Elections in Brazil

Brazil elects on the national level a head of state—the president—and a legislature. The president is elected to a four-year term by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. The National Congress (Congresso Nacional) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) has 513 members, elected to a four-year term by proportional representation. The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) has 81 members, elected to an eight-year term, with elections every four years for alternatively one-third and two-thirds of the seats. Brazil has a multi-party system, with such numerous parties that often no one party has a chance of gaining power alone, and so they must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Schedule

Election

Position201820192020202120222023202420252026
Type Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
NoneMayors (October)
City Councils (October)
NonePresidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
NoneMayors (October)
City Councils (October)
NonePresidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
President and
vice president
President and vice presidentNonePresident and vice presidentNonePresident and vice president
National Congress All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
Two thirds (Federal Senate)
NoneAll seats (Chamber of Deputies)
One third (Federal Senate)
NoneAll seats (Chamber of Deputies)
Two thirds (Federal Senate)
States, cities and municipalities All positions (States and Federal District)NoneAll positions (Municipalities)NoneAll positions (States and Federal District)NoneAll positions (Municipalities)NoneAll positions (States and Federal District)

Inauguration

Position201920202021202220232024202520262027
Type Presidential (January)
National Congress (February)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
NoneMayors (January)
City Councils (January)
NonePresidential (January)
National Congress (February)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
NoneMayors (January)
City Councils (January)
NonePresidential (January)
National Congress (February)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
President and
vice president
1 JanuaryNone1 JanuaryNone5 January
National Congress 1 FebruaryNone1 FebruaryNone1 February
States, cities and municipalities 1 JanuaryNone1 JanuaryNone1 JanuaryNone1 JanuaryNone1 January
(state parliaments)
6 January
(Governors)

Electoral systems

A presidential candidate in Brazil needs to gain fifty per cent plus one of votes to be named as winner. A second-round runoff is mandated if no candidate receives fifty per cent plus one of votes.[1]

Deputies are elected to the Chamber of Deputies using a form of party-list proportional representation known as the open list. Seats are distributed in 27 multi-member constituencies based on the Federation Units (26 States and the Federal District), ranging from 8 to 70 seats. Seats are allocated through the D'Hondt method. [2]

Senators are elected to the Federal Senate with a plurality of the vote in a first-past-the-post system, which is not proportional.[3] Three senators are elected for each state and for the Federal District.[4]

In lower levels of government, the state legislative assemblies and city councils are elected using an open list proportional representation system. Seats are allocated using a version of the D'Hondt method where only parties who receive at least V/n votes (where V is the total number of votes cast and n is the total number of seats to be filled) may win seats in the legislature.[5][6]

Voting in Brazil is compulsory for all literate citizens over 18 and under 70, and optional for citizens who are aged 16 and 17, older than 70 or illiterate. Brazil introduced compulsory voting into its Electoral Code in 1932 and lowered the voting age from 18 to 16 in the 1988 constitution.[7] The 1988 constitution also granted voluntary suffrage to the illiterate citizens of Brazil.[8]

Brazilian voting machines

Brazilian voting machine, 2020

Electronic voting was first introduced to Brazil in 1996; with the first tests carried out in the state of Santa Catarina. The primary design goal of the Brazilian voting machine is extreme simplicity, the model being a public phone booth.

The Brazilian voting machine performs three steps - voter identification, secure voting and tallying - in a single process, aiming to eliminate fraud based on forged or falsified public documents. Political parties have access to the voting machine's programs before the election for auditing.

Presidential elections by party

Current parties
Party Acronym Election Presidential candidate Vice presidential candidate Colligation Results
Act AGIR 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE, PROS Elected Y
2018 Álvaro Dias (PODE) Paulo Rabelo de Castro (PSC) PODE, PSC, AGIR, PRP Lost N
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2002 Anthony Garotinho (PSB) José Antônio Figueiredo (PSB) PSB, AGIR, PGT Lost N
1994 Carlos Antônio Gomes (AGIR) Dilton Carlos Salomoni (AGIR) - Lost N
1989 Fernando Collor de Mello (AGIR) Itamar Franco (AGIR) AGIR, PSC, PST, PTR Elected Y
Brazilian Communist Party PCB 2022 Sofia Manzano (PCB) Antonio Alves da Silva (PCB) - Lost N
2018 Guilherme Boulos (PSOL) Sônia Guajajara (PSOL) PSOL, PCB Lost N
2014 Mauro Iasi (PCB) Sofia Manzano (PCB) - Lost N
2010 Ivan Pinheiro (PCB) Edmilson Costa (PCB) - Lost N
2006 Heloísa Helena (PSOL) César Benjamin (PSOL) PSOL, PCB, PSTU Lost N
2002 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (PL) PT, PL, PCB, PCdoB, PMN Elected Y
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Leonel Brizola (PDT) PT, PDT, PCB, PCdoB, PSB Lost N
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost N
1989 Roberto Freire (PCB) Sérgio Arouca (PCB) - Lost N
1985 - - - -
1978 - - - -
1974 - - - -
1969 - - - -
1966 - - - -
1964 - - - -
1960 - - - -
1955 - - - -
1950 - - - -
1945 Iedo Fiúza (PCB) - - Lost N
1934 - - - -
1930 Minervino de Oliveira (PCB) - - Lost N
- Gastão Valentim (PCB) - Lost N
1926 - - - -
1922 - - - -
Brazilian Democratic Movement MDB 2022 Simone Tebet (MDB) Mara Gabrilli (PSDB) MDB, Always Forward Federation (CIDADANIA, PSDB), PODE Lost N
2018 Henrique Meirelles (MDB) Germano Rigotto (MDB) MDB, PHS Lost N
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2006 - - - -
2002 José Serra (PSDB) Rita Camata (MDB) PSDB, MDB Lost N
1998 - - - -
1994 Orestes Quércia (MDB) Iris de Araújo (MDB) MDB, PSD, PRP Lost N
1989 Ulysses Guimarães (MDB) Waldir Pires (MDB) - Lost N
1985 Tancredo Neves (MDB) José Sarney (MDB) - Elected Y
1978 Euler Bentes Monteiro (MDB) Paulo Brossard (MDB) - Lost N
1974 Ulysses Guimarães (MDB) Barbosa Lima Sobrinho (MDB) Lost N
1969 - - - -
1966 - - - -
Brazilian Labour Party PTB 2022 Kelmon Souza (PTB) Luiz Cláudio Gamonal (PTB) - Lost N
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2010 José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) PSDB, DEM, AVANTE, CIDADANIA, PMN, PTB Lost N
2006 - - - -
2002 Ciro Gomes (CIDADANIA) Paulinho da Força (PTB) CIDADANIA, PTB, PDT Lost N
1998 Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB) Marco Maciel (DEM) PSDB, DEM, PP, PSD, PTB Elected Y
1994 Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB) Marco Maciel (DEM) PSDB, DEM, PTB Elected Y
1989 Affonso Camargo Neto (PTB) Paiva Muniz (PTB) - Lost N
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party PRTB 2022 - - - -
2018 Jair Bolsonaro (PSL) Hamilton Mourão (PRTB) PSL, PRTB Elected Y
2014 Levy Fidelix (PRTB) José Alves de Oliveira (PRTB) - Lost N
2010 Levy Fidelix (PRTB) Luiz Eduardo Ayres Duarte (PRTB) - Lost N
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 - - - -
Brazilian Social Democracy Party PSDB 2022 Simone Tebet (MDB) Mara Gabrilli (PSDB) MDB, Always Forward Federation (CIDADANIA, PSDB), PODE Lost N
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2010 José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) PSDB, DEM, AVANTE, CIDADANIA, PMN, PTB Lost N
2006 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) José Jorge (DEM) PSDB, DEM Lost N
2002 José Serra (PSDB) Rita Camata (MDB) PSDB, MDB Lost N
1998 Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB) Marco Maciel (DEM) PSDB, DEM, PP, PSD, PTB Elected Y
1994 Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB) Marco Maciel (DEM) PSDB, DEM, PTB Elected Y
1989 Mário Covas (PSDB) Almir Gabriel (PSDB) - Lost N
Brazilian Socialist Party PSB 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE, PROS Elected Y
2018 - - - -
2014 Marina Silva (PSB) Beto Albuquerque (PSB) PSB, CIDADANIA, PHS, PPL, PRP, PSL Lost N
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2006 - - - -
2002 Anthony Garotinho (PSB) José Antônio Figueiredo (PSB) PSB, AGIR, PGT Lost N
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Leonel Brizola (PDT) PT, PDT, PCB, PCdoB, PSB Lost N
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost N
1989 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Paulo Bisol (PSB) PT, PSB, PCdoB Lost N
1985 - - - -
1978 - - - -
1974 - - - -
1969 - - - -
1966 - - - -
1964 - - - -
1960 Henrique Teixeira Lott (PSD) - PSD, PTB, PRT, PSB, PST Lost N
- João Goulart (PTB) Elected Y
1955 Juarez Távora (UDN) UDN, PDC, PL, PSB Lost N
Milton Campos (UDN) Lost N
1950 João Mangabeira (PSB) - - Lost N
- Alípio Correia Neto (PSB) Lost N
Brazilian Woman's Party PMB 2022 - - - -
2018 - - - -
Brazil Union UNIÃO 2022 Soraya Thronicke (UNIÃO) Marcos Cintra (UNIÃO) - Lost N
Christian Democracy DC 2022 José Maria Eymael (DC) João Barbosa Bravo (DC) - Lost N
2018 José Maria Eymael (DC) Hélvio Costa (DC) - Lost N
2014 José Maria Eymael (DC) Roberto Lopes (DC) - Lost N
2010 José Maria Eymael (DC) José Paulo da Silva Neto (DC) - Lost N
2006 José Maria Eymael (DC) José Paulo da Silva Neto (DC) - Lost N
2002 - - - -
1998 José Maria Eymael (DC) Josmar Oliveira Alderete (DC) - Lost N
Citizenship CIDADANIA 2022 Simone Tebet (MDB) Mara Gabrilli (PSDB) MDB, Always Forward Federation (CIDADANIA, PSDB), PODE Lost N
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2014 Marina Silva (PSB) Beto Albuquerque (PSB) PSB, CIDADANIA, PHS, PPL, PRP, PSL Lost N
2010 José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) PSDB, DEM, AVANTE, CIDADANIA, PMN, PTB Lost N
2006 - - - -
2002 Ciro Gomes (CIDADANIA) Paulinho da Força (PTB) CIDADANIA, PTB, PDT Lost N
1998 Ciro Gomes (CIDADANIA) Roberto Freire (CIDADANIA) CIDADANIA, PAN, PL Lost N
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost N
Communist Party of Brazil PCdoB 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE, PROS Elected Y
2018 Fernando Haddad (PT) Manuela D'Ávila (PCdoB) PT, PCdoB, PROS Lost N
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2006 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (REPUBLICANOS) PT, REPUBLICANOS, PCdoB Elected Y
2002 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (PL) PT, PL, PCB, PCdoB, PMN Elected Y
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Leonel Brizola (PDT) PT, PDT, PCB, PCdoB, PSB Lost N
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost N
1989 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Paulo Bisol (PSB) PT, PSB, PCdoB Lost N
Democratic Labour Party PDT 2022 Ciro Gomes (PDT) Ana Paula Matos (PDT) PDT Lost N
2018 Ciro Gomes (PDT) Kátia Abreu (PDT) PDT, AVANTE Lost N
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2006 Cristovam Buarque (PDT) Jefferson Péres (PDT) - Lost N
2002 Ciro Gomes (CIDADANIA) Paulinho da Força (PTB) CIDADANIA, PTB, PDT Lost N
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Leonel Brizola (PDT) PT, PDT, PCB, PCdoB, PSB Lost N
1994 Leonel Brizola (PDT) Darcy Ribeiro (PDT) PDT, PMN Lost N
1989 Leonel Brizola (PDT) Fernando Lyra (PDT) - Lost N
Forward AVANTE 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE, PROS Elected Y
2018 Ciro Gomes (PDT) Kátia Abreu (PDT) PDT, AVANTE Lost N
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2010 José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) PSDB, DEM, AVANTE, CIDADANIA, PMN, PTB Lost N
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 João de Deus (AVANTE) Nanci Pilar (AVANTE) - Lost N
Green Party PV 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE, PROS Elected Y
2018 Marina Silva (REDE) Eduardo Jorge (PV) REDE, PV Lost N
2014 Eduardo Jorge (PV) Célia Sacramento (PV) - Lost N
2010 Marina Silva (PV) Guilherme Leal (PV) - Lost N
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 Alfredo Sirkis (PV) Carla Piranda Rabello (PV) - Lost N
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost N
1989 Fernando Gabeira (PV) Mauricio Lobo de Abreu (PV) - Lost N
Liberal Party PL 2022 Jair Bolsonaro (PL) Walter Braga Netto (PL) PL, REPUBLICANOS, PP Lost N
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
New Party NOVO 2022 Luiz Felipe d'Avila (NOVO) Tiago Mitraud (NOVO) - Lost N
2018 João Amoêdo (NOVO) Christian Lohbauer (NOVO) - Lost N
Party of National Mobilization PMN 2022 - - - -
2018 - - - -
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2010 José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) PSDB, DEM, AVANTE, CIDADANIA, PMN, PTB Lost N
2006 - - - -
2002 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (PL) PT, PL, PCB, PCdoB, PMN Elected Y
1998 Ivan Frota (PMN) João Ferreira da Silva (PMN) - Lost N
1994 Leonel Brizola (PDT) Darcy Ribeiro (PDT) PDT, PMN Lost N
1989 Celso Brant (PMN) José Natan Emídio Neto (PMN) - Lost N
Patriot PATRIOTA 2022 - - - -
2018 Cabo Daciolo (PATRIOTA) Suelene Balduino Nascimento (PATRIOTA) - Lost N
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
Popular Unity UP 2022 Leonardo Péricles (UP) Samara Martins (UP) UP Lost N
Progressives PP 2022 Jair Bolsonaro (PL) Walter Braga Netto (PL) PL, REPUBLICANOS, PP Lost N
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2010 - - - -
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB) Marco Maciel (DEM) PSDB, DEM, PP, PSD, PTB Elected Y
Republican Party of the Social Order PROS 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE, PROS Elected Y
2018 Fernando Haddad (PT) Manuela D'Ávila (PCdoB) PT, PCdoB, PROS Lost N
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2010 - - - -
Republicans REPUBLICANOS 2022 Jair Bolsonaro (PL) Walter Braga Netto (PL) PL, REPUBLICANOS, PP Lost N
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2006 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (REPUBLICANOS) PT, REPUBLICANOS, PCdoB Elected Y
Social Christian Party PSC 2022 - - - -
2018 Álvaro Dias (PODE) Paulo Rabelo de Castro (PSC) PODE, PSC, AGIR, PRP Lost N
2014 Everaldo Pereira (PSC) Leonardo Gadelha (PSC) - Lost N
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 Sérgio Bueno (PSC) Ronald Abrahão Azaro (PSC) - Lost N
1994 Hernani Fortuna (PSC) Vítor Nósseis (PSC) - Lost N
1989 Fernando Collor de Mello (AGIR) Itamar Franco (AGIR) AGIR, PSC, PST, PTR Elected Y
Social Democratic Party PSD 2022 - - - -
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
Socialism and Liberty Party PSOL 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE, PROS Elected Y
2018 Guilherme Boulos (PSOL) Sônia Guajajara (PSOL) PSOL, PCB Lost N
2014 Luciana Genro (PSOL) Jorge Paz (PSOL) - Lost N
2010 Plínio de Arruda Sampaio (PSOL) Hamilton Assis (PSOL) - Lost N
2006 Heloísa Helena (PSOL) César Benjamin (PSOL) PSOL, PCB, PSTU Lost N
Solidarity SOLIDARIEDADE 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE, PROS Elected Y
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
Sustainability Network REDE 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE, PROS Elected Y
2018 Marina Silva (REDE) Eduardo Jorge (PV) REDE, PV Lost N
United Socialist Workers' Party PSTU 2022 Vera Lúcia Salgado (PSTU) Kunã Yporã Tremembé (PSTU) - Lost N
2018 Vera Lúcia Salgado (PSTU) Hertz Dias (PSTU) - Lost N
2014 José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) Cláudia Durans (PSTU) - Lost N
2010 José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) Cláudia Durans (PSTU) - Lost N
2006 Heloísa Helena (PSOL) César Benjamin (PSOL) PSOL, PCB, PSTU Lost N
2002 José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) Dayse Oliveira (PSTU) - Lost N
1998 José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) José Galvão de Lima (PSTU) - Lost N
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost N
We Can PODE 2022 Simone Tebet (MDB) Mara Gabrilli (PSDB) MDB, Always Forward Federation (CIDADANIA, PSDB), PODE Lost N
2018 Álvaro Dias (PODE) Paulo Rabelo de Castro (PSC) PODE, PSC, AGIR, PRP Lost N
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost N
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 Thereza Ruiz (PODE) Eduardo Gomes (PODE) - Lost N
Workers' Cause Party PCO 2022 - - - -
2018 - - - -
2014 Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) Ricardo Machado (PCO) - Lost N
2010 Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) Edson Dorta Silva (PCO) - Lost N
2006 - - - -
2002 Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) Pedro Paulo de Abreu (PCO) - Lost N
1998 - - - -
Workers' Party PT 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE, PROS Elected Y
2018 Fernando Haddad (PT) Manuela D'Ávila (PCdoB) PT, PCdoB, PROS Lost N
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Y
2006 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (REPUBLICANOS) PT, REPUBLICANOS, PCdoB Elected Y
2002 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (PL) PT, PL, PCB, PCdoB, PMN Elected Y
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Leonel Brizola (PDT) PT, PDT, PCB, PCdoB, PSB Lost N
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost N
1989 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Paulo Bisol (PSB) PT, PSB, PCdoB Lost N

2022 general election

Presidential election

CandidateRunning matePartyFirst roundSecond round
Votes%Votes%
Luiz Inácio Lula da SilvaGeraldo Alckmin (PSB)Workers' Party57,259,50448.4360,345,99950.90
Jair Bolsonaro (incumbent)Walter Braga NettoLiberal Party51,072,34543.2058,206,35449.10
Simone TebetMara Gabrilli (PSDB)Brazilian Democratic Movement4,915,4234.16
Ciro GomesAna Paula MatosDemocratic Labour Party3,599,2873.04
Soraya ThronickeMarcos CintraBrazil Union600,9550.51
Luiz Felipe d'AvilaTiago MitraudNew Party559,7080.47
Kelmon SouzaLuiz Cláudio GamonalBrazilian Labour Party81,1290.07
Leonardo PériclesSamara MartinsPopular Unity53,5190.05
Sofia ManzanoAntonio AlvesBrazilian Communist Party45,6200.04
Vera Lúcia SalgadoKunã Yporã TremembéUnited Socialist Workers' Party25,6250.02
José Maria EymaelJoão Barbosa BravoChristian Democracy16,6040.01
Total118,229,719100.00118,552,353100.00
Valid votes118,229,71995.59
Invalid votes3,487,8742.82
Blank votes1,964,7791.59
Total votes123,682,372100.00
Registered voters/turnout156,453,35479.05156,453,354
Source: Superior Electoral Court

Chamber of Deputies

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Liberal Party18,228,95816.5499+66[lower-alpha 1]
Brazil
of Hope
Workers' Party15,354,12513.9368+12
Communist Party of Brazil6-4[lower-alpha 2]
Green Party6+2
Brazil Union10,262,0359.3159-22[lower-alpha 3]
Progressistas8,704,3417.9047+10
Social Democratic Party8,322,1837.5542+8
Brazilian Democratic Movement7,992,9887.2542+8
Republicans7,618,1086.9141+11[lower-alpha 4]
Always
Forward
Brazilian Social Democracy Party5,000,9104.5413-16
Cidadania5-3[lower-alpha 5]
PSOL
REDE
Socialism and Liberty Party4,650,0804.2212+2
Sustainability Network2+1
Brazilian Socialist Party4,202,3763.8114-18
Democratic Labour Party3,843,1743.4917-11
Podemos3,614,5813.2812-5[lower-alpha 6]
Avante2,205,1762.007
Social Christian Party1,951,4861.776-2
Solidarity1,728,0831.574-9
Patriota1,548,1401.404-5[lower-alpha 7]
Brazilian Labour Party1,433,6381.301-9
New Party1,360,5901.233-5
Republican Party of the Social Order1,070,9530.973-5
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party294,3150.27
Party of National Mobilization256,8300.23-3
Act159,8650.15-2[lower-alpha 8]
Christian Democracy138,8180.13-1
Brazilian Woman's Party85,7220.08
Brazilian Communist Party85,6420.08
Popular Unity55,7800.05New
United Socialist Workers' Party27,9950.03
Workers' Cause Party8,6600.01
Undetermined5,6320.01
Total110,211,184100.00513
Valid votes110,211,18489.46
Invalid votes5,483,2624.45
Blank votes7,501,1256.09
Total votes123,195,571100.00
Registered voters/turnout155,557,42279.20
Source: Superior Electoral Court

Federal Senate

Party or allianceVotes%Seats
ElectedTotal+/–
Liberal Party25,278,76424.86813+7[lower-alpha 9]
Brazilian Socialist Party13,615,84613.3911-2
Brazil
of Hope
Workers' Party12,456,55312.2549+2
Green Party475,5970.47
Communist Party of Brazil299,0130.29[lower-alpha 10]
Social Democratic Party11,312,51211.12210
Progressistas7,592,3917.4737+2[lower-alpha 11]
Brazil Union5,465,4865.37512+2[lower-alpha 12]
Social Christian Party4,285,4854.2111+1
Republicans4,259,2794.1923+2[lower-alpha 13]
Brazilian Democratic Movement3,882,4583.82110-4
Brazilian Labour Party3,621,5323.56-2
Podemos1,776,2831.756[lower-alpha 14]
Democratic Labour Party1,650,2221.622-4
Always
Forward
Brazilian Social Democracy Party1,394,5471.374-4
Cidadania00.001[lower-alpha 15]
Avante1,369,6551.35[lower-alpha 16]
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party758,9380.75
PSOL
REDE
Socialism and Liberty Party677,3450.67
Sustainability Network8,1330.011
New Party479,5930.47
Popular Unity291,2940.29New
Republican Party of the Social Order214,5250.211
United Socialist Workers' Party135,5990.13
Christian Democracy101,7220.10[lower-alpha 17]
Patriota76,7290.08[lower-alpha 18]
Brazilian Communist Party64,5690.06
Brazilian Woman's Party61,3500.06New
Party of National Mobilization27,8120.03
Workers' Cause Party26,6140.03
Act24,0760.02[lower-alpha 19]
Solidarity19,4080.02
Total101,703,330100.002781
Valid votes101,703,33082.55
Invalid votes12,151,9329.86
Blank votes9,340,3097.58
Total votes123,195,571100.00
Registered voters/turnout155,557,42279.20
Source: Superior Electoral Court

Election results 1982–2018

Brazilian legislative elections (Chamber of Deputies), 1982–2018

Parties 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018
Workers' Party 3.5 6.9 10.2 12.8 13.2 18.4 15.0 16.9 14.0 10.3
Brazilian Democratic Movement 43.0 48,1 19.3 20.3 15.2 13.4 14.6 13.0 11.1 5.5
Brazilian Social Democracy Party - - 8.7 13.9 17.5 14.3 13.6 11.9 11.4 6.0
Liberal Front Party/Democrats - 17.7 12.4 12.9 17.3 13.4 10.9 7.6 4.2 4.7
Liberal Party / Party of the Republic - 2.8 4.3 3.5 2.5 4.3 4.4 7.6 5.8 5.3
Brazilian Socialist Party - 0.9 1.9 2.2 3.4 5.3 6.2 7.1 6.5 5.5
Progressistas - - - 6.9 11.3 7.8 7.1 6.6 6.4 5.6
Democratic Labour Party 5.8 6.5 10.0 7.2 5.7 5.1 5.2 5.0 3.6 4.6
Brazilian Labour Party 4.5 4.5 5.6 5.2 5.7 4.6 4.7 4.2 4.0 2.1
Green Party - - - 0.1 0.4 1.3 3.6 3.8 2.1 1.6
Social Christian Party - - 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.6 1.9 3.2 2.5 1.8
Communist Party of Brazil - 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.3 2.2 2.1 2.8 2.0 1.4
Popular Socialist Party - 0.9 1.0 0.6 1.3 3.1 3.9 2.6 2.0 1.6
Brazilian Republican Party - - - - - - 0.3 1.7 4.5 5.1
Socialism and Liberty Party - - - - - - 1.2 1.2 1.8 2.8
Party of National Mobilization - - 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.9 1.1 0.5 0.6
Democratic Social / Reform Progressive Party 43.2 7.8 8.9 9.4 - - - - - -
National Reconstruction Party / Christian Labour Party - - 8.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.6
Christian Democratic Party / Christian Social Democratic Party / Christian Democracy - 1.2 3.0 - 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.4
Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order - - - 0.7 0.9 2.1 1.0 - - -
Social Democratic Party - - - - - - - - 6.2 5.8
Republican Party of the Social Order - - - - - - - - 2.0 2.1
Solidariedade - - - - - - - - 2.7 2.0
National Labor Party / Podemos - - - - 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 2.3
National Ecologic Party / Patriota - - - - - - - - 0.7 1.5
Labour Party of Brazil / Avante - - 0.2 - 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.8 1.9
Humanist Party of Solidarity - - - - - 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.5
Progressive Republican Party - - 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.9
Social Liberal Party - - - - 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.8 11.7
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party - - - 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7
New Party - - - - - - - - - 2.8
Sustainability Network - - - - - - - - - 0.8
Others 0.0 2.8 3.7 0.7 1.7 1.5 0.4 0.0 0.7 0.7

Source: Source:

Referendums

Brazil has held three national referendums in its history. In the first, held on January 6, 1963, the people voted for the re-establishment of the presidential system of government (82% of valid ballots), which had been modified by a constitutional amendment in 1961. A second referendum, as ordered by the Federal Constitution of 1988, was held on April 21, 1993, when the voters voted for a republican form of government and reaffirmed the presidential system.

A third national referendum, on the prohibition of the commerce of personal firearms and ammunition, was held on October 23, 2005. The ban proposal was rejected by 64% of the electorate.

See also

Notes

  1. Compared to the deputies of the Party of the Republic elected in 2018. The party was renamed Liberal Party in 2019.
  2. Compared to the combined deputies of the Communist Party of Brazil and of the Free Fatherland Party elected in 2018. The parties merged after that election.
  3. Compared to the combined deputies of the Social Liberal Party and of Democrats elected in 2018. The parties merged to form Brazil Union in 2022.
  4. Compared to the deputies of the Brazilian Republican Party elected in 2018. The party was renamed Republicans in 2019.
  5. Compared to the deputies of the Popular Socialist Party elected in 2018. The party was renamed Cidadania in 2019.
  6. Compared to the combined deputies of Podemos and of the Humanist Party of Solidarity elected in 2018. The parties merged after that election.
  7. Compared to the combined deputies of Patriota and of the Progressive Republican Party elected in 2018. The parties merged after that election.
  8. Compared to the deputies of the Christian Labour Party elected in 2018. The party was renamed Act in 2022.
  9. Compared to the senators of the Party of the Republic elected in 2014. The party was renamed Liberal Party in 2019.
  10. Compared to the combined senators of the Communist Party of Brazil and of the Free Fatherland Party elected in 2014. The parties merged after the 2018 election.
  11. Compared to the senators of the Progressive Party elected in 2014. The party was renamed Progressistas in 2018.
  12. Compared to the combined senators of Democrats and of the Social Liberal Party elected in 2014. The parties merged to form Brazil Union in 2022.
  13. Compared to the senators of the Brazilian Republican Party elected in 2014. The party was renamed Republicans in 2019.
  14. Compared to the combined senators of the National Labour Party and of the Humanist Party of Solidarity elected in 2014. The National Labour Party was renamed Podemos in 2017, and it absorbed the Humanist Party of Solidarity after the 2018 election.
  15. Compared to the senators of the Popular Socialist Party elected in 2014. The party was renamed Cidadania in 2019.
  16. Compared to the senators of the Labour Party of Brazil elected in 2014. The party was renamed Avante in 2017.
  17. Compared to the senators of the Christian Social Democratic Party elected in 2014. The party was renamed Christian Democracy in 2018.
  18. Compared to the combined senators of the National Ecologic Party and of the Progressive Republican Party elected in 2014. The National Ecologic Party was renamed Patriota in 2018, and it absorbed the Progressive Republican Party after the 2018 election.
  19. Compared to the senators of the Christian Labour Party elected in 2014. The party was renamed Act in 2022.

References

  1. Brazil: Lula renounces candidacy ahead of presidential poll
  2. "Grumpy about voting reform". The Economist. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  3. "The Federal Senate". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  4. Andrianantoandro, Andy (2010-10-14). "Brazil's Presidential Hopefuls Face Runoff, National Congress Needs Reform". FairVote.org. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  5. "Como funciona o sistema proporcional?". Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Electoral Court). Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  6. Romao, Mauricio (2010-05-05). "Parlamentares "Eleitos Por Média"". Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  7. ""Voting is compulsory for Brazilians aged 18 to 70"". Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Electoral Court). Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  8. Power, Timothy J. (2009). "Compulsory for Whom? Mandatory Voting and Electoral Participation in Brazil, 1986-2006". Journal of Politics in Latin America. 1 (1): 97–122. doi:10.1177/1866802x0900100105.
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