EF English Proficiency Index

The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the equity of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.[2] It is the product of EF Education First, an international education company, and draws its conclusions from data collected via English tests available for free over the internet.[3][4] The index is an online survey first published in 2011[5] based on test data from 1.7 million test takers.[6] The most recent edition was released in November 2022.[7][8]

World map representing different levels of English proficiency in the world in 2022.[1]
  •   600 and above (Very High)
  •   599 – 575 (High)
  •   574 – 550 (High)
  •   549 – 525 (Moderate)
  •   524 – 500 (Moderate)
  •   499 – 475 (Low)
  •   474 – 450 (Low)
  •   449 – 425 (Very Low)
  •   424 – 400 (Very Low)
  •   below 400 (Very Low)
  •   No data or national language

Methodology

The EF EPI 2022 edition was calculated using test data from 2.1 million test takers in 2021. The test takers were self-selected. 111 countries and territories appear in this edition of the index. In order to be included, a country was required to have at least 400 test takers.[9]

Report

The report is composed of a country ranking table, several pages of analysis with graphs correlating other economic and social factors with English proficiency, and analysis of each region or continent. The 2022 report includes English proficiency levels by gender, age group, and region, within countries, and some English proficiency scores by city. The website displays portions of the report and has analysis of English skills in many countries and territories.[9]

Primary conclusions

  1. Exports per capita, Gross National Income per capita and innovation all correlate positively with English proficiency.[10]
  2. English proficiency levels are evolving at different rates in different countries, including a few countries with declining English skills.[11]
  3. Europe has the highest proficiency in English, while the Middle East averages the lowest.[12]

2022 country rankings

Below are the latest country scores, proficiency bands, and rankings as published in 2022.[1]

2022 Rank Country 2022 Score 2022 Proficiency Band
1  Netherlands 661 Very High Proficiency
2  Singapore 642 Very High Proficiency
3  Austria 628 Very High Proficiency
4  Norway 627 Very High Proficiency
5  Denmark 625 Very High Proficiency
6  Belgium 620 Very High Proficiency
7  Sweden 618 Very High Proficiency
8  Finland 615 Very High Proficiency
9  Portugal 614 Very High Proficiency
10  Germany 613 Very High Proficiency
11  Croatia 612 Very High Proficiency
12  South Africa 609 Very High Proficiency
13  Poland 600 Very High Proficiency
14  Greece 598 High Proficiency
15  Slovakia 597 High Proficiency
16  Luxembourg 596 High Proficiency
17  Romania 595 High Proficiency
18  Hungary 590 High Proficiency
19  Lithuania 589 High Proficiency
20  Kenya 582 High Proficiency
21  Bulgaria 581 High Proficiency
22  Philippines 578 High Proficiency
23  Czech Republic 575 High Proficiency
24  Malaysia 574 High Proficiency
25  Latvia 571 High Proficiency
26  Estonia 570 High Proficiency
27  Serbia 567 High Proficiency
28  Nigeria 564 High Proficiency
29  Switzerland 563 High Proficiency
30  Argentina 562 High Proficiency
31  Hong Kong 561 High Proficiency
32  Italy 548 Moderate Proficiency
33  Spain 545 Moderate Proficiency
34  France 541 Moderate Proficiency
35  Ukraine 539 Moderate Proficiency
36  South Korea 537 Moderate Proficiency
37  Costa Rica 536 Moderate Proficiency
38  Cuba 535 Moderate Proficiency
39  Belarus 533 Moderate Proficiency
40  Russia 530 Moderate Proficiency
41  Ghana 529 Moderate Proficiency
42  Moldova 528 Moderate Proficiency
43  Paraguay 526 Moderate Proficiency
44  Bolivia 525 Moderate Proficiency
45  Chile 524 Moderate Proficiency
45  Georgia 524 Moderate Proficiency
47  Albania 523 Moderate Proficiency
48  Honduras 522 Moderate Proficiency
49  Uruguay 521 Moderate Proficiency
50  El Salvador 519 Moderate Proficiency
51  Peru 517 Moderate Proficiency
52  India 516 Moderate Proficiency
53  Dominican Republic 514 Moderate Proficiency
54  Lebanon 513 Moderate Proficiency
55  Uganda 512 Moderate Proficiency
56  Tunisia 511 Moderate Proficiency
57  Armenia 506 Moderate Proficiency
58  Brazil 505 Moderate Proficiency
58  Guatemala 505 Moderate Proficiency
60  Vietnam 502 Moderate Proficiency
61  Nicaragua 499 Low Proficiency
62  China 498 Low Proficiency
63  Tanzania 496 Low Proficiency
64  Turkey 495 Low Proficiency
65    Nepal 494 Low Proficiency
66  Bangladesh 493 Low Proficiency
67  Venezuela 492 Low Proficiency
68  Ethiopia 490 Low Proficiency
69  Iran 489 Low Proficiency
70  Pakistan 488 Low Proficiency
71  Sri Lanka 487 Low Proficiency
72  Mongolia 485 Low Proficiency
73  Qatar 484 Low Proficiency
74  Israel 483 Low Proficiency
75  Panama 482 Low Proficiency
76  Morocco 478 Low Proficiency
77  Colombia 477 Low Proficiency
78  Algeria 476 Low Proficiency
78  United Arab Emirates 476 Low Proficiency
80  Japan 475 Low Proficiency
81  Indonesia 469 Low Proficiency
82  Ecuador 466 Low Proficiency
83  Syria 461 Low Proficiency
84  Kuwait 459 Low Proficiency
85  Egypt 454 Low Proficiency
86  Mozambique 453 Low Proficiency
87  Afghanistan 450 Low Proficiency
88  Mexico 447 Very Low Proficiency
89  Uzbekistan 446 Very Low Proficiency
90  Jordan 443 Very Low Proficiency
91  Kyrgyzstan 442 Very Low Proficiency
92  Azerbaijan 440 Very Low Proficiency
93  Myanmar 437 Very Low Proficiency
94  Cambodia 434 Very Low Proficiency
95  Sudan 426 Very Low Proficiency
96  Cameroon 425 Very Low Proficiency
97  Thailand 423 Very Low Proficiency
98  Haiti 421 Very Low Proficiency
99  Kazakhstan 420 Very Low Proficiency
100  Somalia 414 Very Low Proficiency
101  Oman 412 Very Low Proficiency
102  Saudi Arabia 406 Very Low Proficiency
103  Iraq 404 Very Low Proficiency
104  Ivory Coast 403 Very Low Proficiency
105  Angola 402 Very Low Proficiency
106  Tajikistan 397 Very Low Proficiency
107  Rwanda 392 Very Low Proficiency
108  Libya 390 Very Low Proficiency
109  Yemen 370 Very Low Proficiency
110  Democratic Republic of the Congo 367 Very Low Proficiency
111  Laos 364 Very Low Proficiency

2022 city rankings

City 2022 Score 2022 Proficiency Band
Amsterdam 673 Very High Proficiency
Copenhagen 664 Very High Proficiency
Stockholm 637 Very High Proficiency
Zagreb 637 Very High Proficiency
Helsinki 635 Very High Proficiency
Oslo 635 Very High Proficiency
Vienna 632 Very High Proficiency
Lisbon 622 Very High Proficiency
Zürich 622 Very High Proficiency
Brussels 620 Very High Proficiency
Warsaw 614 Very High Proficiency
Bucharest 609 Very High Proficiency
Bratislava 607 Very High Proficiency
Budapest 604 Very High Proficiency
Johannesburg 604 Very High Proficiency
Prague 600 Very High Proficiency
Sofia 598 High Proficiency
Berlin 592 High Proficiency
Athens 587 High Proficiency
Nairobi 585 High Proficiency
Paris 585 High Proficiency
Seoul 580 High Proficiency
Kuala Lumpur 579 High Proficiency
Buenos Aires 578 High Proficiency
Madrid 572 High Proficiency
Manila 567 High Proficiency
Belgrade 566 High Proficiency
Rome 566 High Proficiency
Hong Kong 561 High Proficiency
Lagos 559 High Proficiency
San José 558 High Proficiency
Moscow 550 High Proficiency
Santiago 550 High Proficiency
Beijing 549 Moderate Proficiency
Shanghai 549 Moderate Proficiency
Mumbai 546 Moderate Proficiency
Hanoi 545 Moderate Proficiency
Saint Petersburg 542 Moderate Proficiency
Kyiv 541 Moderate Proficiency
Minsk 541 Moderate Proficiency
Lima 539 Moderate Proficiency
Asunción 538 Moderate Proficiency
Havana 538 Moderate Proficiency
Rio de Janeiro 538 Moderate Proficiency
Tirana 535 Moderate Proficiency
Tbilisi 533 Moderate Proficiency
São Paulo 532 Moderate Proficiency
Tegucigalpa 532 Moderate Proficiency
Montevideo 530 Moderate Proficiency
San Salvador 529 Moderate Proficiency
Tunis 528 Moderate Proficiency
Accra 527 Moderate Proficiency
Santo Domingo 523 Moderate Proficiency
Delhi 523 Moderate Proficiency
Jakarta 523 Moderate Proficiency
Tokyo 522 Moderate Proficiency
Guatemala City 517 Moderate Proficiency
Addis Ababa 514 Moderate Proficiency
La Paz 514 Moderate Proficiency
Dhaka 512 Moderate Proficiency
Yerevan 512 Moderate Proficiency
Beirut 509 Moderate Proficiency
Caracas 509 Moderate Proficiency
Dubai 508 Moderate Proficiency
Colombo 507 Moderate Proficiency
Ho Chi Minh City 507 Moderate Proficiency
Kathmandu 507 Moderate Proficiency
Mexico City 507 Moderate Proficiency
Ankara 506 Moderate Proficiency
Dar es Salaam 506 Moderate Proficiency
Panama City 504 Moderate Proficiency
Bogotá 503 Moderate Proficiency
Managua 502 Moderate Proficiency
Istanbul 499 Low Proficiency
Karachi 499 Low Proficiency
Quito 495 Low Proficiency
Ulaanbaatar 492 Low Proficiency
Tehran 490 Low Proficiency
Algiers 486 Low Proficiency
Casablanca 484 Low Proficiency
Kampala 484 Low Proficiency
Bangkok 483 Low Proficiency
Doha 474 Low Proficiency
Tel Aviv 472 Low Proficiency
Cairo 471 Low Proficiency
Baku 469 Low Proficiency
Damascus 469 Low Proficiency
Amman 460 Low Proficiency
Yangon 460 Low Proficiency
Bishkek 459 Low Proficiency
Maputo 458 Low Proficiency
Kabul 455 Low Proficiency
Astana 455 Low Proficiency
Phnom Penh 453 Low Proficiency
Tashkent 445 Very Low Proficiency
Kuwait City 443 Very Low Proficiency
Tripoli 428 Very Low Proficiency
Riyadh 423 Very Low Proficiency
Port-au-Prince 422 Very Low Proficiency
Khartoum 421 Very Low Proficiency
Muscat 420 Very Low Proficiency
Baghdad 418 Very Low Proficiency
Dushanbe 415 Very Low Proficiency
Douala 412 Very Low Proficiency
Sanaa 397 Very Low Proficiency
Kigali 389 Very Low Proficiency
Mogadishu 385 Very Low Proficiency
Abidjan 374 Very Low Proficiency
Kinshasa 370 Very Low Proficiency

Similar reports

The European Commission performed a language survey, SurveyLang, which tested a representative sample of 15-year-old European students on their foreign language skills. The report and data sets were released for 13 European countries in June 2012.[13]

See also

References

  1. "EF EPI 2022 - EF English Proficiency Index". 2022.
  2. English: Who speaks English?. The Economist. Retrieved on 2011-05-29.
  3. Study Offers Snapshot of Global English-Language-Learner Trends. Education Week. Retrieved on 2017-01-17.
  4. The EF SET powers the EF EPI. EF SET. Retrieved on 2017-10-05.
  5. The EF EPI. ef.com. Retrieved on 2017-10-05.
  6. Low English Levels Can Hurt Countries' Progress. New York Times. Retrieved on 2017-01-17.
  7. https://www.ef.com/assetscdn/WIBIwq6RdJvcD9bc8RMd/legacy/__/~/media/centralefcom/epi/downloads/full-reports/v10/ef-epi-2020-english.pdf
  8. Women and managers are better at speaking English, study on proficiency finds. Business Insider. Retrieved on 2018-11-09
  9. EF English Proficiency Index – Comparing English skills between countries – EF EPI. Ef.com. Retrieved on 2018-11-09.
  10. Minh Tran: Countries with High English Proficiency Are More Innovative. Harvard Business Review. "Minh Tran is Director of Research and Partnerships for EF Education First and a member of the team that launched the EF Standard English Test." Retrieved on 2017-01-17.
  11. How Well Does Your Country Speak English?. Voice of America. Retrieved on 2017-1-17.
  12. Which countries are best at English as a second language?. World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 2017-1-17.
  13. SurveyLang project. European Commission. Retrieved on 2012-09-20.
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