] Trends also vary among livestock sectors. For example, global consumption per capita of pork has increased recently (almost entirely due to changes in consumption within China), while global consumption per capita of ruminant meats has been declining.[13]

Per capita annual meat consumption by region[10]
Total annual meat consumption by region

Resource use

Food consumption

It takes seven pounds of animal feed to produce a pound of beef (live weight), more than three pounds for a pound of pork, and less than two pounds for a pound of chicken.[17] These numbers may vary depending on the quality of feed,[18] for example, when grain is used as feed instead of human-inedible roughages, less feed is required for meat production.[18]

About 85 percent of the world's soybean crop is processed into meal and vegetable oil, and virtually all of that meal is used in animal feed.[19] Approximately six percent of soybeans are used directly as human food, mostly in Asia.[19] In the contiguous United States, 127.4 million acres of crops are grown for animal consumption, compared to the 77.3 million acres of crops grown for human consumption.[20]

For every 100 lbs of food we make for humans from crops, 37 lbs of human inedible byproducts are created,[21] and many countries feed their cows these crop byproducts.[22] Raising animals for human consumption accounts for approximately 40% of the total amount of agricultural output in industrialised countries.[23]

There can be competition for resources, such as land, between growing crops for human consumption and growing crops for animals,[24][10][25] where the "global land squeeze"[26] also has impacts on food security.[27]

Land use

Mean land use of different foods[28]
Food Types Land Use (m2year per 100g protein)
Lamb and mutton
Farmed fish
The amount of globally needed agricultural land would be reduced by almost half if no beef or mutton would be eaten.

Grazing occupies 26% of the earth's ice-free terrestrial surface, and crop production used for animal feed uses about one third of all arable land[23] or about 75% of agriculturally used land.[29][30] More than one-third of U.S. land is used for pasture, making it the largest land-use type in the contiguous United States.[20]

In many countries, livestock graze from the land which mostly cannot be used for growing human-edible crops, as seen by the fact that there is three times as much agricultural land[31] as arable land.[32]

Free-range animal production, particularly beef production, has also caused tropical deforestation because it requires land for grazing.[5] The livestock sector is also the primary driver of deforestation in the Amazon, with around 80% of all deforested land being used for cattle farming.[33][34] Additionally, 91% of deforested land since 1970 has been used for cattle farming.[35][36] Research has argued that a shift to meat-free diets could provide a safe option to feed a growing population without further deforestation, and for different yields scenarios.[37] According to FAO, "Ranching-induced deforestation is one of the main causes of loss of some unique plant and animal species in the tropical rainforests of Central and South America as well as carbon release in the atmosphere."[38]

Water use

Almost one-third of the water used in the western United States goes to crops that feed cattle.[39] This is despite the claim that withdrawn surface water and groundwater used for crop irrigation in the US exceeds that for livestock by about a ratio of 60:1.[40] This excessive use of river water distresses ecosystems and communities, and drives scores of species of fish closer to extinction during times of drought.[41]

Irrigation accounts for about 37 percent of US withdrawn freshwater use, and groundwater provides about 42 percent of US irrigation water.[40] Irrigation water applied in production of livestock feed and forage has been estimated to account for about 9 percent of withdrawn freshwater use in the United States.[42] Groundwater depletion is a concern in some areas because of sustainability issues (and in some cases, land subsidence and/or saltwater intrusion).[43] A particularly important North American example where depletion is occurring involves the High Plains (Ogallala) Aquifer, which underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight states, and supplies 30 percent of the groundwater withdrawn for irrigation in the US.[44] Some irrigated livestock feed production is not hydrologically sustainable in the long run because of aquifer depletion. Rainfed agriculture, which cannot deplete its water source, produces much of the livestock feed in North America. Corn (maize) is of particular interest, accounting for about 91.8 percent of the grain fed to US livestock and poultry in 2010.[45]:table 1–75 About 14 percent of US corn-for grain land is irrigated, accounting for about 17 percent of US corn-for-grain production, and about 13 percent of US irrigation water use,[46][47] but only about 40 percent of US corn grain is fed to US livestock and poultry.[45]:table 1–38

Estimated water requirements for various foods[48]
Food Types Litre per kilocalorie Litre per gram of protein Litre per kilogram Litre per gram of fat
Sugar crops 0.69 0.0 197 0.0
Vegetables 1.34 26 322 154
Starchy roots 0.47 31 387 226
Fruits 2.09 180 962 348
Cereals 0.51 21 1644 112
Oil crops 0.81 16 2364 11
Pulses 1.19 19 4055 180
Nuts 3.63 139 9063 47
Milk 1.82 31 1020 33
Eggs 2.29 29 3265 33
Chicken meat 3.00 34 4325 43
Butter 0.72 0.0 5553 6.4
Pig meat 2.15 57 5988 23
Sheep/goat meat 4.25 63 8763 54
Bovine meat 10.19 112 15415 153

Water pollution

Water pollution due to animal waste is a common problem in both developed and developing nations.[23] The USA, Canada, India, Greece, Switzerland and several other countries are experiencing major environmental degradation due to water pollution via animal waste.[49]:Table I-1 Concerns about such problems are particularly acute in the case of CAFOs (concentrated animal feeding operations). In the US, a permit for a CAFO requires the implementation of a plan for the management of manure nutrients, contaminants, wastewater, etc., as applicable, to meet requirements under the Clean Water Act.[50] There were about 19,000 CAFOs in the US as of 2008.[51] In fiscal 2014, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded 26 enforcement actions for various violations by CAFOs.[52] Environmental performance of the US livestock industry can be compared with several other industries. The EPA has published 5-year and 1-year data for 32 industries on their ratios of enforcement orders to inspections, a measure of non-compliance with environmental regulations: principally, those under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act. For the livestock industry, inspections focused primarily on CAFOs. Of the 32 other industries, (including crop production) had a better 5-year environmental record than the livestock industry, 2 had a similar record, and 25 had a worse record in this respect. For the most recent year of the five-year compilation, livestock production and dry cleaning had the best environmental records of the 32 industries, each with an enforcement order/inspection ratio of 0.01. For crop production, the ratio was 0.02. Of the 32 industries, oil and gas extraction and the livestock industry had the lowest percentages of facilities with violations.[53]

Air pollution

Mean acidifying emissions (air pollution) of different foods per 100g of protein[28]
Food Types Acidifying Emissions (g SO2eq per 100g protein)
Lamb and Mutton
Farmed Crustaceans
Farmed Fish

Meat production is a leading cause of harmful particulate matter pollution in the atmosphere. This type of production chain produces copious byproducts; endotoxin, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and particulate matter (PM), such as dust,[54][55] which can all negatively impact human respiratory health.[56] Furthermore, methane and CO2—the primary greenhouse gas emissions associated with meat production—have also been associated with respiratory diseases like asthma, bronchitis, and COPD.[57]

Farmers are not the only ones at risk for exposure to these harmful byproducts. In fact, concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in proximity to residential areas adversely affect these individuals' respiratory health similarly seen in the farmers.[58] Concentrated hog feeding operations release air pollutants from confinement buildings, manure holding pits, and land application of waste. Air pollutants from these operations have caused acute physical symptoms, such as respiratory illnesses, wheezing, increased breath rate, and irritation of the eyes and nose.[59][60][61] That prolonged exposure to airborne animal particulate, such as swine dust, induces a large influx of inflammatory cells into the airways.[62] Those in close proximity to CAFOs could be exposed to elevated levels of these byproducts, which may lead to poor health and respiratory outcomes.

Especially when modified by high temperatures, air pollution can harm all regions, socioeconomic groups, sexes, and age groups. Approximately seven million people die from air pollution exposure every year. Air pollution often exacerbates respiratory disease by permeating into the lung tissue and damaging the lungs.[63]

Climate change aspects

Energy consumption

Energy efficiency of meat and dairy production

Data of a USDA study indicate that about 0.9 percent of energy use in the United States is accounted for by raising food-producing livestock and poultry. In this context, energy use includes energy from fossil, nuclear, hydroelectric, biomass, geothermal, technological solar, and wind sources. (It excludes solar energy captured by photosynthesis, used in hay drying, etc.) The estimated energy use in agricultural production includes embodied energy in purchased inputs.[64]

An important aspect of energy use of livestock production is the energy consumption that the animals contribute. Feed Conversion Ratio is an animal's ability to convert feed into meat. The Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) is calculated by taking the energy, protein, or mass input of the feed divided by the output of meat provided by the animal. A lower FCR corresponds with a smaller requirement of feed per meat out-put, therefore the animal contributes less GHG emissions. Chickens and pigs usually have a lower FCR compared to ruminants.[65]

Intensification and other changes in the livestock industries influence energy use, emissions, and other environmental effects of meat production. For example, in the US beef production system, practices prevailing in 2007 are estimated to have involved 8.6 percent less fossil fuel use, 16 percent less greenhouse gas emissions, 12 percent less water use and 33 percent less land use, per unit mass of beef produced, than in 1977.[66] These figures are based on an analysis taking into account feed production, feedlot practices, forage-based cow-calf operations, backgrounding before cattle enter a feedlot, and production of culled dairy cows.

Manure can also have environmental benefits as a renewable energy source, in digester systems yielding biogas for heating and/or electricity generation. Manure biogas operations can be found in Asia, Europe,[67][68] North America, and elsewhere.[69] System cost is substantial, relative to US energy values, which may be a deterrent to more widespread use. Additional factors, such as odour control and carbon credits, may improve benefit to cost ratios.[70] Manure can be mixed with other organic wastes in anaerobic digesters to take advantage of economies of scale. Digested waste is more uniform in consistency than untreated organic wastes, and can have higher proportions of nutrients that are more available to plants, which enhances the utility of digestate as a fertiliser product.[71] This encourages circularity in meat production, which is typically difficult to achieve due to environmental and food safety concerns.

Greenhouse gas emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions across the supply chain for different foods

Cows, sheep and other ruminants digest their food by enteric fermentation, and their burps are the main methane emissions from land use, land-use change, and forestry: together with methane and nitrous oxide from manure this makes livestock the main source of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.[1]

The IPCC Sixth Assessment Report in 2022 stated that: "Diets high in plant protein and low in meat and dairy are associated with lower GHG emissions. [...] Where appropriate, a shift to diets with a higher share of plant protein, moderate intake of animal-source foods and reduced intake of saturated fats could lead to substantial decreases in GHG emissions. Benefits would also include reduced land occupation and nutrient losses to the surrounding environment, while at the same time providing health benefits and reducing mortality from diet-related non-communicable diseases."[72]

According to a 2022 study quickly stopping animal agriculture would provide half the GHG emission reduction needed to meet the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C.[2]

The global food system is responsible for one-third of the global anthropogenic GHG emissions,[3][4] of which meat accounts for nearly 60%.[5][6]

Mitigation options

Per capita meat consumption and GDP 1990–2017

Mitigation options for reducing methane emission from livestock are a change in diet, that is consuming less meat and dairy.[7] A significant reduction in meat consumption will be essential to mitigate climate change, especially as the human population increases by a projected 2.3 billion by the middle of the century.[8] A 2019 report in The Lancet recommended that global meat consumption be reduced by 50 percent to mitigate climate change.[73]

Producers can reduce ruminant enteric fermentation using genetic selection,[74][75] immunization, rumen defaunation, outcompetition of methanogenic archaea with acetogens,[76] introduction of methanotrophic bacteria into the rumen,[77][78] diet modification and grazing management, among others.[79][80][81] The principal mitigation strategies identified for reduction of agricultural nitrous oxide emission are avoiding over-application of nitrogen fertilizers and adopting suitable manure management practices.[82][83] Mitigation strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions in the livestock sector include adopting more efficient production practices to reduce agricultural pressure for deforestation (such as in Latin America), reducing fossil fuel consumption, and increasing carbon sequestration in soils.[84]

A study quantified climate change mitigation potentials of 'high-income' nations shifting diets – away from meat-consumption – and restoration of the spared land, finding that if these were combined they could "reduce annual agricultural production emissions of high-income nations' diets by 61%".[85][86]

Measures which increase state revenues from meat consumption/production could enable the use of these funds for related research and development and "to cushion social hardships among low-income consumers". Meat and livestock are important sectors of the contemporary socioeconomic system, with livestock value chains employing an estimated >1.3 billion people.[10]

Effects on ecosystems


Overgrazing sometimes decreases the soil quality by constantly depleting it of necessary nutrients.[87] By the end of 2002, the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) found that 16% of the evaluated 7,437 grazing allotments had failed to meet rangeland health standards because of their excessive grazing use.[88] Overgrazing seems to cause soil erosion in many dry regions of the world.[23] However, on US farmland, much less soil erosion occurs on land used for livestock grazing than with land used for crop production. According to the US Natural Resources Conservation Service, on 95.1% of US pastureland, sheet and rill erosion is within the estimated soil loss tolerance, and on 99.4% of US pastureland, wind erosion is within the estimated soil loss tolerance.[89]

Dryland grazing on the Great Plains in Colorado

Grazing can have positive or negative effects on rangeland health, depending on management quality,[90] and grazing can have different effects on different soils[91] and different plant communities.[92] Grazing can sometimes reduce, and other times increase, biodiversity of grassland ecosystems.[93][94] In beef production, cattle ranching helps preserve and improve the natural environment by maintaining habitats that are well-suited for grazing animals.[95] Lightly grazed grasslands also tend to have higher biodiversity than overgrazed or nongrazed grasslands.[96]

Grazing can affect the sequestration of carbon and nitrogen in the soil. This sequestration which helps mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions, and in some cases, increases ecosystem productivity by affecting nutrient cycling.[97] A study found that grazing in US virgin grasslands causes the soil to have lower soil organic carbon but higher soil nitrogen content.[98] In contrast, at the High Plains Grasslands Research Station in Wyoming, the soil in the grazed pastures had more organic carbon and nitrogen in the top 30 cm than the soil in nongrazed pastures.[99] Additionally, in the Piedmont region of the US, well-managed grazing of livestock on previously eroded soil resulted in high rates of beneficial carbon and nitrogen sequestration compared to non-grazed grass.[100]

Manure provides environmental benefits when properly managed. Manure that is deposited on pastures by grazing animals is an effective way to preserve soil fertility. Many nutrients are recycled in crop cultivation by collecting animal manure from barns and concentrated feeding sites, sometimes after composting. For many areas with high livestock density, manure application substantially replaces the application of synthetic fertilizers on surrounding cropland. Manure was spread as a fertilizer on about 15.8 million acres of US cropland in 2006.[101] Manure is also spread on forage-producing land that is grazed, rather than cropped. Altogether, in 2007, manure was applied on about 22.1 million acres in the United States.[47]


Biomass of mammals on Earth[102][103]

  Livestock, mostly cattle and pigs (60%)
  Humans (36%)
  Wild mammals (4%)

Meat production is considered one of the prime factors contributing to the current biodiversity loss crisis.[104][105][106][107][108] The 2019 IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services found that industrial agriculture and overfishing are the primary drivers of the extinction, with the meat and dairy industries having a substantial impact.[109][110] The 2006 report Livestock's Long Shadow, released by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, states that "the livestock sector is a major stressor on many ecosystems and on the planet as a whole. Globally it is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and one of the leading causal factors in the loss of biodiversity, and in developed and emerging countries it is perhaps the leading source of water pollution."[23]

Grazing (especially overgrazing) may detrimentally affect certain wildlife species, e.g. by altering cover and food supplies. The growing demand for meat is contributing to significant biodiversity loss as it is a significant driver of deforestation and habitat destruction; species-rich habitats, such as significant portions of the Amazon region, are being converted to agriculture for meat production.[111][104][112] World Resource Institute (WRI) website mentions that "30 percent of global forest cover has been cleared, while another 20 percent has been degraded. Most of the rest has been fragmented, leaving only about 15 percent intact."[113] WRI also states that around the world there is "an estimated 1.5 billion hectares (3.7 billion acres) of once-productive croplands and pasturelands – an area nearly the size of Russia – are degraded. Restoring productivity can improve food supplies, water security, and the ability to fight climate change."[114] Around 25% to nearly 40% of global land surface is being used for livestock farming.[110][115]

In North America, various studies have found that grazing sometimes improves habitat for elk,[116] blacktailed prairie dogs,[117] sage grouse,[118] and mule deer.[119][120] A survey of refuge managers on 123 National Wildlife Refuges in the US tallied 86 species of wildlife considered positively affected and 82 considered negatively affected by refuge cattle grazing or haying.[121] The kind of grazing system employed (e.g. rest-rotation, deferred grazing, HILF grazing) is often important in achieving grazing benefits for particular wildlife species.[122]

A 2022 report from World Animal Protection and the Center for Biological Diversity found that, based on 2018 data, some 235 million pounds (or 117,500 tons) of pesticides are used for animal feed purposes annually in the United States alone, in particular glyphosate and atrazine. The report emphasizes that 100,000 pounds of glyphosate has the potential to harm or kill some 93% of species listed under the Endangered Species Act. Atrazine, which is banned in 35 countries, could harm or kill at least 1,000 listed species. Both groups involved in the report advocate for consumers to reduce their consumption of animal products and to transition towards plant-based diets in order to reduce the growth of factory farming and protect endangered species of wildlife.[123]

The biologists Rodolfo Dirzo, Gerardo Ceballos, and Paul R. Ehrlich write in an opinion piece for Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B that reductions in meat consumption "can translate not only into less heat, but also more space for biodiversity." They insist that it is the "massive planetary monopoly of industrial meat production that needs to be curbed" while respecting the cultural traditions of indigenous peoples, for whom meat is an important source of protein.[124]

Aquatic ecosystems

Mean eutrophying emissions (water pollution) of different foods per 100g of protein[28]
Food Types Eutrophying Emissions (g PO43-eq per 100g protein)
Farmed Fish
Farmed Crustaceans
Lamb and Mutton

In the Western United States, many stream and riparian habitats have been negatively affected by livestock grazing. This has resulted in increased phosphates, nitrates, decreased dissolved oxygen, increased temperature, turbidity, and eutrophication events, and reduced species diversity.[125][126] Livestock management options for riparian protection include salt and mineral placement, limiting seasonal access, use of alternative water sources, provision of "hardened" stream crossings, herding, and fencing.[127][128] In the Eastern United States, a 1997 study found that waste release from pork farms have also been shown to cause large-scale eutrophication of bodies of water, including the Mississippi River and Atlantic Ocean (Palmquist, et al., 1997).[129] In North Carolina, where the study was done, measures have since been taken to reduce the risk of accidental discharges from manure lagoons; also, since then there is evidence of improved environmental management in US hog production.[130] Implementation of manure and wastewater management planning can help assure low risk of problematic discharge into aquatic systems.

Effects on antibiotic resistance

A CDC infographic on how antibiotic-resistant bacteria have the potential to spread from farm animals

Antibiotic use in livestock is the use of antibiotics for any purpose in the husbandry of livestock, which includes treatment when ill (therapeutic), treatment of a group of animals when at least one is diagnosed with clinical infection (metaphylaxis[131]), and preventative treatment (prophylaxis). Antibiotics are an important tool to treat animal as well as human disease, safeguard animal health and welfare, and support food safety.[132] However, used irresponsibly, this may lead to antibiotic resistance which may impact human, animal and environmental health.[133][134][135][136]

While levels of use vary dramatically from country to country, for example some Northern European countries use very low quantities to treat animals compared with humans,[137][138] worldwide an estimated 73% of antimicrobials (mainly antibiotics) are consumed by farm animals.[139] Furthermore, a 2015 study also estimates that global agricultural antibiotic usage will increase by 67% from 2010 to 2030, mainly from increases in use in developing BRIC countries.[140]

Increased antibiotic use is a matter of concern as antibiotic resistance is considered to be a serious threat to human and animal welfare in the future, and growing levels of antibiotics or antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment could increase the numbers of drug-resistant infections in both.[141] Bacterial diseases are a leading cause of death and a future without effective antibiotics would fundamentally change the way modern human as well as veterinary medicine is practised.[141][142][143] However, legislation and other curbs on antibiotic use in farm animals are now being introduced across the globe.[144][145][146] In 2017, the World Health Organization strongly suggested reducing antibiotic use in animals used in the food industry.[147]

The use of antibiotics for growth promotion purposes was banned in the European Union from 2006,[148] and the use of sub-therapeutic doses of medically important antibiotics in animal feed and water[149] to promote growth and improve feed efficiency became illegal in the United States on 1 January 2017, through regulatory change enacted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which sought voluntary compliance from drug manufacturers to re-label their antibiotics.[150][151]

There are concerns about meat production's potential to spread diseases as an environmental impact.[152][153][154][155]

Alternatives to meat production and consumption

Novel foods such as under-development[156] cultured meat and dairy, algae, existing microbial foods and ground-up insects are shown to have the potential to reduce environmental impacts[10][157][158][159] – by over 80% in a study.[160][161] Various combinations may further reduce the environmental impacts of these alternatives – for example a study explored solar-energy-driven production of microbial foods from direct air capture.[162] Alternatives are not only relevant for human consumption but also for pet food and other animal feed.

Meat reduction and health

Meat can be substituted in diets with a wide variety of foods such as fungi[163][164][165] or special "meat substitutes".

However, substantially reducing meat intake could result in nutritional deficiencies if done inadequately, especially for groups such as children, adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women "in low-income countries". A review suggests that the reduction of meat in people's diets should be accompanied by an increase in alternative sources of protein and micronutrients to avoid nutritional deficiencies for healthy diets such as iron and zinc.[10] Meats notably also contain vitamin B12,[166] collagen[167] and creatine.[168] This could be achieved with specific types of foods such as iron-rich beans and a diverse vatiety of protein-rich foods[169] like red lentils, plant-based protein powders[170] and high-protein wraps, and/or dietary supplements.[158][171][172] Dairy and fish and/or specific types of other foods and/or supplements contain omega 3, vitamin K2, vitamin D3, iodine, magnesium and calcium many of which were generally lower in people consuming types of plant-based diets in studies.[173][174]

Nevertheless, reviews find beneficial effects of plant-based diets versus conventional diets on health and lifespan[175] or mortality.[10][176][177][178]

Meat-reduction strategies

(Large-scale) education and awareness building are important strategies to promote more sustainable consumption styles. In 2022 the city of Haarlem, Netherlands announced that advertisements for factory-farmed meat will be banned in public places, starting in 2024.[179]

Other types of policy interventions could accelerate the shifts and could include "restrictions or fiscal mechanisms such as [meat] taxes".[10] In the case of fiscal mechanisms, such could be based on forms of scientific calculation of external costs (externalities currently not reflected in any way in the monetary price)[180] to make the polluter pay, for example for the damage done by excess nitrogen.[181] In the case of restrictions, such could be based on limited domestic supply or Personal (Carbon) Allowances (certificates and credits which would reward sustainable behavior).[182][183]

Relevant to such a strategy, estimating the environmental impacts of food products in a standardized way – as has been done with a dataset of more than 57,000 food products in supermarkets – could also be used to inform consumers or in policy and would make consumers more aware of the environmental impacts of animal-based products (or require them to take such into consideration).[184][185]

A review concluded that "low and moderate meat consumption levels are compatible with the climate targets and broader sustainable development, even for 10 billion people".[10]

The Netherlands is reducing the amount of livestock by buying out some farmers.[186]

Beneficial environmental effects

One environmental benefit of meat production is the conversion of materials that might otherwise be wasted or turned into compost to produce food. A 2018 study found that, "Currently, 70 % of the feedstock used in the Dutch feed industry originates from the food processing industry."[187] Examples of grain-based waste conversion in the United States include feeding livestock the distillers grains (with solubles) remaining from ethanol production. For the marketing year 2009–2010, dried distillers grains used as livestock feed (and residual) in the US was estimated at 25.5 million metric tons.[188] Examples of waste roughages include straw from barley and wheat crops (edible especially to large-ruminant breeding stock when on maintenance diets),[18][189][190] and corn stover.[191][192] Also, small-ruminant flocks in North America (and elsewhere) are sometimes used on fields for removal of various crop residues inedible by humans, converting them to food.

Small ruminants, such as sheep and goats, can control some invasive or noxious weeds (such as spotted knapweed, tansy ragwort, leafy spurge, yellow starthistle, tall larkspur, etc.) on rangeland.[193] Small ruminants are also useful for vegetation management in forest plantations and for clearing brush on rights-of-way. Other ruminants, like Nublang cattle, are used in Bhutan to help of a species of bamboo, Yushania microphylla, which tends to crowd out indigenous species of plants.[194] These represent alternatives to herbicide use.[195]


Total annual meat consumption by type of meat


The environmental impact of pig farming is mainly driven by the spread of feces and waste to surrounding neighborhoods, polluting air and water with toxic waste particles.[196] Waste from pig farms can carry pathogens, bacteria (often antibiotic resistant), and heavy metals that can be toxic when ingested.[196] Pig waste also contributes to groundwater pollution in the forms of groundwater seepage and waste spray into neighboring areas with sprinklers. The contents in the spray and waste drift have been shown to cause mucosal irritation,[197] respiratory ailment,[198] increased stress,[199] decreased quality of life,[200] and higher blood pressure.[201] This form of waste disposal is an attempt for factory farms to be cost efficient. The environmental degradation resulting from pig farming presents an environmental injustice problem, since the communities do not receive any benefit from the operations, and instead, suffer negative externalities, such as pollution and health problems.[202] The United States Agriculture and Consumer Health Department has stated that the "main direct environmental impact of pig production is related to the manure produced.[203]

See also


  1. Mitigation of Climate Change: Full report (Report). IPCC Sixth Assessment Report. 2022. page 771.
  2. Eisen, Michael B.; Brown, Patrick O. (2022-02-01). "Rapid global phaseout of animal agriculture has the potential to stabilize greenhouse gas levels for 30 years and offset 68 percent of CO2 emissions this century". PLOS Climate. 1 (2): e0000010. doi:10.1371/journal.pclm.0000010. ISSN 2767-3200. S2CID 246499803.
  3. "FAO – News Article: Food systems account for more than one third of global greenhouse gas emissions". www.fao.org. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  4. Crippa, M.; Solazzo, E.; Guizzardi, D.; Monforti-Ferrario, F.; Tubiello, F. N.; Leip, A. (March 2021). "Food systems are responsible for a third of global anthropogenic GHG emissions". Nature Food. 2 (3): 198–209. doi:10.1038/s43016-021-00225-9. ISSN 2662-1355.
  5. "How much does eating meat affect nations' greenhouse gas emissions?". Science News. 5 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  6. Xu, Xiaoming; Sharma, Prateek; Shu, Shijie; Lin, Tzu-Shun; Ciais, Philippe; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Smith, Pete; Campbell, Nelson; Jain, Atul K. (September 2021). "Global greenhouse gas emissions from animal-based foods are twice those of plant-based foods". Nature Food. 2 (9): 724–732. doi:10.1038/s43016-021-00358-x. hdl:2164/18207. ISSN 2662-1355. S2CID 240562878. News article: "Meat accounts for nearly 60% of all greenhouse gases from food production, study finds". The Guardian. 13 September 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  7. Poore, J.; Nemecek, T. (2018-06-01). "Reducing food's environmental impacts through producers and consumers". Science. 360 (6392): 987–992. Bibcode:2018Sci...360..987P. doi:10.1126/science.aaq0216. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 29853680. S2CID 206664954.
  8. Carrington, Damian (October 10, 2018). "Huge reduction in meat-eating 'essential' to avoid climate breakdown". The Guardian. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  9. Damian Carrington, "Avoiding meat and dairy is ‘single biggest way’ to reduce your impact on Earth ", The Guardian, 31 May 2018 (page visited on 19 August 2018).
  10. Parlasca, Martin C.; Qaim, Matin (5 October 2022). "Meat Consumption and Sustainability". Annual Review of Resource Economics. 14: 17–41. doi:10.1146/annurev-resource-111820-032340. ISSN 1941-1340.
  11. Devlin, Hannah (July 19, 2018). "Rising global meat consumption 'will devastate environment'". The Guardian. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  12. Godfray, H. Charles J.; Aveyard, Paul; et al. (2018). "Meat consumption, health, and the environment". Science. 361 (6399). Bibcode:2018Sci...361M5324G. doi:10.1126/science.aam5324. PMID 30026199. S2CID 49895246.
  13. FAO. 2006. World agriculture: towards 2030/2050. Prospects for food, nutrition, agriculture and major commodity groups. Interim report. Global Perspectives Unit, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. 71 pp.
  14. Nibert, David (2011). "Origins and Consequences of the Animal Industrial Complex". In Steven Best; Richard Kahn; Anthony J. Nocella II; Peter McLaren (eds.). The Global Industrial Complex: Systems of Domination. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 208. ISBN 978-0739136980.
  15. Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max (2017-08-25). "Meat and Dairy Production". Our World in Data.
  16. Roos, Dave. "The Juicy History of Humans Eating Meat". HISTORY. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  17. Adler, Jerry; Lawler, Andrew (June 2012). "How the Chicken Conquered the World". Smithsonian. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  18. National Research Council. 2000. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. National Academy Press.
  19. "Information About Soya, Soybeans". 2011-10-16. Archived from the original on 2011-10-16. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
  20. Merrill, Dave; Leatherby, Lauren (2018-07-31). "Here's How America Uses Its Land". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
  21. Fadel, J. G (1999-06-30). "Quantitative analyses of selected plant by-product feedstuffs, a global perspective". Animal Feed Science and Technology. 79 (4): 255–268. doi:10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00031-0. ISSN 0377-8401.
  22. Schingoethe, David J. (1991-07-01). "Byproduct Feeds: Feed Analysis and Interpretation". Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. 7 (2): 577–584. doi:10.1016/S0749-0720(15)30787-8. ISSN 0749-0720. PMID 1654177.
  23. Steinfeld, Henning; Gerber, Pierre; Wassenaar, Tom; Castel, Vincent; Rosales, Mauricio; de Haan, Cees (2006), Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options (PDF), Rome: FAO
  24. Manceron, Stéphane; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Dumas, Patrice (July 2014). "Feeding proteins to livestock: Global land use and food vs. feed competition". OCL. 21 (4): D408. doi:10.1051/ocl/2014020. ISSN 2272-6977.
  25. Steinfeld, H.; Opio, C. (2010). "The availability of feeds for livestock: Competition with human consumption in present world" (PDF). Advances in Animal Biosciences. 1 (2): 421. doi:10.1017/S2040470010000488.
  26. "What is the Global Land Squeeze?". Land & Carbon Lab. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  27. Hanson, Craig; Ranganathan, Janet (14 February 2022). "How to Manage the Global Land Squeeze? Produce, Protect, Reduce, Restore". Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  28. Nemecek, T.; Poore, J. (2018-06-01). "Reducing food's environmental impacts through producers and consumers". Science. 360 (6392): 987–992. Bibcode:2018Sci...360..987P. doi:10.1126/science.aaq0216. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 29853680.
  29. "If the world adopted a plant-based diet we would reduce global agricultural land use from 4 to 1 billion hectares". Our World in Data. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  30. "20 meat and dairy firms emit more greenhouse gas than Germany, Britain or France". The Guardian. 7 September 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  31. "Agricultural land (% of land area) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2023-01-13.
  32. "Arable land (% of land area) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2023-01-13.
  33. Wang, George C. (April 9, 2017). "Go vegan, save the planet". CNN. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  34. Liotta, Edoardo (August 23, 2019). "Feeling Sad About the Amazon Fires? Stop Eating Meat". Vice. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  35. Steinfeld, Henning; Gerber, Pierre; Wassenaar, T. D.; Castel, Vincent (2006). Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 978-92-5-105571-7. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
  36. Margulis, Sergio (2004). Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon (PDF). World Bank Working Paper No. 22. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. p. 9. ISBN 0-8213-5691-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 10, 2008. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
  37. Erb KH, Lauk C, Kastner T, Mayer A, Theurl MC, Haberl H (19 April 2016). "Exploring the biophysical option space for feeding the world without deforestation". Nature Communications. 7: 11382. Bibcode:2016NatCo...711382E. doi:10.1038/ncomms11382. PMC 4838894. PMID 27092437.
  38. "Cattle ranching is encroaching on forests in Latin America". Fao.org. 2005-06-08. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  39. Richter, Brian D.; Bartak, Dominique; Caldwell, Peter; Davis, Kyle Frankel; Debaere, Peter; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Li, Tianshu; Marston, Landon; McManamay, Ryan; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Ruddell, Benjamin L. (2020-03-02). "Water scarcity and fish imperilment driven by beef production". Nature Sustainability. 3 (4): 319–328. doi:10.1038/s41893-020-0483-z. ISSN 2398-9629. S2CID 211730442.
  40. Kenny, J. F. et al. 2009. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005, US Geological Survey Circular 1344. 52 pp.
  41. Borunda, Alejandra (March 2, 2020). "How beef eaters in cities are draining rivers in the American West". National Geographic. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  42. Zering, K. D., T. J. Centner, D. Meyer, G. L. Newton, J. M. Sweeten and S. Woodruff.2012. Water and land issues associated with animal agriculture: a U.S. perspective. CAST Issue Paper No. 50. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa. 24 pp.
  43. Konikow, L. W. 2013. Groundwater depletion in the United States (1900-2008). United States Geological Survey. Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5079. 63 pp.
  44. "HA 730-C High Plains aquifer. Ground Water Atlas of the United States. Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  45. USDA. 2011. USDA Agricultural Statistics 2011.
  46. USDA 2010. 2007 Census of agriculture. AC07-SS-1. Farm and ranch irrigation survey (2008). Volume 3, Special Studies. Part 1. (Issued 2009, updated 2010.) 209 pp. + appendices. Tables 1 and 28.
  47. USDA. 2009. 2007 Census of Agriculture. United States Summary and State Data. Vol. 1. Geographic Area Series. Part 51. AC-07-A-51. 639 pp. + appendices. Table 1.
  48. Fabrique [merken, design & interactie. "Water footprint of crop and animal products: a comparison". waterfootprint.org. Retrieved 2023-01-13.
  49. "Livestock and the Environment". Archived from the original on 2019-01-29. Retrieved 2017-06-07.
  50. the US Code of Federal Regulations 40 CFR 122.42(e)
  51. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Appendix to EPA ICR 1989.06: Supporting Statement for the Information Collection Request for NPDES and ELG Regulatory Revisions for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (Final Rule)
  52. the US EPA. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and groundwater. http://www2.epa.gov/enforcement/national-enforcement-initiative-preventing-animal-waste-contaminating-surface-and-ground#progress
  53. US EPA. 2000. Profile of the agricultural livestock production industry. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Compliance. EPA/310-R-00-002. 156 pp.
  54. Merchant, James A.; Naleway, Allison L.; Svendsen, Erik R.; Kelly, Kevin M.; Burmeister, Leon F.; Stromquist, Ann M.; Taylor, Craig D.; Thorne, Peter S.; Reynolds, Stephen J.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A. (2005). "Asthma and Farm Exposures in a Cohort of Rural Iowa Children". Environmental Health Perspectives. 113 (3): 350–356. doi:10.1289/ehp.7240. PMC 1253764. PMID 15743727.
  55. Borrell, Brendan (December 3, 2018). "In California's Fertile Valley, a Bumper Crop of Air Pollution". Undark. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  56. Viegas, S.; Faísca, V. M.; Dias, H.; Clérigo, A.; Carolino, E.; Viegas, C. (2013). "Occupational Exposure to Poultry Dust and Effects on the Respiratory System in Workers". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 76 (4–5): 230–239. doi:10.1080/15287394.2013.757199. PMID 23514065. S2CID 22558834.
  57. George, Maureen; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Matura, Lea Ann (2017). "Climate Change Effects on Respiratory Health: Implications for Nursing". Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 49 (6): 644–652. doi:10.1111/jnu.12330. PMID 28806469.
  58. Radon, Katja; Schulze, Anja; Ehrenstein, Vera; Van Strien, Rob T.; Praml, Georg; Nowak, Dennis (2007). "Environmental Exposure to Confined Animal Feeding Operations and Respiratory Health of Neighboring Residents". Epidemiology. 18 (3): 300–308. doi:10.1097/01.ede.0000259966.62137.84. PMID 17435437. S2CID 15905956.
  59. Schinasi, Leah; Horton, Rachel Avery; Guidry, Virginia T.; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen W.; Morland, Kimberly B. (2011). "Air Pollution, Lung Function, and Physical Symptoms in Communities Near Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations". Epidemiology. 22 (2): 208–215. doi:10.1097/ede.0b013e3182093c8b. PMC 5800517. PMID 21228696.
  60. Mirabelli, M. C.; Wing, S.; Marshall, S. W.; Wilcosky, T. C. (2006). "Asthma Symptoms Among Adolescents Who Attend Public Schools That Are Located Near Confined Swine Feeding Operations". Pediatrics. 118 (1): e66–e75. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2812. PMC 4517575. PMID 16818539.
  61. Pavilonis, Brian T.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Merchant, James A. (2013). "Relative exposure to swine animal feeding operations and childhood asthma prevalence in an agricultural cohort". Environmental Research. 122: 74–80. Bibcode:2013ER....122...74P. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2012.12.008. PMC 3980580. PMID 23332647.
  62. Müller-Suur, C.; Larsson, K.; Malmberg, P.; Larsson, P.H. (1997). "Increased number of activated lymphocytes in human lung following swine dust inhalation". European Respiratory Journal. 10 (2): 376–380. doi:10.1183/09031936.97.10020376. PMID 9042635.
  63. Areal, Ashtyn Tracey; Zhao, Qi; Wigmann, Claudia; Schneider, Alexandra; Schikowski, Tamara (2022-03-10). "The effect of air pollution when modified by temperature on respiratory health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Science of the Total Environment. 811: 152336. Bibcode:2022ScTEn.811o2336A. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152336. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 34914983. S2CID 245204902.
  64. Canning, P., A. Charles, S. Huang, K. R. Polenske, and A Waters. 2010. Energy use in the U.S. food system. USDA Economic Research Service, ERR-94. 33 pp.
  65. Röös, Elin; Sundberg, Cecilia; Tidåker, Pernilla; Strid, Ingrid; Hansson, Per-Anders (2013-01-01). "Can carbon footprint serve as an indicator of the environmental impact of meat production?". Ecological Indicators. 24: 573–581. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.08.004.
  66. Capper, J. L. (2011). "The environmental impact of beef production in the United States: 1977 compared with 2007". J. Animal Sci. 89 (12): 4249–4261. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3784. PMID 21803973.
  67. Erneubare Energien in Deutschland - Rückblick und Stand des Innovationsgeschehens. Bundesministerium fűr Umwelt, Naturschutz u. Reaktorsicherheit. http://www.bmu.de/files/pdfs/allgemin/application/pdf/ibee_gesamt_bf.pdf%5B%5D
  68. Biogas from manure and waste products - Swedish case studies. SBGF; SGC; Gasföreningen. 119 pp. http://www.iea-biogas.net/_download/public-task37/public-member/Swedish_report_08.pdf%5B%5D
  69. "U.S. Anaerobic Digester" (PDF). Agf.gov.bc.ca. 2014-06-02. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  70. NRCS. 2007. An analysis of energy production costs from anaerobic digestion systems on U.S. livestock production facilities. US Natural Resources Conservation Service. Tech. Note 1. 33 pp.
  71. Ramirez, Jerome; McCabe, Bernadette; Jensen, Paul D.; Speight, Robert; Harrison, Mark; van den Berg, Lisa; O'Hara, Ian (2021). "Wastes to profit: a circular economy approach to value-addition in livestock industries". Animal Production Science. 61 (6): 541. doi:10.1071/AN20400. S2CID 233881148.
  72. Mitigation of Climate Change: Technical Summary (Report). IPCC Sixth Assessment Report. 2022. TS.5.6.2.
  73. Gibbens, Sarah (January 16, 2019). "Eating meat has 'dire' consequences for the planet, says report". National Geographic. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  74. Bovine genomics project at Genome Canada
  75. Canada is using genetics to make cows less gassy
  76. Joblin, K. N. (1999). "Ruminal acetogens and their potential to lower ruminant methane emissions". Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 50 (8): 1307. doi:10.1071/AR99004.
  77. The use of direct-fed microbials for mitigation of ruminant methane emissions: a review
  78. Parmar, N.R.; Nirmal Kumar, J.I.; Joshi, C.G. (2015). "Exploring diet-dependent shifts in methanogen and methanotroph diversity in the rumen of Mehsani buffalo by a metagenomics approach". Frontiers in Life Science. 8 (4): 371–378. doi:10.1080/21553769.2015.1063550. S2CID 89217740.
  79. Boadi, D (2004). "Mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emissions from dairy cows: Update review". Can. J. Anim. Sci. 84 (3): 319–335. doi:10.4141/a03-109.
  80. Martin, C. et al. 2010. Methane mitigation in ruminants: from microbe to the farm scale. Animal 4 : pp 351-365.
  81. Eckard, R. J.; et al. (2010). "Options for the abatement of methane and nitrous oxide from ruminant production: A review". Livestock Science. 130 (1–3): 47–56. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2010.02.010.
  82. Dalal, R.C.; et al. (2003). "Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agricultural lands and mitigation options: a review". Australian Journal of Soil Research. 41 (2): 165–195. doi:10.1071/sr02064. S2CID 4498983.
  83. Klein, C. A. M.; Ledgard, S. F. (2005). "Nitrous oxide emissions from New Zealand agriculture – key sources and mitigation strategies". Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 72: 77–85. doi:10.1007/s10705-004-7357-z. S2CID 42756018.
  84. Gerber, P. J., H. Steinfeld, B. Henderson, A. Mottet, C. Opio, J. Dijkman, A. Falcucci and G. Tempio. 2013. Tackling climate change through livestock - a global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 115 pp.
  85. "How plant-based diets not only reduce our carbon footprint, but also increase carbon capture". Leiden University. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  86. Sun, Zhongxiao; Scherer, Laura; Tukker, Arnold; Spawn-Lee, Seth A.; Bruckner, Martin; Gibbs, Holly K.; Behrens, Paul (January 2022). "Dietary change in high-income nations alone can lead to substantial double climate dividend". Nature Food. 3 (1): 29–37. doi:10.1038/s43016-021-00431-5. ISSN 2662-1355. S2CID 245867412.
  87. National Research Council. 1994. Rangeland Health. New Methods to Classify, Inventory and Monitor Rangelands. Nat. Acad. Press. 182 pp.
  88. US BLM. 2004. Proposed Revisions to Grazing Regulations for the Public Lands. FES 04-39
  89. NRCS. 2009. Summary report 2007 national resources inventory. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 123 pp.
  90. Bilotta, G. S.; Brazier, R. E.; Haygarth, P. M. (2007). The impacts of grazing animals on the quality of soils, vegetation and surface waters in intensively managed grasslands. Adv. Agron. Advances in Agronomy. Vol. 94. pp. 237–280. doi:10.1016/s0065-2113(06)94006-1. ISBN 9780123741073.
  91. Greenwood, K. L.; McKenzie, B. M. (2001). "Grazing effects on soil physical properties and the consequences for pastures: a review". Austral. J. Exp. Agr. 41 (8): 1231–1250. doi:10.1071/EA00102.
  92. Milchunas, D. G.; Lauenroth, W. KI. (1993). "Quantitative effects of grazing on vegetation and soils over a global range of environments". Ecological Monographs. 63 (4): 327–366. doi:10.2307/2937150. JSTOR 2937150.
  93. Olff, H.; Ritchie, M. E. (1998). "Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity" (PDF). Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 13 (7): 261–265. doi:10.1016/s0169-5347(98)01364-0. hdl:11370/3e3ec5d4-fa03-4490-94e3-66534b3fe62f. PMID 21238294.
  94. Environment Canada. 2013. Amended recovery strategy for the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus) in Canada. Species at Risk Act, Recovery Strategy Series. 57 pp.
  95. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "The contributions of livestock species and breeds to ecosystem services" (PDF).
  96. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2016). "The contributions of livestock species and breeds to ecosystem services" (PDF). FAO. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  97. De Mazancourt, C.; Loreau, M.; Abbadie, L. (1998). "Grazing optimization and nutrient cycling: when do herbivores enhance plant production?". Ecology. 79 (7): 2242–2252. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[2242:goancw]2.0.co;2. S2CID 52234485.
  98. Bauer, A.; Cole, C. V.; Black, A. L. (1987). "Soil property comparisons in virgin grasslands between grazed and nongrazed management systems". Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51 (1): 176–182. Bibcode:1987SSASJ..51..176B. doi:10.2136/sssaj1987.03615995005100010037x.
  99. Manley, J. T.; Schuman, G. E.; Reeder, J. D.; Hart, R. H. (1995). "Rangeland soil carbon and nitrogen responses to grazing". J. Soil Water Cons. 50: 294–298.
  100. Franzluebbers, A.J.; Stuedemann, J. A. (2010). "Surface soil changes during twelve years of pasture management in the southern Piedmont USA". Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 74 (6): 2131–2141. Bibcode:2010SSASJ..74.2131F. doi:10.2136/sssaj2010.0034.
  101. McDonald, J. M. et al. 2009. Manure use for fertilizer and for energy. Report to Congress. USDA, AP-037. 53pp.
  102. Damian Carrington, "Humans just 0.01% of all life but have destroyed 83% of wild mammals – study", The Guardian, 21 May 2018 (page visited on 19 August 2018).
  103. Baillie, Jonathan; Zhang, Ya-Ping (2018). "Space for nature". Science. 361 (6407): 1051. Bibcode:2018Sci...361.1051B. doi:10.1126/science.aau1397. PMID 30213888.
  104. Morell, Virginia (2015). "Meat-eaters may speed worldwide species extinction, study warns". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aad1607.
  105. Machovina, B.; Feeley, K. J.; Ripple, W. J. (2015). "Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption". Science of the Total Environment. 536: 419–431. Bibcode:2015ScTEn.536..419M. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.022. PMID 26231772.
  106. Williams, Mark; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Haff, P. K.; Schwägerl, Christian; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Ellis, Erle C. (2015). "The Anthropocene Biosphere". The Anthropocene Review. 2 (3): 196–219. doi:10.1177/2053019615591020. S2CID 7771527.
  107. Smithers, Rebecca (5 October 2017). "Vast animal-feed crops to satisfy our meat needs are destroying planet". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  108. Woodyatt, Amy (May 26, 2020). "Human activity threatens billions of years of evolutionary history, researchers warn". CNN. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  109. McGrath, Matt (6 May 2019). "Humans 'threaten 1m species with extinction'". BBC. Retrieved 3 July 2019. Pushing all this forward, though, are increased demands for food from a growing global population and specifically our growing appetite for meat and fish.
  110. Watts, Jonathan (6 May 2019). "Human society under urgent threat from loss of Earth's natural life". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 July 2019. Agriculture and fishing are the primary causes of the deterioration. Food production has increased dramatically since the 1970s, which has helped feed a growing global population and generated jobs and economic growth. But this has come at a high cost. The meat industry has a particularly heavy impact. Grazing areas for cattle account for about 25% of the world's ice-free land and more than 18% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
  111. Hance, Jeremy (October 20, 2015). "How humans are driving the sixth mass extinction". The Guardian. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  112. Machovina, B.; Feeley, K. J.; Ripple, W. J. (2015). "Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption". Science of the Total Environment. 536: 419–431. Bibcode:2015ScTEn.536..419M. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.022. PMID 26231772.
  113. "Forests". World Resources Institute. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  114. Suite 800, 10 G. Street NE; Washington; Dc 20002; Fax +1729-7610, USA / Phone +1729-7600 / (2018-05-04). "Tackling Global Challenges". World Resources Institute. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  115. Sutter, John D. (December 12, 2016). "How to stop the sixth mass extinction". CNN. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  116. Anderson, E. W.; Scherzinger, R. J. (1975). "Improving quality of winter forage for elk by cattle grazing". J. Range MGT. 25 (2): 120–125. doi:10.2307/3897442. hdl:10150/646985. JSTOR 3897442. S2CID 53006161.
  117. Knowles, C. J. (1986). "Some relationships of black-tailed prairie dogs to livestock grazing". Great Basin Naturalist. 46: 198–203.
  118. Neel. L.A. 1980. Sage Grouse Response to Grazing Management in Nevada. M.Sc. Thesis. Univ. of Nevada, Reno.
  119. Jensen, C. H.; et al. (1972). "Guidelines for grazing sheep on rangelands used by big game in winter". J. Range MGT. 25 (5): 346–352. doi:10.2307/3896543. hdl:10150/647438. JSTOR 3896543. S2CID 81449626.
  120. Smith, M. A.; et al. (1979). "Forage selection by mule deer on winter range grazed by sheep in spring". J. Range MGT. 32 (1): 40–45. doi:10.2307/3897382. hdl:10150/646509. JSTOR 3897382.
  121. Strassman, B. I. (1987). "Effects of cattle grazing and haying on wildlife conservation at National Wildlife Refuges in the United States" (PDF). Environmental MGT. 11 (1): 35–44. Bibcode:1987EnMan..11...35S. doi:10.1007/bf01867177. hdl:2027.42/48162. S2CID 55282106.
  122. Holechek, J. L.; et al. (1982). "Manipulation of grazing to improve or maintain wildlife habitat". Wildlife Soc. Bull. 10: 204–210.
  123. Boyle, Louise (February 22, 2022). "US meat industry using 235m pounds of pesticides a year, threatening thousands of at-risk species, study finds". The Independent. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  124. Dirzo, Rodolfo; Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R. (2022). "Circling the drain: the extinction crisis and the future of humanity". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 377 (1857). doi:10.1098/rstb.2021.0378. PMC 9237743. PMID 35757873. The dramatic deforestation resulting from land conversion for agriculture and meat production could be reduced via adopting a diet that reduces meat consumption. Less meat can translate not only into less heat, but also more space for biodiversity . . . Although among many Indigenous populations, meat consumption represents a cultural tradition and a source of protein, it is the massive planetary monopoly of industrial meat production that needs to be curbed
  125. Belsky, A. J.; et al. (1999). "Survey of livestock influences on stream and riparian ecosystems in the western United States". J. Soil Water Cons. 54: 419–431.
  126. Agouridis, C. T.; et al. (2005). "Livestock grazing management impact on streamwater quality: a review" (PDF). Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 41 (3): 591–606. Bibcode:2005JAWRA..41..591A. doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2005.tb03757.x. S2CID 46525184.
  127. "Pasture, Rangeland, and Grazing Operations - Best Management Practices | Agriculture | US EPA". Epa.gov. 2006-06-28. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  128. "Grazing management processes and strategies for riparian-wetland areas" (PDF). US Bureau of Land Management. 2006. p. 105.
  129. Williams, C. M. (July 2008). "Technologies to mitigate enviromental [sic] impact of swine production". Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 37 (SPE): 253–259. doi:10.1590/S1516-35982008001300029. ISSN 1516-3598.
  130. Key, N. et al. 2011. Trends and developments in hog manure management, 1998-2009. USDA EIB-81. 33 pp.
  131. Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Ferran, Aude; Toutain, Pierre-Louis (May 2010). "Prophylaxis & Metaphylaxis in Veterinary Antimicrobial Therapy". Conference: 5TH International Conference on Antimicrobial Agents in Veterinary Medicine (AAVM)At: Tel Aviv, Israel via ResearchGate.
  132. British Veterinary Association, London (May 2019). "BVA policy position on the responsible use of antimicrobials in food producing animals" (PDF). Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  133. Massé, Daniel; Saady, Noori; Gilbert, Yan (4 April 2014). "Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview". Animals. 4 (2): 146–163. doi:10.3390/ani4020146. PMC 4494381. PMID 26480034. S2CID 1312176.
  134. Sarmah, Ajit K.; Meyer, Michael T.; Boxall, Alistair B. A. (1 October 2006). "A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment". Chemosphere. 65 (5): 725–759. Bibcode:2006Chmsp..65..725S. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.026. PMID 16677683.
  135. Kumar, Kuldip; C. Gupta, Satish; Chander, Yogesh; Singh, Ashok K. (1 January 2005). "Antibiotic Use in Agriculture and Its Impact on the Terrestrial Environment". Advances in Agronomy. 87: 1–54. doi:10.1016/S0065-2113(05)87001-4. ISBN 9780120007851.
  136. Boeckel, Thomas P. Van; Glennon, Emma E.; Chen, Dora; Gilbert, Marius; Robinson, Timothy P.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Levin, Simon A.; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Laxminarayan, Ramanan (29 September 2017). "Reducing antimicrobial use in food animals". Science. 357 (6358): 1350–1352. Bibcode:2017Sci...357.1350V. doi:10.1126/science.aao1495. PMC 6510296. PMID 28963240. S2CID 206662316.
  137. ESVAC (European Medicines Agency) (October 2019). "Sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 31 European countries in 2017: Trends from 2010 to 2017" (PDF). Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  138. Torrella, Kenny (2023-01-08). "Big Meat just can't quit antibiotics". Vox. Retrieved 2023-01-23.
  139. Boeckel, Thomas P. Van; Pires, João; Silvester, Reshma; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Julia; Criscuolo, Nicola G.; Gilbert, Marius; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Laxminarayan, Ramanan (20 September 2019). "Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and middle-income countries" (PDF). Science. 365 (6459): eaaw1944. doi:10.1126/science.aaw1944. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 31604207. S2CID 202699175.
  140. Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Brower, Charles; Gilbert, Marius; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Levin, Simon A.; Robinson, Timothy P.; Teillant, Aude; Laxminarayan, Ramanan (2015). "Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (18): 5649–5654. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.5649V. doi:10.1073/pnas.1503141112. PMC 4426470. PMID 25792457. S2CID 3861749.
  141. Bush, Karen; Courvalin, Patrice; Dantas, Gautam; Davies, Julian; Eisenstein, Barry; Huovinen, Pentti; Jacoby, George A.; Kishony, Roy; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Kutter, Elizabeth; Lerner, Stephen A.; Levy, Stuart; Lewis, Kim; Lomovskaya, Olga; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Projan, Steven; Thomas, Christopher M.; Tomasz, Alexander; Tulkens, Paul M.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Watson, James D.; Witkowski, Jan; Witte, Wolfgang; Wright, Gerry; Yeh, Pamela; Zgurskaya, Helen I. (2 November 2011). "Tackling antibiotic resistance". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (12): 894–896. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2693. PMC 4206945. PMID 22048738. S2CID 4048235.
  142. Tang, Karen L; Caffrey, Niamh P; Nóbrega, Diego; Cork, Susan C; Ronksley, Paul C; Barkema, Herman W; Polachek, Alicia J; Ganshorn, Heather; Sharma, Nishan; Kellner, James D; Ghali, William A (November 2017). "Restricting the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals and its associations with antibiotic resistance in food-producing animals and human beings: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The Lancet Planetary Health. 1 (8): e316–e327. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30141-9. PMC 5785333. PMID 29387833.
  143. Shallcross, Laura J.; Howard, Simon J.; Fowler, Tom; Davies, Sally C. (5 June 2015). "Tackling the threat of antimicrobial resistance: from policy to sustainable action". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 370 (1670): 20140082. doi:10.1098/rstb.2014.0082. PMC 4424432. PMID 25918440. S2CID 39361030.
  144. European Medicines Agency. "Implementation of the new Veterinary Medicines Regulation in the EU".
  145. OECD, Paris (May 2019). "Working Party on Agricultural Policies and Markets: Antibiotic Use and Antibiotic Resistance in Food Producing Animals in China". Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  146. US Food & Drug Administration (July 2019). "Timeline of FDA Action on Antimicrobial Resistance". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  147. "WHO guidelines on use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals" (PDF).
  148. European Commission, Brussels (December 2005). "Ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed enters into effect".
  149. "The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals" (PDF). Guidance for Industry (#209). 2012.
  150. "Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) Basics". AVMA. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  151. University of Nebraska, Lincoln (October 2015). "Veterinary Feed Directive Questions and Answers". UNL Beef. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  152. Walker, Polly; Rhubart-Berg, Pamela; McKenzie, Shawn; Kelling, Kristin; Lawrence, Robert S. (June 2005). "Public health implications of meat production and consumption". Public Health Nutrition. 8 (4): 348–356. doi:10.1079/PHN2005727. ISSN 1475-2727. PMID 15975179. S2CID 59196.
  153. Hafez, Hafez M.; Attia, Youssef A. (2020). "Challenges to the Poultry Industry: Current Perspectives and Strategic Future After the COVID-19 Outbreak". Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 7: 516. doi:10.3389/fvets.2020.00516. ISSN 2297-1769. PMC 7479178. PMID 33005639.
  154. Greger, Michael (September 2021). "Primary Pandemic Prevention". American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 15 (5): 498–505. doi:10.1177/15598276211008134. ISSN 1559-8276. PMC 8504329. PMID 34646097. S2CID 235503730.
  155. Mehdi, Youcef; Létourneau-Montminy, Marie-Pierre; Gaucher, Marie-Lou; Chorfi, Younes; Suresh, Gayatri; Rouissi, Tarek; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Côté, Caroline; Ramirez, Antonio Avalos; Godbout, Stéphane (1 June 2018). "Use of antibiotics in broiler production: Global impacts and alternatives". Animal Nutrition. 4 (2): 170–178. doi:10.1016/j.aninu.2018.03.002. ISSN 2405-6545. PMC 6103476. PMID 30140756.
  156. "Lebensmittel aus dem Labor könnten der Umwelt helfen". www.sciencemediacenter.de. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  157. Rzymski, Piotr; Kulus, Magdalena; Jankowski, Maurycy; Dompe, Claudia; Bryl, Rut; Petitte, James N.; Kempisty, Bartosz; Mozdziak, Paul (January 2021). "COVID-19 Pandemic Is a Call to Search for Alternative Protein Sources as Food and Feed: A Review of Possibilities". Nutrients. 13 (1): 150. doi:10.3390/nu13010150. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 7830574. PMID 33466241.
  158. Onwezen, M. C.; Bouwman, E. P.; Reinders, M. J.; Dagevos, H. (1 April 2021). "A systematic review on consumer acceptance of alternative proteins: Pulses, algae, insects, plant-based meat alternatives, and cultured meat". Appetite. 159: 105058. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2020.105058. ISSN 0195-6663. PMID 33276014. S2CID 227242500.
  159. Humpenöder, Florian; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Linder, Tomas; Popp, Alexander (May 2022). "Projected environmental benefits of replacing beef with microbial protein". Nature. 605 (7908): 90–96. Bibcode:2022Natur.605...90H. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-04629-w. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 35508780. S2CID 248526001.
    News article: "Replacing some meat with microbial protein could help fight climate change". Science News. 5 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  160. "Lab-grown meat and insects 'good for planet and health'". BBC News. 25 April 2022. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  161. Mazac, Rachel; Meinilä, Jelena; Korkalo, Liisa; Järviö, Natasha; Jalava, Mika; Tuomisto, Hanna L. (25 April 2022). "Incorporation of novel foods in European diets can reduce global warming potential, water use and land use by over 80%". Nature Food. 3 (4): 286–293. doi:10.1038/s43016-022-00489-9. hdl:10138/348140. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  162. Leger, Dorian; Matassa, Silvio; Noor, Elad; Shepon, Alon; Milo, Ron; Bar-Even, Arren (29 June 2021). "Photovoltaic-driven microbial protein production can use land and sunlight more efficiently than conventional crops". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 118 (26): e2015025118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11815025L. doi:10.1073/pnas.2015025118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8255800. PMID 34155098. S2CID 235595143.
  163. "Plant-based meat substitutes - products with future potential | Bioökonomie.de". biooekonomie.de. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  164. Berlin, Kustrim CerimiKustrim Cerimi studied biotechnology at the Technical University in; biotechnology, is currently doing his PhD He is interested in the broad field of fungal; Artists, Has Collaborated in Various Interdisciplinary Projects with; Artists, Hybrid (28 January 2022). "Mushroom meat substitutes: A brief patent overview". On Biology. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  165. Lange, Lene (December 2014). "The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*". IMA Fungus. 5 (2): 463–471. doi:10.5598/imafungus.2014.05.02.10. ISSN 2210-6340. PMC 4329327. PMID 25734035. S2CID 13755426.
  166. Gille, Doreen; Schmid, Alexandra (February 2015). "Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products". Nutrition Reviews. 73 (2): 106–115. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuu011. ISSN 1753-4887. PMID 26024497.
  167. Weston, A. R.; Rogers, R. W.; Althen, T. G. (1 June 2002). "Review: The Role of Collagen in Meat Tenderness". The Professional Animal Scientist. 18 (2): 107–111. doi:10.15232/S1080-7446(15)31497-2. ISSN 1080-7446.
  168. Ostojic, Sergej M. (1 July 2020). "Eat less meat: Fortifying food with creatine to tackle climate change". Clinical Nutrition. 39 (7): 2320. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.05.030. ISSN 0261-5614. PMID 32540181. S2CID 219701817.
  169. Mariotti, François; Gardner, Christopher D. (4 November 2019). "Dietary Protein and Amino Acids in Vegetarian Diets—A Review". Nutrients. 11 (11): 2661. doi:10.3390/nu11112661. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 6893534. PMID 31690027.
  170. Tsaban, Gal; Meir, Anat Yaskolka; Rinott, Ehud; Zelicha, Hila; Kaplan, Alon; Shalev, Aryeh; Katz, Amos; Rudich, Assaf; Tirosh, Amir; Shelef, Ilan; Youngster, Ilan; Lebovitz, Sharon; Israeli, Noa; Shabat, May; Brikner, Dov; Pupkin, Efrat; Stumvoll, Michael; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Heiker, John T.; Körner, Antje; Landgraf, Kathrin; Bergen, Martin von; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J.; Shai, Iris (1 July 2021). "The effect of green Mediterranean diet on cardiometabolic risk; a randomised controlled trial". Heart. 107 (13): 1054–1061. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317802. ISSN 1355-6037. PMID 33234670. S2CID 227130240.
  171. Craig, Winston John (December 2010). "Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets". Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 25 (6): 613–620. doi:10.1177/0884533610385707. ISSN 1941-2452. PMID 21139125.
  172. Zelman, Kathleen M.; MPH; RD; LD. "The Truth Behind the Top 10 Dietary Supplements". WebMD. Retrieved 2022-06-18.
  173. Neufingerl, Nicole; Eilander, Ans (January 2022). "Nutrient Intake and Status in Adults Consuming Plant-Based Diets Compared to Meat-Eaters: A Systematic Review". Nutrients. 14 (1): 29. doi:10.3390/nu14010029. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 8746448. PMID 35010904.
  174. Boston, 677 Huntington Avenue; Ma 02115 +1495‑1000 (2012-09-18). "Vitamin K". The Nutrition Source. Retrieved 2022-06-18.
  175. Fadnes, Lars T.; Økland, Jan-Magnus; Haaland, Øystein A.; Johansson, Kjell Arne (8 February 2022). "Estimating impact of food choices on life expectancy: A modeling study". PLOS Medicine. 19 (2): e1003889. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003889. ISSN 1549-1676. PMC 8824353. PMID 35134067.
  176. "Quality of plant-based diet determines mortality risk in Chinese older adults". Nature Aging. 2 (3): 197–198. March 2022. doi:10.1038/s43587-022-00178-z. S2CID 247307240. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  177. Jafari, Sahar; Hezaveh, Erfan; Jalilpiran, Yahya; Jayedi, Ahmad; Wong, Alexei; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Barzegar, Ali (6 May 2021). "Plant-based diets and risk of disease mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 62 (28): 7760–7772. doi:10.1080/10408398.2021.1918628. ISSN 1040-8398. PMID 33951994. S2CID 233867757.
  178. Medawar, Evelyn; Huhn, Sebastian; Villringer, Arno; Veronica Witte, A. (12 September 2019). "The effects of plant-based diets on the body and the brain: a systematic review". Translational Psychiatry. 9 (1): 226. doi:10.1038/s41398-019-0552-0. ISSN 2158-3188. PMC 6742661. PMID 31515473.
  179. Fortuna, Carolyn (2022-09-08). "Is It Time To Start Banning Ads For Meat Products?". CleanTechnica. Retrieved 2022-11-01.
  180. Pieper, Maximilian; Michalke, Amelie; Gaugler, Tobias (15 December 2020). "Calculation of external climate costs for food highlights inadequate pricing of animal products". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 6117. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.6117P. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19474-6. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7738510. PMID 33323933. S2CID 229282344.
  181. "Have we reached 'peak meat'? Why one country is trying to limit its number of livestock". the Guardian. 2023-01-16. Retrieved 2023-01-16.
  182. Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Fawcett, Tina; Parag, Yael; Ekins, Paul (December 2021). "Personal carbon allowances revisited". Nature Sustainability. 4 (12): 1025–1031. doi:10.1038/s41893-021-00756-w. ISSN 2398-9629. S2CID 237101457.
  183. "A blueprint for scaling voluntary carbon markets | McKinsey". www.mckinsey.com. Retrieved 2022-06-18.
  184. "These are the UK supermarket items with the worst environmental impact". New Scientist. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  185. Clark, Michael; Springmann, Marco; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter; Hill, Jason; Tilman, David; Macdiarmid, Jennie I.; Fanzo, Jessica; Bandy, Lauren; Harrington, Richard A. (16 August 2022). "Estimating the environmental impacts of 57,000 food products". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 119 (33): e2120584119. Bibcode:2022PNAS..11920584C. doi:10.1073/pnas.2120584119. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 9388151. PMID 35939701.
  186. "Up to 3,000 'peak polluters' given last chance to close by Dutch government". the Guardian. 2022-11-30. Retrieved 2023-01-16.
  187. Elferink, E. V.; et al. (2008). "Feeding livestock food residue and the consequences for the environmental impact of meat". J. Clean. Prod. 16 (12): 1227–1233. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.06.008.
  188. Hoffman, L. and A. Baker. 2010. Market issues and prospects for U.S. distillers' grains supply, use, and price relationships. USDA FDS-10k-01
  189. Anderson, D. C. (1978). "Use of cereal residues in beef cattle production systems". J. Anim. Sci. 46 (3): 849–861. doi:10.2527/jas1978.463849x.
  190. Males, J. R. (1987). "Optimizing the utilization of cereal crop residues for beef cattle". J. Anim. Sci. 65 (4): 1124–1130. doi:10.2527/jas1987.6541124x.
  191. Ward, J. K. (1978). "Utilization of corn and grain sorghum residues in beef cow forage systems". J. Anim. Sci. 46 (3): 831–840. doi:10.2527/jas1978.463831x.
  192. Klopfenstein, T.; et al. (1987). "Corn residues in beef production systems". J. Anim. Sci. 65 (4): 1139–1148. doi:10.2527/jas1987.6541139x.
  193. "Livestock Grazing Guidelines for Controlling Noxious weeds in the Western United States" (PDF). University of Nevada. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  194. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "The contributions of livestock species and breeds to ecosystem services" (PDF).
  195. Launchbaugh, K. (ed.) 2006. Targeted Grazing: a natural approach to vegetation management and landscape enhancement. American Sheep Industry. 199 pp.
  196. Nicole, Wendee (2017-03-01). "CAFOs and Environmental Justice: The Case of North Carolina". Environmental Health Perspectives. 121 (6): a182–a189. doi:10.1289/ehp.121-a182. ISSN 0091-6765. PMC 3672924. PMID 23732659.
  197. Wing, S; Wolf, S (2017-03-01). "Intensive livestock operations, health, and quality of life among eastern North Carolina residents". Environmental Health Perspectives. 108 (3): 233–238. doi:10.1289/ehp.00108233. ISSN 0091-6765. PMC 1637983. PMID 10706529.
  198. Thorne, Peter S. (2017-03-01). "Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions". Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (2): 296–297. doi:10.1289/ehp.8831. ISSN 0091-6765. PMC 1817701. PMID 17384781.
  199. Schiffman, S. S.; Miller, E. A.; Suggs, M. S.; Graham, B. G. (1995-01-01). "The effect of environmental odors emanating from commercial swine operations on the mood of nearby residents". Brain Research Bulletin. 37 (4): 369–375. doi:10.1016/0361-9230(95)00015-1. ISSN 0361-9230. PMID 7620910. S2CID 4764858.
  200. Bullers, Susan (2005). "Environmental Stressors, Perceived Control, and Health: The Case of Residents Near Large-Scale Hog Farms in Eastern North Carolina". Human Ecology. 33 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1007/s10745-005-1653-3. ISSN 0300-7839. S2CID 144569890.
  201. Horton, Rachel Avery; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen W.; Brownley, Kimberly A. (2009-11-01). "Malodor as a Trigger of Stress and Negative Mood in Neighbors of Industrial Hog Operations". American Journal of Public Health. 99 (S3): S610–S615. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.148924. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 2774199. PMID 19890165.
  202. Edwards, Bob (January 2001). "Race, poverty, political capacity and the spatial distribution of swine waste in North Carolina, 1982-1997". NC Geogr.
  203. "FAO's Animal Production and Health Division: Pigs and Environment". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.