Democrat Party (Thailand)

The Democrat Party (Thai: พรรคประชาธิปัตย์; RTGS: Phak Prachathipat) is a Thai political party. The oldest party in Thailand, it was founded as a royalist party, and now upholds a conservative[7][8][9] and pro-market position.[4][19]

Democrat Party
LeaderJurin Laksanawisit
Secretary-GeneralChalermchai Sri-on
Chief AdviserChuan Leekpai
Party DirectorSutham Rahong
FounderKhuang Aphaiwong
Founded6 April 1946 (1946-04-06)
Headquarters67 Setsiri 2 Rd. Phaya Thai, Phaya Thai, Bangkok
Youth wingYoung Democrat[1][2]
Membership (2021)94,492[3]
IdeologyClassical liberalism[4][5][6]
Liberal conservatism[7][8][9]
Political positionCentre[10][11][12] to
International affiliationLiberal International
Continental affiliationCouncil of Asian Liberals and Democrats
ColoursLight blue
Sloganสจฺจํเว อมตา วาจา
Truth is indeed the undying word — Proverb[18]
House of Representatives
52 / 500
Bangkok Metropolitan Council
9 / 50
PAO Chiefs
1 / 76

The Democrat Party made its best showings in parliament in 1948, 1976, and 1996. It has never won an outright parliamentary majority. The party's electoral support bases are southern Thailand and Bangkok, although election results in Bangkok have fluctuated widely. Since 2004, Democrat candidates won three elections for the governorship of Bangkok. From 2005 to 2019, the Democrat Party was led by Abhisit Vejjajiva, former prime minister.


The Thai name of the party, Prachathipat (ประชาธิปัตย์), is derived from the word prachathipatai (ประชาธิปไตย) which means 'democracy', 'democratic' or 'democrat'. The party said it wanted the term to mean the people in whom democracy is vested.[20]


Former logo of Democrat Party

Party founding

The Democrat Party was founded by Khuang Aphaiwong on 5 April 1946, but the party considers 6 April as the party's founding day, to coincide with Chakri Memorial Day, as a conservative and royalist party, following the January 1946 elections. Early members included royalists opposed to Pridi Phanomyong and former Seri Thai underground resistance members. The party competed against the parties affiliated with Pridi Phanomyong and the Progressive Party of brothers Seni and Kukrit Pramoj. In the January 1946 elections, the Pridi-led coalition had won a majority in parliament. However, Pridi declined the nomination as prime minister and the parliament appointed Khuang as premier. Khuang resigned in March 1946, after being defeated on a bill, and was replaced by Pridi. The smaller Progress Party later merged with the Democrat Party.

Accusation against Pridi Phanomyong

After the death of King Ananda Mahidol in 1946, the Democrat Party accused Pridi of having been the mastermind behind the king's death and spread this propaganda throughout the capital.[21] Seni Pramoj's wife told the US chargé d'affaires that Pridi had the king assassinated, and Democrat Party members spread the same rumor to the British Embassy.[22] A few days after the king's death, a Democrat MP yelled out, "Pridi killed the King!" in the middle of a crowded theater.[23]

November 1947 coup and the 1949 Constitution

Khuang Aphaiwong one of the founders of the Democrat Party

By the time of the elections of August 1946, the Democrat Party was backed by royalists like Prince Upalisarn Jubala, Srivisarn Vacha, Sridhamadibes, Borirak Vejjakarn, and Srisena Sombatsiri. Except for Prince Upalisarn Jubala, all of these figures would become Privy Councilors to King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Parties affiliated with Pridi continued to win a majority of seats in parliament. Pridi was appointed premier, but later conceded to Luang Thamrong Navasavat. A military coup led by Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram later overthrew the Thamrong government.

The palace persuaded Marshal Plaek to appoint Khuang Aphaiwong as figurehead civilian prime minister.[24] In subsequent elections on 29 January 1948, the Democrats won a majority for the first time, and reappointed Khuang as premier. Khuang packed his cabinet with palace allies, much to the consternation of the military. The military later, claiming that they were supporters of constitutional monarchy, demanded that Khuang resign. Marshal Plaek replaced Khuang as prime minister.

Although having no representatives in the cabinet, the Democrats had key representatives in the constitution drafting committee. Headed by Seni Pramoj and dominated by royalists under the direction of Prince Rangsit and Prince Dhani, the 1949 Constitution elevated the throne to its most powerful position since the 1932 overthrow of the absolute monarchy.[25] Among its features was a senate whose members were to be appointed directly by the king. The constitution triggered protests among much of the public. It was attacked as contrary to the purpose of the 1932 revolution. Critics were branded republicans and communists.[26]

Subsequent elections saw military-backed parties winning the majority in the House; however the Senate was still dominated by Democrats and other royalists. As Marshal Plaek was still premier, tensions between the military and the Democrat/palace-alliance steadily increased. On 29 November 1951, the military and the police seized power, just as King Bhumibol's ship was returning to Thai waters. Although the military's 1952 constitution, which was similar to the 1932 Constitution, called for elections, the Democrats had been practically barred from government for the following 23 years for their anti-military stance, denying them chances to serve the people.

Sarit Dhanarajata's government

Sarit Dhanarajata seized power from Marshal Plaek in 1957. Unlike Marshal Plaek, Sarit deified the throne, thus removing any advantage that the Democrats, who had previously been dominated by royalists, may have had. The junta did not immediately abrogate the 1952 constitution, but instead appointed Pote Sarasin as figurehead civilian premier. Elections were held on 15 December 1957, resulting in the Democrats losing to military-backed parties. Sarit's ally, General Thanom Kittikachorn, was appointed premier. Sarit later went to the US to seek treatment for liver cirrhosis. Eight months later, he recovered, returned and led another coup while dissolving parliament, abrogating the constitution, and ruling by revolutionary council. For the next nine years, there were no elections in Thailand, and the Democrat Party was dormant.

Thanom Kittikachorn's rule through military power

Thanom Kittikachorn, who had succeeded Sarit after his death, was pressured to promulgate a democratic constitution on 20 June 1968, and hold elections in February 1969. Parties affiliated with Thanom won the election, and the Democrats joined the opposition due to their anti-dictatorship stance. Thanom, his son Narong, and his brother-in-law Praphas Charusathien became known as the "three tyrants". They later executed a coup against their own government on 17 November 1971, abrogating the constitution and running the kingdom through a National Executive Council. Beginning in 1972, popular demands for democratic freedoms began to grow. In response to the demands, the National Executive Council drafted a new charter in December 1972, which established a wholly appointed 299-member National Legislative Assembly.

Shift to an unstable civilian government

Opposition to the three tyrants culminated on 14 October 1973, when 400,000 persons protested at the Democracy Monument. A violent crackdown and subsequent intervention by the king led to the appointment of Privy Councilor Sanya Dhammasakdi as premier. The three tyrants left the kingdom. Sanya established a constitution drafting committee, consisting of Kukrit Pramoj (who by this time had established and defected to the Social Action Party) and many academics. The new constitution was promulgated on 7 October 1974.

Legislative elections were held in January 1975, resulting in none of the 22 parties coming close to winning a majority. The Democrats, led by Seni Pramoj, formed a coalition government in February 1974. Seni was appointed premier, but the coalition was unstable, and was replaced in less than a month by a Social Action Party-led coalition which appointed Social Action Party leader Kukrit Pramoj as premier.

Seni Pramoj and the 6 October 1976 massacre

The kingdom descended into political chaos, with anti-leftist groups growing increasingly violent. In January 1976, the military pressured Kukrit to dissolve parliament. Elections were scheduled on 14 April. The months leading up to the election were particularly eventful: The head of the Socialist Party was assassinated, the Red Gaur attempted to bomb the headquarters of the New Force Party (a leftist party), and the Chart Thai Party was established with the slogan "Right Kills Left". Seni Pramoj's Democrats won the most seats in the election, and formed an unstable coalition government.

Seni's government came under great pressure. A bill to extend elections to local levels was passed by parliament 149-19, but the king refused to sign the bill or return it to parliament, effectively vetoing it.[27] As anti-leftist sentiments mounted, Praphas Charusathien returned shortly from exile and met the king. Students protesting Praphas' return were attacked by Red Gaur paramilitary units. On 19 September 1976, Thanom also returned from exile and was immediately ordained as a monk at Wat Bovornives. Massive protests erupted. The king and queen returned from a trip to the south and visited monk Thanom, leading Seni to resign from the premiership in protest. His resignation was refused by parliament, but initial attempts to reshuffle his cabinet were vetoed by the king.[28] The political tension finally culminated in the 6 October 1976 massacre, when Village Scouts and Red Gaur joined with some military and police to massacre at least 46 students protesting at Thammasat University.[29] That evening, the military seized power and installed hard-line royalist Tanin Kraivixien as premier.

The military coup to restore order was endorsed by the king, who declared it was "a manifestation of what the people clearly wanted."[30] The new constitution did not express any obligation for the government to have a cabinet or elections, and gave the premier near-absolute powers.

The Democrat Party in the 1990s

The Democrat Party, being led by Bhichai Rattakul, became an outspoken opponent of military rule in Thai politics during the 1990s. The Democrat Party was the key member of the "People Power" movement in 1992.

Chuan Leekpai

Election results in the south, 1975-2005
Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai hosts a dinner welcoming Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen

The party's voter base is traditionally concentrated in southern Thailand and in Bangkok, where the party relies on the support from the capital's aristocratic, meritocratic, and educated middle and upper classes. In the 1990s, under the leadership of Chuan Leekpai, a native of Trang Province, the Democrats quickly became the dominant party in southern Thailand. The influences of provincial politicians from the south into the party created considerable tension with the party's Bangkok establishment. Chuan's "Mr. Clean" image, however, made him personally popular with Democrat Party supporters throughout Thailand, and so the party managed to stay cohesive under his leadership. The first Chuan government (1992–1995) fell when members of the cabinet were implicated in profiting from the Sor Phor Kor 4-01 land project documents distributed in Phuket Province.[31] Chuan was again premier from 1997 to 2001, in the midst of the 1997 Asian financial crisis and its aftermath. The party lost a landslide election victory to Thaksin Shinawatra's populist Thai Rak Thai (TRT) party, winning 128 seats compared to the TRT's 248 in the 2001 general election.

After the election in 2001,Thaksin Shinawatra the leader of Thai Rak Thai Party, became prime minister. New Aspiration Party has joined the government. Shortly thereafter. The New Aspiration Party was merged with the Thai Rak Thai Party. Mostly to join Thai Rak Thai party (the governing party) with Gen. Chavalit Yongchaiyudh except Lieutenant Colonel Thita Rangsitpol Manitkul, WRTA Member of the Parliament and Deputy Secretary of the party. Offset to the Democrat Party (Thailand) (Opposition Party) remains the only MPs moving from the opposition party government. During her tenure as a member of the House of Representatives.[32]

Banyat Bantadtan

In 2003, Chuan retired from his position as party leader. Banyat Bantadtan, a southerner and a close aide to Chuan, succeeded him after a closely fought leadership contest with Abhisit Vejjajiva.

Democrat Party 2005 election poster highlighting the "201" campaign

Democrat Party's candidate Apirak Kosayothin won the 2004 Bangkok gubernatorial election; the TRT Party did not submit a candidate. The Democrat Party lost further ground to Thai Rak Thai in the 2005 general election. In the election campaign, the Democrats had a populist platform, promoting job creation, universal education and health care, and law and order against crime and corruption.[33] The party aimed to gain 201 seats, enough to launch a vote of a no confidence debate against the premier. They won 96 of 500 seats and 18.3 percent of the popular vote. The party's leader, Banyat Bantadtan, resigned after the election.

On 6 March 2005, Abhisit Vejjajiva was elected new party leader. Upon succeeding the party's leadership from Banyat, Abhisit noted, "It will take a long time to revive the party because we need to look four years ahead and consider how to stay in the hearts of the people."

Abhisit Vejjajiva and the Thai Rak Thai government

The popularity of the populist Thai Rak Thai Party in Thai politics from 2001 to 2006 presented new challenges to the Democrat Party. The TRT championed populist policies with its focus on providing affordable and quality health care for all citizens, village-managed microcredit development funds, the government-sponsored One Tambon One Product program, and others. The populist policies earned the TRT enormous support from rural constituencies, unprecedented in Thailand's history.

Opposition to the TRT government rose in Bangkok after Thaksin's family announced their tax-free sale of their 49.6 percent stake in Shin Corp to Temasek for almost 73.3 billion baht on 23 January 2006. The People's Alliance for Democracy began a series of anti-government protests. Several Democrat Party leaders also joined the PAD,[34] which accused Thaksin of disloyalty to the throne and asked King Bhumibol to appoint a replacement prime minister. Thaksin Shinawatra dissolved the House of Representatives on 24 February 2006 and called for an election. On 24 March 2006, Abhisit Vejjajiva publicly backed the People's Alliance for Democracy's call for a royally-appointed government. Bhumibol, in a speech on 26 April 2006, responded, "Asking for a royally-appointed prime minister is undemocratic. It is, pardon me, a mess. It is irrational".[35]

Abhisit and his opposition parties allies boycotted the April 2006 elections, claiming it "diverted public attention" from Thaksin's corruption charges and his sale of Shin Corp.[36] The boycott caused a constitutional crisis, prompting Thaksin to call another round of elections in October 2006, which the Democrats did not boycott. The army seized power on 19 September and cancelled the upcoming election.

2006 coup and military government

Abhisit voiced displeasure at the 2006 coup that overthrew Thaksin, but otherwise did not protest it or the military junta that ruled Thailand for over a year. A fact-finding panel at the attorney-general's office found that the Democrat Party bribed other parties to boycott the April 2006 parliamentary election, which forced a constitutional crisis, and voted to dissolve the party. It also found that Thaksin's Thai Rak Thai party bribed other parties to contest the election. A junta tribunal acquitted Abhisit and the Democrats of the vote fraud charges, but convicted and banned the Thai Rak Thai party and its entire executive team.

Abhisit supported the junta's 2007 Constitution, calling it an improvement on the 1997 Constitution.[37] The military junta organized general elections for 23 December 2007.

Despite being banned from politics for five years, Thaksin Shinawatra was popular in his former support bases in the central, north, and northeastern regions and attempted to maintain an active role in Thai politics by supporting the People's Power Party, which had become the successor party of the banned TRT. Abhisit promoted populist policies in his party's campaign as the Democrat Party's platform in the 2007 parliamentary election. He claimed that while his platform was categorically considered to be populist, it sought to curb inflation while maintaining fiscal soundness, to apply the village-based microcredit development funds used in the Thaksin-led government, but do it as part of promoting royalist sufficiency economy policies in rural areas, and to strengthen the country's long-term competitiveness through universal education through high school.

In the junta-administered 2007 parliamentary election, the People's Power Party won the largest share of the vote and formed a six-party coalition government. The Democrats' populist platform was poorly received in the central, north, and northeastern regions. The Democrat Party became the opposition party as it was the second-largest party in the House of Representatives.

People's Alliance for Democracy and the 2008 political crisis

The People's Alliance for Democracy resurfaced to destabilize the People's Power government, after having gone dormant following the 2006 coup. Several Democrat Party leaders allied themselves with PAD in the subsequent 2008–2010 Thai political crisis. PAD organized extended street protests and later led a months-long seizure of Government House, the seat of Thai government. In November 2008, PAD supporters seized and occupied Don Muang Airport and Suvarnabhumi Airport.

PAD declared that the only person they would accept as premier was Abhisit of the Democrat Party.[38] Abhisit disproved of the sieges, but did not stop his deputies from their PAD involvement.[39]

2008-2011 coalition government

Abhisit Vejjajiva and Suthep Thaugsuban in Party Executive Committee Meeting
Three leaders of the Democrat Party from 1991 to 2019 (From left to right: Banyat Bantadtan, Abhisit Vejjajiva and Chuan Leekpai)

The sieges ended when the constitutional court banned the People's Power Party and two of its coalition allies. During the critical period that followed the rulings, it is alleged that army commander and co-leader of the 2006 coup, General Anupong Paochinda, coerced former PPP MPs, mainly those of the Friends of Newin Group, to endorse a Democrat Party-led coalition, which secured enough parliamentary votes to allow Abhisit to be elected prime minister. These MPs, along with MPs of four other former PPP-coalition parties, crossed the aisle to endorse a Democrat-led coalition government. In a December 2008 parliamentary session, the Democrat-led coalition government was voted upon, with 235 to 198 votes in favor of Democrat Party leader and candidate for PM Abhisit Vejjajiva.[40][41]

During Songkran (Thai New Year), anti-government UDD protesters disrupted the Fourth East Asia Summit.[42] Violent protests then erupted in Bangkok, leading Abhisit to declare a state of emergency for three days, censoring the media, and using military force to end the protests.

Soon afterward, PAD leader Sondhi Limthongkul was the target of an unsuccessful assassination attempt. Both Sondhi's son and Thaksin claimed that factions within the Democrat government were behind the assassination. Abhisit's foreign minister counter-claimed that Thaksin was behind it.[43][44][45]

2011 general election

Abhisit dissolved parliament in early-2011 and scheduled general elections for 3 July 2011. Abhisit unveiled a slate of candidates highlighted by 30 celebrities and heirs of political families, including Chitpas Bhirombhakdi, heiress of the Singha Beer fortune and former staff member of Abhisit's secretariat office.[46] Abhisit promised to increase the minimum wage by 25 percent if the Democrat Party won the election.[47]

At the general election on 3 July 2011, the Democrats were only able to defend 159 seats in the House of Representatives, while rivaling Pheu Thai Party led by Yingluck Shinawatra won an outright majority. The next day, Abhisit stepped down as the party leader.[48] However, on 6 August, he was re-elected as the leader of the Democrat Party with the support of 96 percent of those eligible to vote at the party's assembly—some 330 people including local branch leaders and MPs.[49]

2019 general election

In 2018, the Democrats held a contest for party leader in preparation for the upcoming election. Abhisit was re-elected party leader, beating former PDRC leader, Warong Dechgitvigrom, by approximately 10,000 votes.[50]

Abhisit said that the Democrats would not form a government with Phalang Pracharat, the most prominent pro-junta party. Additionally, he said the Democrats would not support Prayut Chan-o-cha for Prime Minister.[51] These statements was met with skepticism from both the junta and the media.

In April, Prayut responded by saying that he expected the Democrats to change their stance and work with the junta after the election.[52] Additionally, many commentators predicted Democrats would form a government coalition with Phalang Pracharat.[53]

The 2019 election proved to be a major upset to the party, which came in fourth place and won no seats in its traditional stronghold of Bangkok, leading to Abhisit resigning as party leader, having stated previously that he would do so if the party won fewer than 100 seats.[54] Jurin Laksanawisit was elected to succeed him on 15 May.[55] The Democrats then formed a pact with the Bhumjaithai Party, intending to use their combined 103 MPs as leverage for negotiations with other parties.[56] At the first meeting of the new parliament, Democrat ex-prime minister Chuan was nominated speaker of the House of Representatives by PPRP deputy leader Nataphol Teepsuwan and was elected to that office. This move was seen by commentators as a signal that a deal had been reached and a coalition with the Phalang Pracharat party was imminent.[57] The coalition was finally made official on 4 June, one day before the National Assembly was scheduled to vote for the prime minister, following a vote by party MPs and executives.[58] Following this, Abhisit resigned as MP, stating that he could not break his previous stance on not supporting Phalang Pracharat.[59]

2022 sexual scandal

Prinn Panitchpakdi, deputy leader of the Democrat Party was accused of many sexual misconduct cases, including a rape.[60] Senior executives such as Kanok Wongtra-ngan and Mallika Boonmeetrakul Mahasuk left the party for a moral responsibility.[61]

Democrat Prime Ministers

Name Portrait Periods in Office Participated Election
Khuang Aphaiwong 1 August 1944 – 31 August 1945
31 January 1946 – 24 March 1946
10 November 1947 – 8 April 1948
1946; 1947-1948
Seni Pramoj 17 September 1945 – 31 January 1946
15 February 1975 – 13 March 1975
20 April 1976 – 6 October 1976
1975; 1976
Chuan Leekpai 20 September 1992 – 19 May 1995
9 November 1997 – 9 February 2001
1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2001
Abhisit Vejjajiva 17 December 2008 – 5 August 2011[upper-alpha 1] 2007, 2008, 2011, 2019

General election results

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
54 / 99
Khuang Aphaiwong[62]
1957 (Feb)
31 / 283
31 seats Khuang Aphaiwong
1957 (Dec)
39 / 160
9 seats Khuang Aphaiwong
57 / 219
18 seats Seni Pramoj
72 / 269
3,176,398 17.2% 15 seats; Senior partner in governing coalition Seni Pramoj
114 / 279
4,745,990 25.3% 43 seats; Senior partner in governing coalition Seni Pramoj
33 / 301
2,865,248 14.6% 81 seats; Opposition Thanat Khoman
56 / 324
4,144,414 15.6% 23 seats; Junior partner in governing coalition Bhichai Rattakul
100 / 347
8,477,701 22.5% 44 seats; Junior partner in governing coalition Bhichai Rattakul
48 / 357
4,456,077 19.3% 52 seats; Junior partner in governing coalition Bhichai Rattakul
1992 (Mar)
44 / 360
4,705,376 10.6% 4 seats; Opposition Chuan Leekpai
1992 (Sep)
79 / 360
9,703,672 21.0% 35 seats; Senior partner in governing coalition Chuan Leekpai
86 / 391
12,325,423 22.3% 7 seats; Opposition Chuan Leekpai
123 / 393
18,087,006 31.8% 37 seats; Opposition Chuan Leekpai
128 / 500
7,610,789 26.6% 5 seats; Opposition Chuan Leekpai
96 / 500
4,018,286 16.1% 32 seats; Opposition Banyat Bantadtan
0 / 500
0 0% Boycotted - nullified Abhisit Vejjajiva
165 / 480
14,084,265 39.63% 69 seats; Opposition Abhisit Vejjajiva
159 / 500
11,433,762 35.15% 14 seats; Opposition Abhisit Vejjajiva
0 / 500
Invalidated Invalidated Boycotted - nullified Abhisit Vejjajiva
53 / 500
3,947,726 11.11% 106 seats; Junior partner in governing coalition Abhisit Vejjajiva

See also


  1. Although the Democrats lost the election, Abhisit was selected as prime minister after the elected People's Power Party was banned by the Constitutional Court.


  2. "จับตา "ปชป."แยกตัวสถาปนาก๊กใหม่ ชิงความได้เปรียบทางการเมือง". 24 June 2019.
  4. Medeiros, Evan S. (2008), Pacific Currents: The Responses of U.S. Allies and Security Partners in East Asia to China's Rise, RAND, p. 130
  5. Connors, Michael K. (February 2008), "Article of Faith: The Failure of Royal Liberalism in Thailand" (PDF), Journal of Contemporary Asia, 38 (1): 157, doi:10.1080/00472330701652000, S2CID 144223931, archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2008
  6. Abbott, Jason P. (2003), Developmentalism and Dependency in Southeast Asia: The case of the automotive industry, RoutledgeCurzon, p. 112
  7. "Demise of the Democrat Party in Thailand".
  8. "Democrat Party (DP) / Phak Prachathipat". Retrieved 16 May 2020. Of the four ruling coalition parties in 1987, the Democrat Party was considered to be somewhat liberal, despite its beginning in 1946 as a conservative, monarchist party.
  9. "Thailand's main political parties". Al Jazeera. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2020. Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva's ruling Democrat Party was founded in 1946. It is conservative, pro-monarchy and establishment, backed by the military and most of the Bangkok-based elite.
  10. Hicken, Allen; Martinez Kuhonta, Erik, eds. (2015). Party System Institutionalization in Asia: Democracies, Autocracies, and the Shadows of the Past. Cambridge University Press. p. 287. ISBN 9781107041578. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  11. Draper, John (18 April 2014). "Reforming the Democrat Party". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  12. Sombatpoonsiri, Janjira (24 October 2019). "Postprotest Pathways in Thailand: Between the Street and the Ballots". Carnegie Europe. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  13. Leifer, Michael (13 May 2013). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia. ISBN 9781135129453.
  14. Phakdeewanich, Titipol (9 January 2018). "Can Thailand rely on the Democrat Party for democracy?". The Nation.
  15. Lohatepanont, Ken (17 November 2018). "What's next for the Democrat Party?". Bangkok Post.
  16. Grossman, Nicholas (2009). Chronicle of Thailand: Headline News Since 1946. ISBN 9789814217125.
  17. "Major players in Thailand's election".
  18. "A Study of the History and Cult of the Buddhist Earth Deity in Mainland Southeast Asia" (Dissertation). University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. 25 August 2010. p. 175. Samyutta Nikaya 452- 5.1.189.
  19. Bunbongkarn, Suchit (1999), "Thailand: Democracy Under Siege", Driven by Growth: Political Change in the Asia-Pacific Region, M.E. Sharpe, p. 173, ISBN 9780765633446
  20. ประวัติพรรค (in Thai). Democrat Party. n.d. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  21. Subhasvsti, "Noeng Sotwarot Subhasvasti", Bangkok: Family of M.C. Subhasvasti Wongsanit Svastivat, 1999, page 82
  22. Sulak Sivaraksa, "Powers That Be: Pridi Bhanomyong Through the Rise and Fall of Thai Democracy", Bangkok:Runkaew, 1999, page 18-19
  23. Rayne Kruger, The Devil's Discus, London: Cassell, 1964, page 103
  24. Frank C. Darling, "American Influence on the Evolution of Constitutional Government in Thailand" Thesis, American University, 1960, page 185
  25. Paul M. Handley, "The King Never Smiles" Yale University Press: 2006, ISBN 0-300-10682-3
  26. The Bangkok Post, 5 February 1949
  27. Such a refusal to either sign or reject legislation was very rare. Seni's government did not dare vote to reject his veto, and simply passed over the issue.
  28. David Morell and Chai-Anan Samudavanija, "Political Conflict in Thailand: Reform, Reaction, Revolution", page 273
  29. 46 was the official death count, see Bryce Beemer, "Forgetting and Remembering "Hok Tulaa", the October 6 Massacre" Archived 2006-09-02 at the Wayback Machine. Students were lynched and their bodies mutilated in front of cheering crowds.
  30. Andrew Turon, Jonathan Fast, and Malcolm Caldwell, eds. "Thailand: Roots of Conflict", Spokesman: 1978, page 91
  31. Media and democratic transitions in Southeast Asia Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine by Duncan McCargo
  33. Aurel Croissant and Daniel J. Pojar, Jr., Quo Vadis Thailand? Thai Politics after the 2005 Parliamentary Election Archived 19 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Strategic Insights, Volume IV, Issue 6 (June 2005)
  34. The Nation, Conflicts of interest abound in dubious Democrat-PAD roles Archived 29 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 29 October 2008
  35. "HM the King's 26 April speeches". The Nation. Archived from the original on 8 July 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
  36. Straits Times, In for 'roughest ride', 15 December 2008
  37. The Nation, Draft gets Democrats' vote Archived 2007-08-13 at the Wayback Machine, 9 July 2007
  38. Bloomberg, Oxford Graduate Abhisit Elected in Thai Power Shift, 19 December 2008
  39. The Economist, New face, old anger, 18 December 2008
  40. The Nation, “สนธิ” เปิดใจครั้งแรก เบื้องลึกปมลอบยิง โยงทหารฮั้วการเมืองเก่า Archived 1 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 1 May 2009
  41. The Telegraph, Thai army to 'help voters love' the government, 18 December 2008
  42. Korea Times Class War in Thailand Archived 20 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 17 April 2009
  43. The Nation, Sondhi's son alleges "Gestapo" behind his father's assassination attempt Archived 2009-04-22 at the Wayback Machine
  44. Spiegle, 'I'm Like a Rat', 20 April 2009
  45. Taiwan News, Thai diplomat accuses ousted leader in shootings, 22 April 2009
  46. The Nation, Democrat to unveil 30 celebrities as electoral candidates Archived 2011-08-06 at the Wayback Machine, 11 May 2011
  47. SMH, 'Cloned' sister of former leader polls strongly in Thailand, 14 June 2011
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  50. "Abhisit Wins Democrat Party Leadership". Khaosod English. 10 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
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