Dioscorea

Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates.[3][4][5][6] It was named by the monk Charles Plumier after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides.

Dioscorea
Dioscorea balcanica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Dioscoreales
Family: Dioscoreaceae
Genus: Dioscorea
L.
Sections
  • Botryosicyos
  • Combilium
  • Enantiophyllum
  • Lasiophyton
  • Macroura
    • Macrourae
  • Macrogynodium
  • Opsophyton
    • Euopsophyton
  • Shannicorea
  • Stenophora

(Not all are supported by molecular analyses.[1] See tropicos query cited for more.[2])

Synonyms[3]
  • Tamus L.
  • Ricophora Mill.
  • Tamnus Mill.
  • Oncus Lour.
  • Ubium J.F.Gmel.
  • Oncorhiza Pers.
  • Testudinaria Salisb. ex Burch.
  • Rhizemys Raf.
  • Botryosicyos Hochst.
  • Helmia Kunth
  • Sismondaea Delponte
  • Epipetrum Phil.
  • Borderea Miégev.
  • Elephantodon Salisb.
  • Hamatris Salisb.
  • Merione Salisb.
  • Polynome Salisb.
  • Strophis Salisb.
  • Higinbothamia Uline
  • Nanarepenta Matuda
  • Hyperocarpa (Uline) G.M.Barroso, E.F.Guim. & Sucre

Description

Wild Yam (Dioscorea) is a vine that is invasive, deciduous, and herbaceous.[7] This species is native to Asia, though, in the U.S., it is commonly found in Florida. They can grow over 18 metres (60 feet) in length.[8] Wild yams are an important crop, as they have been used to prevent menstrual cramps, stomach cramps, and general pain for centuries. During the 1950s scientists found that the roots of wild yams contained diosgenin which is a plant-based estrogen; diosgenin is hypothesized to aid in chemical defense against herbivores. This was used to create the first birth control pills during the 60s.[9] In addition, some Dioscorea species are rich in nutrients and antioxidants. This is beneficial in rural areas where the plant is native because it enriches the diets of individuals who live in the area.[10] These plants grow best near canopy gaps in woodlands and rainforests. Dioscorea uses vining behavior which is useful in tropical habitats because Dioscorea grow under canopies and need to latch onto different surfaces in order to grow upwards and acquire resources. [11]

Cultivation and uses

Several species, known as yams, are important agricultural crops in tropical regions, grown for their large tubers. Many of these are toxic when fresh, but can be detoxified and eaten, and are particularly important in parts of Africa, Asia, and Oceania.

One class of toxins found in many species is steroidal saponins, which can be converted through a series of chemical reactions into steroid hormones for use in medicine and as contraceptives.

The 1889 book "The Useful Native Plants of Australia" records that Dioscorea hastifolia is "One of the hardiest of the yams. The tubers are largely consumed by the local aborigines for food. (Mueller)."[12]

Mechanism

Although the mechanism of Dioscorea vine behavior is unknown, it is likely that Dioscorea acts similarly to vines in terms of growth and movement behavior. Vines have a touch-sensitive component that allows them to locate and latch onto a supporting base. They use nearby plants, rocks, trees, and structures for physical support. Their touch receptors allow them to reach out and sense objects. Vines seek out these surfaces by sending out shoots to assess the area. This behavior is dependent on the species, but these shoots typically move in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, induced by circadian rhythms (Digital time-lapse video)[13].[14] When the vine makes contact with an object, the tendril shoot will coil around the object; this is a reaction called thigmotropism.[15]  This tendril can control the amount of tension and squeeze the object to stay attached to it and prevent falling. Leaf growth is typically postponed until the relative stem has secured support. When leaf growth is delayed, shoot growth is hastened. Some vines produce an adhesive on their stems that contain calcium to better latch onto structures. A gradient is produced and the calcium exits cells to spread over stems. Furthermore, Dioscorea is a twiner, this means that the plant undergoes circumnutation which is a helical movement that allows stems to wrap around objects. In order for this mechanism to take place, endodermal cells, plasmodesmata, the plasma membrane, epidermal cells, calcium, potassium, chloride, and proton pumps are required.[16] The SCR gene is also crucial for twining to occur.[17] To better understand the physiology of Dioscorea further research must be conducted as much has still not been discovered.

Experiment

In 2009, an experiment was conducted to address the mechanism of force generation in the twining plant, Dioscorea bulbifera. To do this, the authors used a mechanical pole that measured the squeezing force of the twining vine. Plants were grown in a greenhouse setting, and once the shoots of the plants started "circumnutating," a pole was introduced to allow for twining around the object. Authors found that the amount of force being applied to the pole when the vine is twining is due to the stretching of the stipule. The forces of the bending and twisting motion of D. bulbifera did not generate a measurable force.  In addition, this experiment indicates that stipules[18] are not the only driving force for tension in vines and that they contribute to increased squeezing force later in development.[19]

Overall, Dioscorea has a vining mechanism that allows it to obtain nutrients while living under a canopy; it has evolved to do this by seeking out surfaces to climb and latch onto. Vines, like Dioscorea, have touch-sensitive components that allow them to specialize in this behavior.


Cuisine

The Alangan Tribe of Mangyan in the Island of Mindoro in the Philippines, locally known as Karot/Nami; Uses this type of tuber as an alternative of rice. Mangyan people typically soak it for 3 days, wash it in the running streams, dried for 2 days, and soak for 2 hours before cooking like a typical rice.

[20]

Accepted species (613), subspecies, and varieties

The genus includes the following species and subspecies:

A

  • Dioscorea abysmophila Maguire & Steyerm.
  • Dioscorea abyssinica Hochst. ex Kunth
  • Dioscorea acanthogene Rusby
  • Dioscorea acerifolia Phil.
  • Dioscorea acuminata Baker
  • Dioscorea adenantha Uline
  • Dioscorea aesculifolia R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea aguilarii Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Dioscorea alata L.
  • Dioscorea alatipes Burkill & H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea althaeoides R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea altissima Lam.
  • Dioscorea amaranthoides C.Presl
  • Dioscorea amazonum Mart. ex Griseb.
  • Dioscorea amazonum var. klugii (R.Knuth) Ayala
  • Dioscorea amoena R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea analalavensis Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea ancachsensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea andina Phil.
  • Dioscorea andromedusae O.Téllez
  • Dioscorea angustifolia Rusby
  • Dioscorea anomala Griseb.
  • Dioscorea antaly Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea antucoana Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea arachidna Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea araucana Phil.
  • Dioscorea arcuatinervis Hochr.
  • Dioscorea argyrogyna Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea arifolia C.Presl
  • Dioscorea aristolochiifolia Poepp.
  • Dioscorea arnensis R. Knuth
  • Dioscorea asclepiadea Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea aspera Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Dioscorea aspersa Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea asperula Pedralli
  • Dioscorea asteriscus Burkill
  • Dioscorea atrescens R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea auriculata Poepp.

B

  • Dioscorea bahiensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea bako Wilkin
  • Dioscorea balcanica Košanin
  • Dioscorea bancana Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea banzhuana S.J.Pei & C.T.Ting
  • Dioscorea bartlettii C.V.Morton
  • Dioscorea basiclavicaulis Rizzini & A.Mattos
  • Dioscorea baya De Wild.
  • Dioscorea beecheyi R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea belophylla (Prain) Voigt ex Haines
  • Dioscorea bemandry Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea bemarivensis Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea benthamii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea berenicea McVaugh
  • Dioscorea bermejensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea bernoulliana Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea besseriana Kunth
  • Dioscorea beyrichii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea bicolor Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea biformifolia S.J.Pei & C.T.Ting
  • Dioscorea biloba (Phil.) Caddick & Wilkin
  • Dioscorea biplicata R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea birmanica Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea birschelii Harms ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea blumei Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea bolivarensis Steyerm.
  • Dioscorea bonii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea bosseri Haigh & Wilkin
  • Dioscorea brachybotrya Poepp.
  • Dioscorea brachystachya Phil.
  • Dioscorea bradei R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea brandisii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea brevipetiolata Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea bridgesii Griseb. ex Kunth
  • Dioscorea brownii Schinz
  • Dioscorea bryoniifolia Poepp.
  • Dioscorea buchananii Benth.
  • Dioscorea buckleyana Wilkin
  • Dioscorea bulbifera L.
  • Dioscorea bulbotricha Hand.-Mazz.
  • Dioscorea burchellii Baker
  • Dioscorea burkilliana J.Miège

C

  • Dioscorea cachipuertensis Ayala
  • Dioscorea calcicola Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea caldasensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea calderillensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea callacatensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea cambodiana Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea campanulata Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea campestris Griseb.
  • Dioscorea campos-portoi R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea carionis Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea carpomaculata O.Téllez & B.G.Schub.
  • Dioscorea carpomaculata var. cinerea (Uline ex R.Knuth) O.Téllez & B.G.Schub.
  • Dioscorea castilloniana Hauman
  • Dioscorea catharinensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea caucasica Lipsky
  • Dioscorea cavenensis Lam.
  • Dioscorea cayennensis Lam.
  • Dioscorea cayennensis subsp. rotundata (Poir.) J.Miège; syn.: D. rotundata Poir.
  • Dioscorea ceratandra Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea chacoensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea chagllaensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea chancayensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea chaponensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea chiapasensis Matuda
  • Dioscorea chimborazensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea chingii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea choriandra Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea chouardii Gaussen
  • Dioscorea cienegensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea cinnamomifolia Hook.
  • Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour.
  • Dioscorea cissophylla Phil.
  • Dioscorea claessensii De Wild.
  • Dioscorea claussenii Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea claytonii Ayala
  • Dioscorea cochleariapiculata De Wild.
  • Dioscorea collettii Hook.f.
  • Dioscorea collettii var. hypoglauca (Palib.) S.J.Pei & C.T.Ting
  • Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin
  • Dioscorea commutata R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea comorensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea composita Hemsl.
  • Dioscorea contracta R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea convolvulacea Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Dioscorea convolvulacea subsp. grandifolia (Schltdl.) Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea conzattii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea cordifolia Laness.
  • Dioscorea coreana (Prain & Burkill) R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea coriacea Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Dioscorea coripatenis J.F.Macbr.
  • Dioscorea coronata Hauman
  • Dioscorea cotinifolia Kunth
  • Dioscorea craibiana Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea crateriflora R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea crotalariifolia Uline
  • Dioscorea cruzensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea cubensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea cumingii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea curitybensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea cuspidata Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Dioscorea cuyabensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea cyanisticta J.D.Sm.
  • Dioscorea cymosula Hemsl.
  • Dioscorea cyphocarpa C.B.Rob. ex Knuth

D

  • Dioscorea daunea Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea davidsei O.Téllez
  • Dioscorea de-mourae Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea debilis Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea decaryana H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea decipiens Hook.f.
  • Dioscorea decorticans C.Presl
  • Dioscorea deflexa Griseb.
  • Dioscorea delavayi Franch.
  • Dioscorea delicata R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb.
  • Dioscorea dendrotricha Uline
  • Dioscorea densiflora Hemsl.
  • Dioscorea depauperata Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea diamantinensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea dicranandra Donn.Sm.
  • Dioscorea dielsii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea dissimulans Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea divaricata Blanco
  • Dioscorea diversifolia Griseb.
  • Dioscorea dodecaneura Vell.
  • Dioscorea dregeana (Kunth) T.Durand & Schinz
  • Dioscorea duchassaingii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea dugesii C.B.Rob.
  • Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax
  • Dioscorea dumetosa Uline ex R.Knuth

E

  • Dioscorea ekmanii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea elegans Ridl. ex Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea elephantipes (L'Hér.) Engl.
  • Dioscorea entomophila Hauman
  • Dioscorea epistephioides Taub.
  • Dioscorea escuintlensis Matuda
  • Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burkill
  • Dioscorea esquirolii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea exalata C.T.Ting & M.C.Chang

F

  • Dioscorea fandra H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea fasciculocongesta (Sosa & B.G.Schub.) O.Téllez
  • Dioscorea fastigiata Gay
  • Dioscorea fendleri R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea ferreyrae Ayala
  • Dioscorea filiformis Blume
  • Dioscorea flabellifolia Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea flaccida R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea floribunda M.Martens & Galeotti
  • Dioscorea floridana Bartlett
  • Dioscorea fodinarum Kunth
  • Dioscorea fordii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea formosana R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea fractiflexa R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea fuliginosa R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea furcata Griseb.
  • Dioscorea futschauensis Uline ex R.Knuth

G

  • Dioscorea galeottiana Kunth
  • Dioscorea galiiflora R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea gallegosi Matuda
  • Dioscorea garrettii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea gaumeri R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea gentryi O.Téllez
  • Dioscorea gillettii Milne-Redh.
  • Dioscorea glabra Roxb.
  • Dioscorea glandulosa (Griseb.) Klotzsch ex Kunth
  • Dioscorea glandulosa var. calcensis (R.Knuth) Ayala
  • Dioscorea glomerulata Hauman
  • Dioscorea gomez-pompae O.Téllez
  • Dioscorea gracilicaulis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea gracilipes Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea gracilis Hook. ex Poepp.
  • Dioscorea gracillima Miq.
  • Dioscorea grandiflora Mart. ex Griseb.
  • Dioscorea grandis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea grata Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea gribinguiensis Baudon
  • Dioscorea grisebachii Kunth
  • Dioscorea guerrerensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea guianensis R.Knuth

H

  • Dioscorea haenkeana C.Presl
  • Dioscorea hamiltonii Hook.f.
  • Dioscorea hassleriana Chodat
  • Dioscorea hastata Mill.
  • Dioscorea hastatissima Rusby
  • Dioscorea hastifolia Nees
  • Dioscorea hastiformis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea haumanii Xifreda
  • Dioscorea havilandii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea hebridensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea hemicrypta Burkill
  • Dioscorea hemsleyi Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea heptaneura Vell.
  • Dioscorea herbert-smithii Rusby
  • Dioscorea herzogii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea heteropoda Baker
  • Dioscorea hexagona Baker
  • Dioscorea hieronymi Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea hintonii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea hirtiflora Benth.
  • Dioscorea hirtiflora subsp. orientalis Milne-Redh.
  • Dioscorea hispida Dennst.
  • Dioscorea holmioidea Maury
  • Dioscorea hombuka H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea hondurensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea howardiana O.Téllez, B.G.Schub. & Geeta
  • Dioscorea humifusa Poepp.
  • Dioscorea humilis Bertero ex Colla
  • Dioscorea humilis subsp. polyanthes (F.Phil.) Viruel, Segarra & Villar
  • Dioscorea hunzikeri Xifreda

I

  • Dioscorea igualamontana Matuda
  • Dioscorea incayensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea inopinata Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea insignis C.V.Morton & B.G.Schub.
  • Dioscorea intermedia Thwaites
  • Dioscorea ionophylla Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea iquitosensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea irupanensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea itapirensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea itatiensis R.Knuth

J

  • Dioscorea jaliscana S.Watson
  • Dioscorea jamesonii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea japonica Thunb. - Shan yao in Chinese (Chinese: 山药; pinyin: Shān yào)
  • Dioscorea javariensis Ayala
  • Dioscorea juxtlahuacensis (O.Téllez & Dávila) Caddick & Wilkin

K

  • Dioscorea kalkapershadii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea kamoonensis Kunth
  • Dioscorea keduensis Burkill ex Backer
  • Dioscorea kerrii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea killipii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea kimiae Wilkin
  • Dioscorea kingii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea kituiensis Wilkin & Muasya
  • Dioscorea kjellbergii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea knuthiana De Wild.
  • Dioscorea koepperi Standl.
  • Dioscorea koyamae Jayas.
  • Dioscorea kratica Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea kunthiana Uline
  • Dioscorea kuntzei Uline ex Kuntze

L

  • Dioscorea lacerdaei Griseb.
  • Dioscorea laevis Uline
  • Dioscorea lamprocaula Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea lanata Bail
  • Dioscorea larecajensis Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea laurifolia Wall. ex Hook.f.
  • Dioscorea lawrancei R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea laxiflora Mart. ex Griseb.
  • Dioscorea lehmannii Uline
  • Dioscorea lepcharum Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea lepida C.V.Morton
  • Dioscorea leptobotrys Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea liebmannii Uline
  • Dioscorea lijiangensis C.L.Long & H.Li
  • Dioscorea linearicordata Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea lisae Dorr & Stergios
  • Dioscorea listeri Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea litoralis Phil.
  • Dioscorea loefgrenii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea loheri Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea longicuspis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea longipes Phil.
  • Dioscorea longirhiza Caddick & Wilkin
  • Dioscorea longituba Uline
  • Dioscorea lundii Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea luzonensis Schauer

M

  • Dioscorea macbrideana R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea maciba Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea macrantha Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea macrothyrsa Uline
  • Dioscorea macvaughii B.G.Schub.
  • Dioscorea madecassa H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea madiunensis Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea maianthemoides Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea mamillata Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea mandonii Rusby
  • Dioscorea mangenotiana J.Miège
  • Dioscorea mantigueirensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea margarethia G.M.Barroso, E.F.Guim. & Sucre
  • Dioscorea marginata Griseb.
  • Dioscorea martensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea martiana Griseb.
  • Dioscorea martini Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea matagalpensis Uline
  • Dioscorea matudae O.Téllez & B.G.Schub.
  • Dioscorea mayottensis Wilkin
  • Dioscorea megacarpa Gleason
  • Dioscorea megalantha Griseb.
  • Dioscorea melanophyma Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea melastomatifolia Uline ex Prain
  • Dioscorea membranacea Pierre ex Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea menglaensis H.Li
  • Dioscorea meridensis Kunth
  • Dioscorea merrillii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea mesoamericana O.Téllez & Mart.-Rodr.
  • Dioscorea mexicana Scheidw.
  • Dioscorea microbotrya Griseb.
  • Dioscorea microcephala Uline
  • Dioscorea microura R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea mindanaensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea minima C.B.Rob. & Seaton
  • Dioscorea minutiflora Engl.
  • Dioscorea mitis C.V.Morton
  • Dioscorea mitoensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea modesta Phil.
  • Dioscorea mollis Kunth
  • Dioscorea monadelpha (Kunth) Griseb.
  • Dioscorea × monandra Hauman
  • Dioscorea morelosana (Uline) Matuda
  • Dioscorea moritziana (Kunth) R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea mosqueirensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea moultonii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea moyobambensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea mucronata Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea multiflora Mart. ex Griseb.
  • Dioscorea multiloba Kunth
  • Dioscorea multinervis Benth.
  • Dioscorea mundii Baker

N

  • Dioscorea nako H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea namorokensis Wilkin
  • Dioscorea nana Poepp.
  • Dioscorea nanlaensis H.Li
  • Dioscorea natalensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea natalia Hammel
  • Dioscorea neblinensis Maguire & Steyerm.
  • Dioscorea nelsonii Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea nematodes Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea nervata R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea nervosa Phil.
  • Dioscorea nicolasensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea nieuwenhuisii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea nipensis R.A.Howard
  • Dioscorea nipponica Makino
  • Dioscorea nitens Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea nuda R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea nummularia Lam.
  • Dioscorea nutans R.Knuth

O

  • Dioscorea oaxacensis Uline
  • Dioscorea obcuneata Hook.f.
  • Dioscorea oblonga Gleason
  • Dioscorea oblongifolia Rusby
  • Dioscorea obtusifolia Hook. & Arn.
  • Dioscorea olfersiana Klotzsch ex Griseb.
  • Dioscorea oligophylla Phil.
  • Dioscorea omiltemensis O.Téllez
  • Dioscorea opaca R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea oppositiflora Griseb.
  • Dioscorea oppositifolia L. - Shan yao in Chinese (Chinese: 山药; pinyin: Shān yào)
  • Dioscorea orangeana Wilkin[21]
  • Dioscorea orbiculata Hook.f.
  • Dioscorea orbiculata var. tenuifolia (Ridl.) Thapyai
  • Dioscorea oreodoxa B.G.Schub.
  • Dioscorea organensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea orientalis (J.Thiébaut) Caddick & Wilkin
  • Dioscorea orizabensis Uline
  • Dioscorea orthogoneura Uline ex Hochr.
  • Dioscorea oryzetorum Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea ovalifolia R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea ovata Vell.
  • Dioscorea ovinala Baker

P

  • Dioscorea palawana Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea paleata Burkill
  • Dioscorea pallens Schltdl.
  • Dioscorea pallidinervia R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea palmeri R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea panamensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea panthaica Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea pantojensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea paradoxa Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea pavonii Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea pedicellata Phil.
  • Dioscorea pencana Phil.
  • Dioscorea pendula Poepp. ex Kunth
  • Dioscorea pentaphylla L.
  • Dioscorea peperoides Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea perdicum Taub.
  • Dioscorea perenensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea perpilosa H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea petelotii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea philippiana Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea piauhyensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea pierrei Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea pilcomayensis Hauman
  • Dioscorea pilgeriana R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea pilosiuscula Bertero ex Spreng.
  • Dioscorea pinedensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea piperifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Dioscorea piscatorum Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea pittieri R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea planistipulosa Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea plantaginifolia R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea platycarpa Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea platycolpota Uline ex B.L.Rob.
  • Dioscorea plumifera C.B.Rob.
  • Dioscorea pohlii Griseb.
  • Dioscorea pohlii var. luschnathiana (Kunth) Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea poilanei Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea polyclados Hook.f.
  • Dioscorea polygonoides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. (also: Dioscorea batatas Decne)
  • Dioscorea pomeroonensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea potarensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea praehensilis Benth.
  • Dioscorea prainiana R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea prazeri Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea preslii Steud.
  • Dioscorea preussii Pax
  • Dioscorea preussii subsp. hylophila (Harms) Wilkin
  • Dioscorea pringlei C.B.Rob.
  • Dioscorea proteiformis H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea psammophila R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea pseudomacrocapsa G.M.Barroso, E.F.Guim. & Sucre
  • Dioscorea pseudorajanioides R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea pseudotomentosa Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea pteropoda Boivin ex H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea pubera Blume
  • Dioscorea pubescens Poir.
  • Dioscorea pumicicola Uline
  • Dioscorea pumilio Griseb.
  • Dioscorea puncticulata R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea purdiei R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea putisensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea putumayensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea pynaertii De Wild.
  • Dioscorea pyrenaica Bubani & Bordère ex Gren.
  • Dioscorea pyrifolia Kunth

Q

  • Dioscorea quartiniana A.Rich.
  • Dioscorea quaternata J.F. Gmel.
  • Dioscorea quinquelobata Thunb.
  • Dioscorea quispicanchensis R.Knuth

R

  • Dioscorea racemosa (Klotzsch) Uline
  • Dioscorea regnellii Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea remota C.V.Morton
  • Dioscorea remotiflora Kunth
  • Dioscorea reticulata Gay
  • Dioscorea retusa Mast.
  • Dioscorea reversiflora Uline
  • Dioscorea ridleyi Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea riedelii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea rigida R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea rimbachii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea rockii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea rosei R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea rumicoides Griseb.
  • Dioscorea rupicola Kunth
  • Dioscorea rusbyi Uline

S

  • Dioscorea sabarensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea sagittata Poir.
  • Dioscorea sagittifolia Pax
  • Dioscorea sagittifolia var. lecardii (De Wild.) Nkounkou
  • Dioscorea salicifolia Blume
  • Dioscorea salvadorensis Standl.
  • Dioscorea sambiranensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea sanchez-colini Matuda
  • Dioscorea sandiensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea sandwithii B.G.Schub.
  • Dioscorea sanpaulensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax
  • Dioscorea santanderensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea santosensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea sarasinii Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea saxatilis Poepp.
  • Dioscorea scabra Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Dioscorea schimperiana Hochst. ex Kunth
  • Dioscorea schubertiae Ayala
  • Dioscorea schunkei Ayala & T.Clayton
  • Dioscorea schwackei Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea scortechinii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea secunda R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea sellowiana Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea semperflorens Uline
  • Dioscorea septemloba Thunb.
  • Dioscorea septemnervis Vell.
  • Dioscorea sericea R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea seriflora Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea serpenticola Hoque & P.K.Mukh.
  • Dioscorea sessiliflora McVaugh
  • Dioscorea sexrimata Burkill
  • Dioscorea simulans Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea sincorensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea sinoparviflora C.T.Ting, M.G.Gilbert & Turland
  • Dioscorea sinuata Vell.
  • Dioscorea sitamiana Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea skottsbergii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea smilacifolia De Wild. & T.Durand
  • Dioscorea sonlaensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea sororopana Steyerm.
  • Dioscorea soso Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea soso var. trichopoda (Jum. & H.Perrier) Burkill & H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea spectabilis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea spicata Roth
  • Dioscorea spiculiflora Hemsl.
  • Dioscorea spiculoides Matuda
  • Dioscorea spongiosa J.Q.Xi, M.Mizuno & W.L.Zhao
  • Dioscorea sprucei Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea standleyi C.V.Morton
  • Dioscorea stegelmanniana R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea stellaris R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea stemonoides Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea stenocolpus Phil.
  • Dioscorea stenomeriflora Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea stenopetala Hauman
  • Dioscorea stenophylla Uline
  • Dioscorea sterilis O.Weber & Wilkin
  • Dioscorea stipulosa Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea subcalva Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea subhastata Vell.
  • Dioscorea sublignosa R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea submigra R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea subtomentosa Miranda
  • Dioscorea sumatrana Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea sumiderensis B.G.Schub. & O.Téllez
  • Dioscorea suratensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea sylvatica Eckl.
  • Dioscorea synandra Uline
  • Dioscorea syringifolia (Kunth) Kunth & R.H.Schomb. ex R.Knuth

T

  • Dioscorea tabatae Hatus. ex Yamashita & M.N.Tamura
  • Dioscorea tacanensis Lundell
  • Dioscorea tamarisciflora Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea tamoidea Griseb.
  • Dioscorea tamshiyacuensis Ayala
  • Dioscorea tancitarensis Matuda
  • Dioscorea tarijensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea tarmensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea tauriglossum R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea tayacajensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea temascaltepecensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea tenebrosa C.V.Morton
  • Dioscorea tenella Phil.
  • Dioscorea tentaculigera Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea tenuipes Franch. & Sav.
  • Dioscorea tenuiphyllum R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea tenuis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea tequendamensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea ternata Griseb.
  • Dioscorea therezopolensis Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea togoensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea tokoro Makino ex Miyabe
  • Dioscorea toldosensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea tomentosa J.Koenig ex Spreng.
  • Dioscorea torticaulis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea trachyandra Griseb.
  • Dioscorea trachycarpa Kunth
  • Dioscorea traillii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea transversa R.Br.
  • Dioscorea triandria Sessé & Moc.
  • Dioscorea trichantha Baker
  • Dioscorea trichanthera Gleason
  • Dioscorea trifida L.f.
  • Dioscorea trifoliata Kunth
  • Dioscorea trifurcata Hauman
  • Dioscorea trilinguis Griseb.
  • Dioscorea trimenii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea trinervia Roxb. ex Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea trisecta Griseb.
  • Dioscorea trollii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea truncata Miq.
  • Dioscorea tsaratananensis H.Perrier
  • Dioscorea tubiperianthia Matuda
  • Dioscorea tubuliflora Uline ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea tubulosa Griseb.

U

  • Dioscorea uliginosa Phil.
  • Dioscorea ulinei Greenm. ex R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea undatiloba Baker
  • Dioscorea urceolata Uline
  • Dioscorea urophylla Hemsl.
  • Dioscorea uruapanensis Matuda

V

  • Dioscorea valdiviensis R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea vanvuurenii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea variifolia Bertero
  • Dioscorea velutipes Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea vexans Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea vilis Kunth
  • Dioscorea villosa L.
  • Dioscorea volckmannii Phil.

W

  • Dioscorea wallichii Hook.f.
  • Dioscorea warburgiana Uline ex Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea warmingii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea wattii Prain & Burkill
  • Dioscorea weberbaueri R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea widgrenii R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea wightii Hook.f.
  • Dioscorea wittiana R.Knuth
  • Dioscorea wrightii Uline ex R.Knuth

X

  • Dioscorea xizangensis C.T.Ting

Y

  • Dioscorea yunnanensis Prain & Burkill

Z

  • Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright

The closely related genus Tamus is included in Dioscorea by some sources,[22] but is maintained as distinct by others.[23] For Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin, see Tamus communis.

See also

  • Yams
  • Mexican barbasco trade

References

  1. Couto, Ricardo S; Martins, Aline C; Bolson, Mônica; Lopes, Rosana C; Smidt, Eric C; Braga, João Marcelo A (28 September 2018). "Time calibrated tree of Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae) indicates four origins of yams in the Neotropics since the Eocene". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 188 (2): 144–160. doi:10.1093/botlinnean/boy052.
  2. "Name - Dioscorea L. (Subgeneric subordinate taxa)". legacy.tropicos.org.
  3. "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  4. Govaerts, R., Wilkin, P. & Saunders, R.M.K. (2007). World Checklist of Dioscoreales. Yams and their allies: 1-65. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  5. Wilkin, P. & Thapyai, C. (2009). Flora of Thailand 10(1): 1-140. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  6. "Dioscorea communis [Tamaro]". luirig.altervista.org (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  7. "Vine", Wikipedia, 2022-02-10, retrieved 2022-05-31
  8. "This is my first test on FB". MISIN. Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  9. "Wild yam Information | Mount Sinai - New York". Mount Sinai Health System. Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  10. Kumar, Sanjeet; Das, Gitishree; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar (2017). "Dioscorea spp. (A Wild Edible Tuber): A Study on Its Ethnopharmacological Potential and Traditional Use by the Local People of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 8: 52. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00052. ISSN 1663-9812. PMC 5306286. PMID 28261094.
  11. "Dioscorea spp". www.fs.fed.us. Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  12. J. H. Maiden (1889). The useful native plants of Australia : Including Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney.
  13. circumnutation, retrieved 2022-05-31
  14. "Characteristics of Vines". Sciencing. Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  15. "Thigmotropism", Wikipedia, 2021-11-18, retrieved 2022-05-31
  16. Stolarz, Maria (May 2009). "Circumnutation as a visible plant action and reaction: physiological, cellular and molecular basis for circumnutations". Plant Signaling & Behavior. 4 (5): 380–387. doi:10.4161/psb.4.5.8293. ISSN 1559-2324. PMC 2676747. PMID 19816110.
  17. Isnard, S.; Silk, W. K. (2009-07-01). "Moving with climbing plants from Charles Darwin's time into the 21st century". American Journal of Botany. 96 (7): 1205–1221. doi:10.3732/ajb.0900045. ISSN 0002-9122. PMID 21628270.
  18. "Stipule", Wikipedia, 2022-03-06, retrieved 2022-05-31
  19. Isnard et al. 2009.
  20. iJuander et al. 2022.
  21. Wilkin, Paul; Annette Hladik; Odile Weber; Claude Marcel Hladik; Vololoniana Jeannoda (September 2009). "Dioscorea orangeana (Dioscoreaceae), a new and threatened species of edible yam from northern Madagascar" (PDF). Kew Bulletin. 64 (3): 461–468. doi:10.1007/s12225-009-9126-2. ISSN 1874-933X. S2CID 43183514.
  22. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2011-05-28, search for "Tamus"
  23. Stace, Clive (2010), New Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5, p. 854

Bibliography

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