Creole peoples

Creole peoples are ethnic groups formed during the European colonial era, from the mass displacement of peoples[lower-alpha 1] brought into sustained contact with others from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds, who converged onto a colonial territory to which they had not previously belonged.[2][3]

Creole in a Red Turban (c. 1840), Jacques Amans

Often involuntarily uprooted from their original home, the settlers were obliged to develop and creatively merge the desirable elements from their diverse backgrounds, to produce new varieties of social, linguistic and cultural norms that superseded the prior forms.[2][3][4] This process, known as creolization,[5][6] is characterized by rapid social flux regularized into Creole ethnogenesis.

Creole peoples vary widely in ethnic background and mixture and many have since developed distinct ethnic identities. The development of creole languages is sometimes mistakenly attributed to the emergence of Creole ethnic identities; however, the two developments occur independently.

Etymology and overview

The English word creole[lower-alpha 2] derives from the French créole, which in turn came from Portuguese crioulo, a diminutive of cria, meaning a person raised in one's house. Cria derives from criar, meaning "to raise or bring up", itself derived from the Latin creare, meaning "to make, bring forth, produce, beget";[7] — itself the source of the English word "create". The word Creole has several cognates in other languages, such as créole, creolo, criol, criollo, crioulo, kreol, kreyol, krio, kriol, kriolu, and kriyoyo.

In Louisiana, the term Creole has been used since 1792 to represent descendants of African or mixed heritage parents as well as children of French and Spanish descent with no racial mixing.[8][9][10] Its use to describe languages started from 1879, while as an adjective, from 1748.[7] In some Spanish-speaking countries, the word Criollo is used today to describe something local or very typical of a particular Latin American country.[11]

In the Caribbean, the term broadly refers to all the people, whatever their class or ancestry — African, East Asian, European, Indian — who are part of the culture of the Caribbean.[12] In Trinidad, the term Creole is used to designate all Trinidadians except those of Asian origin. In French Guiana the term refers to anyone, regardless of skin colour, who has adopted a European way of life, and in neighbouring Suriname, the term refers only to the descendants of enslaved Africans.[3][12]

Trilingual signs on Cafe Kreol in Cape Verde.

In Africa, the term Creole refers to any ethnic group formed during the European colonial era, with some mix of African and non-African racial or cultural heritage.[13] Creole communities are found on most African islands and along the continent's coastal regions where indigenous Africans first interacted with Europeans. As a result of these contacts, five major Creole types emerged: Portuguese, African American, Dutch, French and British.[13]

The Crioulos of African or mixed Portuguese and African descent eventually gave rise to several ethnic groups in Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé e Príncipe, Angola and Mozambique.[14] The French-speaking Mauritian and Seychellois Creoles are both either African or ethnically mixed and Christianized. On Réunion, the term Creole applies to all people born on the island,[15] while in South Africa, the blending of East African and Southeast Asian slaves with Dutch settlers, later produced a creolized population.[16] The Fernandino Creole peoples of Equatorial Guinea are a mix of Afro-Cubans with Emancipados and English-speaking Liberated Africans,[17] while the Americo-Liberians and Sierra Leone Creoles resulted from the intermingling of African Recaptives with Afro-Caribbeans and African Americans.[18][19]

Perhaps due to the range of divergent descriptions and lack of a coherent definition, Norwegian anthropologist T. H. Eriksen concludes:

“A Creole society, in my understanding, is based wholly or partly on the mass displacement of people who were, often involuntarily, uprooted from their original home, shedding the main features of their social and political organisations on the way, brought into sustained contact with people from other linguistic and cultural areas and obliged to develop, in creative and improvisational ways, new social and cultural forms in the new land, drawing simultaneously on traditions from their respective places of origin and on impulses resulting from the encounter.”[3]

Thomas Hylland Eriksen, Creolisation as a Recipe for Conviviality (2020)

The following ethnic groups have been historically characterized as "Creole" peoples:

United States


Alaskan Creole has its own unique and local definition with similar terminology implying people of mixed Alaska Native and Russian ancestry, sometimes colloquially spelled "Kriol" in English (from Russian креол). The intermingling of promyshlenniki men with Aleut and Alutiiq women in the late 18th century gave rise to a people who assumed a prominent position in the economy of Russian America and the North Pacific Rim.[20][21][22][23]

Chesapeake Colonies

Atlantic Creole is a term coined by historian Ira Berlin to describe a group of people from Angola and Central Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries with cultural or ethnic ties to Africa, Europe, and sometimes the Caribbean. Some of these people arrived in the Chesapeake Colonies as the Charter Generation of slaves during the European colonization of the Americas before 1660. Some had lived and worked in Europe or the Caribbean before coming (or being transported) to North America. [24] Examples of such men included John Punch and Emanuel Driggus (his surname was likely derived from Rodrigues). Also, during the early settlement of the colonies, children born of immigrants in the colonies were often referred to as "Creole". This is found more often in the Chesapeake Colonies.[25]


"A Creole Night at the French Opera House". New Orleans, LA. Harper's Weekly, 1866

In the United States, the words "Louisiana Creole" refers to people of any race or mixture thereof who are descended from colonial French La Louisiane and colonial Spanish Louisiana (New Spain) settlers before the Louisiana region became part of the United States in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase. Both the word and the ethnic group derive from a similar usage, beginning in the Caribbean in the 16th century, which distinguished people born in the French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies from the various new arrivals born in their respective, non-Caribbean homelands. Some writers from other parts of the country have mistakenly assumed the term to refer only to people of mixed racial descent, but this is not the traditional Louisiana usage.[26][27][28][29]

Creole woman with African servant in New Orleans

In Louisiana, the term "Creole" was first used to describe people born in Louisiana, who used the term to distinguish themselves from newly arrived immigrants. It was not a racial or ethnic identifier; it was simply synonymous with "born in the New World," meant to separate native-born people of any ethnic background—white, African, or any mixture thereof—from European immigrants and slaves imported from Africa. Later, the term was racialized after newly arrived Anglo-Americans began to associate créolité, or the quality of being Creole, with racially mixed ancestry. This caused many white Creoles to eventually abandon the label out of fear that the term would lead mainstream Americans to believe them to be of racially mixed descent (and thus endanger their livelihoods or social standing). Later writers occasionally make distinctions among French Creoles (of European ancestry), Creoles of Color (of mixed ethnic ancestry), and occasionally, African Creoles (of primarily African descendant); these categories, however, are later inventions, and most primary documents from the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries make use of the word "Creole" without any additional qualifier. Creoles of Spanish and German descent also exist, and Spanish Creoles survive today as Isleños and Malagueños, both found in southern Louisiana. However, all racial categories of Creoles - from Caucasian, mixed racial, African, to Native American - tended to think and refer to themselves solely as Creole, a commonality in many other Francophone and Iberoamerican cultures, who tend to lack strict racial separations common in United States History and other countries with large populations from Northern Europe's various cultures. This racial neutrality persists to the modern day, as many Creoles do not use race as a factor for being a part of the ethno-culture.[26][27][28]

Contemporary usage has again broadened the meaning of Louisiana Creoles to describe a broad cultural group of people of all races who share a colonial Louisianian background. Louisianians who identify themselves as "Creole" are most commonly from historically Francophone and Hispanic communities. Some of their ancestors came to Louisiana directly from France, Spain, or Germany, while others came via the French and Spanish colonies in the Caribbean and Canada. Many Louisiana Creole families arrived in Louisiana from Saint-Domingue as refugees from the Haitian Revolution, along with other immigrants from Caribbean colonial centers like Santo Domingo and Havana. The children of slaves brought primarily from Western Africa were also considered Creoles, as were children born of unions between Native Americans and non-Natives. Creole culture in Louisiana thus consists of a unique blend of European, Native American, and African cultures.

Louisianians descended from the French Acadians of Canada are also Creoles in a strict sense, and there are many historical examples of people of full European ancestry and with Acadian surnames, such as the influential Alexandre and Alfred Mouton,[30] being explicitly described as "Creoles."[31] Today, however, the descendants of the Acadians are more commonly referred to as, and identify as, 'Cajuns'—a derivation of the word Acadian, indicating French Canadian settlers as ancestors. The distinction between "Cajuns" and "Creoles" is stronger today than it was in the past because American racial ideologies have strongly influenced the meaning of the word "Creole" to the extent that there is no longer unanimous agreement among Louisianians on the word's precise definition. Today, many assume that any francophone person of European descent is Cajun and any francophone of African descent is Creole—a false assumption that would not have been recognized in the nineteenth century. Some assert that "Creole" refers to aristocratic urbanites whereas "Cajuns" are agrarian members of the francophone working class, but this is another relatively recent distinction. Creoles may be of any race and live in any area, rural or urban. The Creole culture of Southwest Louisiana is thus more similar to the culture dominant in Acadiana than it is to the Creole culture of New Orleans. Though the land areas overlap around New Orleans and down river, Cajun/Creole culture and language extend westward all along the southern coast of Louisiana, concentrating in areas southwest of New Orleans around Lafayette, and as far as Crowley, Abbeville, and into the rice belt of Louisiana nearer Lake Charles and the Texas border.

Free woman of color with her quadroon daughter; late 18th century collage painting, New Orleans

Louisiana Creoles historically spoke a variety of languages; today, the most prominent include Louisiana French and Louisiana Creole. (There is a distinction between "Creole" people and the "creole" language. Not all Creoles speak creole—many speak French, Spanish, or English as primary languages.) Spoken creole is dying with continued 'Americanization' in the area. Most remaining Creole lexemes have drifted into popular culture. Traditional creole is spoken among those families determined to keep the language alive or in regions below New Orleans around St. James and St. John Parishes where German immigrants originally settled (also known as 'the German Coast', or La Côte des Allemands) and cultivated the land, keeping the ill-equipped French Colonists from starvation during the Colonial Period and adopting commonly spoken French and creole (arriving with the exiles) as a language of trade. Creoles are largely Roman Catholic and influenced by traditional French and Spanish culture left from the first Colonial Period, officially beginning in 1722 with the arrival of the Ursuline Nuns, who were preceded by another order, the sisters of the Sacred Heart, with whom they lived until their first convent could be built with monies from the French Crown. (Both orders still educate girls in 2010). The "fiery Latin temperament" described by early scholars on New Orleans culture made sweeping generalizations to accommodate Creoles of Spanish heritage as well as the original French. The mixed-race Creoles, descendants of mixing of European colonists, slaves, and Native Americans or sometimes Gens de Couleur (free men and women of colour), first appeared during the colonial periods with the arrival of slave populations. Most Creoles, regardless of race, generally consider themselves to share a collective culture. Non-Louisianans often fail to appreciate this and assume that all Creoles are of mixed race, which is historically inaccurate.

Louisiane Creoles were also referred to as criollos, a word from the Spanish language meaning "created" and used in the post-French governance period to distinguish the two groups of New Orleans area and down river Creoles. Both mixed race and European Creole groups share many traditions and language, but their socio-economic roots differed in the original period of Louisiana history. Actually, the French word Créole is derived from the Portuguese word Crioulo, which described people born in the Americas as opposed to Spain.

The term is often used to mean simply "pertaining to the New Orleans area," but this, too, is not historically accurate. People all across the Louisiana territory, including the pays des Illinois, identified as Creoles, as evidenced by the continued existence of the term Créole in the critically endangered Missouri French.


The Mississippi Gulf Coast region has a significant population of Creoles—especially in Pass Christian, Gulfport, Biloxi, Pascagoula, surrounding areas and also areas around the Mississippi River where Mississippi borders with Louisiana. Here, Creole is used to describe descendants of French or Spanish colonists with a mixed racial heritage—French or Spanish mixed with African American or Native American.[32] The area was first settled by French colonists. In 1720, the capital of French Louisiana was Biloxi, MS.[33] A community known as Creoletown is located in Pascagoula, MS – with its history on record.[34] Many in this location are Catholic and have also used Creole/French and English languages.


Texas Gulf Coast may have a population of Creole in Southeast Texas areas such as (Houston, Beaumont, Port Arthur, and Orange).[35]


Southern Africa

Unlike the Americas, the term coloured is preferred in Southern Africa to refer to mixed people of African and European descent. The colonisation of the Cape Colony by the Dutch East India Company led to the importation of Indonesian, East African and Southeast Asian slaves, who intermingled with Dutch settlers and the indigenous population leading to the development of a creolized population in the early 1700s. Additionally, Portuguese traders mixed with African communities, in what is now present day Mozambique and Zimbabwe, to create the Prazeros and Luso-Africans, who were loyal to the Portuguese crown and served to advance its interests in southeastern Africa. A legacy of this era are the numerous Portuguese words that have entered Shona, Tsonga and Makonde. Today, mixed race communities exist across the region, notably so in South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe. In colonial era Zambia, the term Eurafrican was often used though it has largely fallen out of use in the modern era and is no longer recognized at the national level.[36] Today, South African Coloureds and Cape Malay form the majority of the population in the Western Cape and a plurality in the Northern Cape.

In addition to Coloured people, the term mestico is used in Angola and Mozambique to refer to mixed race people, who enjoyed a certain privilege during the Portuguese era.

West Africa

Portrait of a Creole family in Sierra Leone, early 1900s.

In Sierra Leone, the mingling of newly freed Africans and mixed heritage Nova Scotians and Jamaican Maroons from the Western hemisphere and Liberated Africans - such as the Akan, Igbo people, and Yoruba people - over several generations in the late 18th and early 19th centuries led to the eventual creation of the aristocratic ethnic group now known as the Creoles. Thoroughly westernized in their manners and bourgeois in their methods, the Creoles established a comfortable dominance in the country through a combination of British colonial favouritism and political and economic activity. Their influence in the modern republic remains considerable, and their language Krio - an English-based creole language - is the lingua franca and de facto national language spoken throughout the country.

The extension of these Sierra Leoneans' business and religious activities to neighbouring Nigeria in the late 19th and early 20th centuries - where many of them had ancestral ties - subsequently caused the creation of an offshoot in that country, the Saros. Now often considered to be part of the wider Yoruba ethnicity, the Saros have been prominent in politics, the law, religion, the arts, and journalism.

Portuguese Africa

Atlantic Creole is a term coined by historian Ira Berlin to describe a group of people from Angola and Central Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries with cultural or ethnic ties to Africa, Europe, and sometimes the Caribbean. They often had Portuguese names and were sometimes mixed race. Their knowledge of different cultures made them skilled traders and negotiators, but some were enslaved and arrived in the Chesapeake Colonies as the Charter Generation of slaves during the Transatlantic Slave Trade before 1660. [24]

The Crioulos of mixed Portuguese and African descent eventually gave rise to several major ethnic groups in Africa, especially in Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé e Príncipe, Equatorial Guinea (especially Annobón Province), Ziguinchor (Casamance), Angola, Mozambique. Only a few of these groups have retained the name crioulo or variations of it:

the dominant ethnic group, called Kriolus or Kriols in the local language; the language itself is also called "Creole";

Indian Ocean

Women at the Seychelles Creole Festival in Victoria celebrate their heritage.

The usage of creole in the islands of the southwest of the Indian Ocean varies according to the island. In Mauritius, Mauritian Creoles will be identified based on both ethnicity and religion. Mauritian Creoles being either people who are of Mauritian ancestry or those who are both racially mixed and Christian. The Mauritian Constitution identifies four communities namely, Hindu, Muslim, Chinese and the General Population. Creoles are included in the General Population category along with white christians.

The term also indicates the same to the people of Seychelles. On Réunion the term creole applies to all people born on the island.[37]

In all three societies, creole also refers to the new languages derived from French and incorporating other languages.

Former Spanish colonies

In regions that were formerly colonies of Spain, the Spanish word criollo (implying "native born") historically denoted a class in the colonial caste system comprising people born in the colonies with total or mostly Spanish descent, depending on passing features of the individual. for example, many castizos could've gotten away with passing as criollo because their features would be strikingly European and so many of them would assume such identity in passing, mainly for economic reasons. "Criollo" came to refer to things distinctive of the region, as it is used today, in expressions such as "comida criolla" ("country" food from the area).

Criollos in Guatemala celebrating independence from Spain, 1821.

In the latter period of settlement of Latin America called La Colonia, the Bourbon Spanish Crown preferred Spanish-born Peninsulares (literally "born in the Iberian Peninsula") over Criollos for the top military, administrative, and religious offices due to the former mismanagement of the colonies on a previous Habsburg era.[38]

In Argentina, in an ambiguous ethnoracial way, criollo currently is used for people whose ancestors were already present in the territory in the colonial period, regardless their ethnicity. The exception are dark-skinned African people and current indigenous groups.

The word criollo is the origin and cognate of the French word creole.

Spanish America

The racially-based caste system was in force throughout the Spanish viceroyalties in the Americas, since the 16th century. During the early Spanish colonial period the Spaniards had a policy selecting promising assimilationist Indigenous to educate and indoctrinate. They were accepted into the colonial leadership but sometimes remained in Spain. Among the descendants of these assimilated sons of chiefs are the Aztec descended Moctezuma de Tultengo. By the 19th century, this discrimination and the example of the American Revolution and the ideals of the Enlightenment eventually led the Spanish American Criollo elite to rebel against the Spanish rule. With the support of the lower classes, they engaged Spain in the Spanish American wars of independence (1810–1826), which ended with the break-up of the former Spanish Empire in the Americas into a number of independent republics.

Spanish Philippines

Racial mixture in the Spanish Philippines occurred mostly during the Spanish colonial period from the 16th to 19th century. The same Spanish racial caste system imposed in Latin America extended also to the Philippines, with a few major differences.

Persons of pure Spanish descent born in the Spanish Philippines were those to whom the term Filipinos originally applied, though they were also called Insulares ("islanders", i.e. Spaniard born in the Philippine islands) or Criollos ("Creoles", i.e. [Philippine-born Spaniard] "Locals"). Persons of pure Spanish descent, along with many mestizos and castizos, living in the Philippines but born in Spanish America were classified as "Americanos". The Philippine-born children of "Americanos" were classified as "Filipinos". During this era, the term "Filipinos" had not yet extended to include the majority indigenous Austronesian population of the Philippines to whom Filipinos has now shifted to imply.

The social stratification based on class that continues to this day in the Philippines has its beginnings in the Spanish colonial era with this caste system. Officially, however, the Spanish colonial caste system based on race was abolished after the Philippines' independence from Spain in 1898, and the word 'Filipino' expanded to include the entire population of the Philippines regardless of racial ancestry.


In many parts of the Southern Caribbean, the term Creole people is used to refer to the mixed-race descendants of Europeans and Africans born in the islands. Over time, there was intermarriage with residents from Asia as well. They eventually formed a common culture based on their experience of living together in countries colonized by the French, Spanish, Dutch, and British.

A typical creole person from the Caribbean has French, Spanish, Portuguese, British, or Dutch ancestry, mixed with sub-Saharan African, and sometimes mixed with Native Indigenous people of the Americas. As workers from Asia entered the Caribbean, Creole people of color intermarried with Arabs, Indians, Chinese, Javanese, Filipinos, Koreans, and Hmongs. The latter combinations were especially common in Guadeloupe. The foods and cultures are the result of creolization of these influences.[2]

Caribbean Languages

"Kreyòl" or "Kweyol" or "Patois" also refers to the creole languages in the Caribbean, including Antillean French Creole, Bajan Creole, Bahamian Creole, Belizean Creole, Guyanese Creole, Haitian Creole, Jamaican Patois, Trinidadian Creole, Tobagonian Creole, and Sranan Tongo, among others.

People speak Antillean Creole on the following islands:[39][40][41][42]

See also


  1. The word "peoples" is specifically used as the plural of "people" in the sense as a collective singular noun that refers to a nation, tribe, or other community, as in "Indigenous Peoples" or "the many peoples of the world." This usage emphasizes that several different specific groups are talked about and that they share a commonality. That can be important for clarity since "the many people of the world" means something different from "the many peoples of the world." In practical terms, using "peoples" in this way can help to prevent erasure and homogenization of groups that are often lumped together in ways that obscure their specific, complex identities. In this way, the term "Indigenous Peoples" emphasizes the vast diversity among the world’s Indigenous groups and also implying that there are, in fact, separate and distinct groups.[1]
  2. Webster's online etymological dictionary states the meaning of creole as a "person born in a country but of a people not indigenous to it," but also notes that the meaning varies according to local use.


  1. ""Persons" vs. "People" vs. "Peoples": Which Word Is The Right Choice?". 11 October 2021.
  2. Cohen, Robin (2007). "Creolization and Cultural Globalization: The Soft Sounds of Fugitive Power". Globalizations. 4 (3): 369–384. doi:10.1080/14747730701532492. S2CID 54814946.
  3. Eriksen, T.H. (2020). Creolisation as a Recipe for Conviviality. In: Hemer, O., Povrzanović Frykman, M., Ristilammi, PM. (eds) Conviviality at the Crossroads. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
  4. Baron, Robert A., and Cara, Ana C. (2011). Creolization as Cultural Creativity. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. pp. 12–23. ISBN 9786613245700.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. "Creolization".
  6. Stewart, Charles (2016). Creolization history, ethnography, theory. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. pp. 1–25. ISBN 9781598742787.
  7. "creole | Origin and meaning of creole by Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 2019-04-29.
  8. Dominguez, Virginia R. White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1986.
  9. Dormon, James H. Louisiana's 'Creoles of Color': Ethnicity, Marginality, and Identity, Social Science Quarterly 73, No. 3, 1992: 615-623.
  10. Eaton, Clement. A History of the Old South: The Emergence of a Reluctant Nation, third edition. New York: Macmillan, 1975.
  11. "Criollo, criolla | Diccionario de la lengua española".
  12. "Creole".
  13. "Creoles of Africa".
  14. Berlin, Ira (April 1, 1996). "From Creole to African". William and Mary Quarterly. 53 (2): 266. doi:10.2307/2947401. JSTOR 2947401. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  15. Robert Chaudenson (2001). Creolization of Language and Culture. CRC press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-203-44029-2.
  16. Markey, Thomas L. (1982). "Afrikaans: Creole or Non-Creole?". Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik. 49 (2): 169–207. ISSN 0044-1449. JSTOR 40501733.
  17. Glimpses of Africa, West and Southwest coast. By Charles Spencer Smith; A.M.E. Sunday School Union, 1895; p. 164
  18. Murray, Robert P., Whiteness in Africa: Americo-Liberians and the Transformative Geographies of Race (2013). Theses and Dissertations--History. 23.
  19. Walker, James W (1992). "Chapter Five: Foundation of Sierra Leone". The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, 1783–1870. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 94–114. ISBN 978-0-8020-7402-7., originally published by Longman & Dalhousie University Press (1976).
  20. "Creoles in Alaska". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  21. "Creoles of Alaska – Kreol explores their fascinating history | International Magazine Kreol".
  22. "Alutiiq Word of the Week Archive - People - Creole".
  23. "Featured Article: Creole Policy and Practice in Russian America – Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest".
  24. Berlin, Ira (April 1, 1996). "From Creole to African". William and Mary Quarterly. 53 (2): 266. doi:10.2307/2947401. JSTOR 2947401. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  25. Carol Berkin (July 1997). First Generations: Women in Colonial America. p. 9. ISBN 9780809016068. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
  26. Dominguez, Virginia R. White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1986.
  27. Dormon, James H. Louisiana's 'Creoles of Color': Ethnicity, Marginality, and Identity, Social Science Quarterly 73, No. 3, 1992: 615-623.
  28. Eaton, Clement. A History of the Old South: The Emergence of a Reluctant Nation, third edition. New York: Macmillan, 1975.
  29. Fowler, H.W. (1926) A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Oxford University Press
  30. Buman, Nathan. "Two histories, one future: Louisiana sugar planters, their slaves, and the Anglo-Creole schism, 1815-1865".
  31. Landry, Christophe. "Attakapas Post Spanish Militia Rolls, 1792" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09.
  32. "Creoletown: Name, racial identity of community lost in Pascagoula's past". 9 April 2012.
  33. "History".
  34. "Creoletown: Name, racial identity of community lost in Pascagoula's past". 9 April 2012.
  35. "French Creole Heritage". Archived from the original on August 30, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  36. Markey, Thomas L. (1982). "Afrikaans: Creole or Non-Creole?". Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik. 49 (2): 169–207. ISSN 0044-1449. JSTOR 40501733.
  37. Robert Chaudenson (2001). Creolization of Language and Culture. CRC press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-203-44029-2.
  38. Sudo, Takako (April 1979). "Vista de Sobre Mark A. Burkholder y D. S. Chandler, from impotence to authority. The Spanish crown and the American audiencias, 1687-1808". Historia Mexicana: 618–620.
  39. Ethnologue codes Guadeloupean Creole French (spoken in Guadeloupe and Martinique) and Saint Lucian Creole French (spoken in Dominica and Saint Lucia) distinctly, with the respective ISO 639-3 codes: gcf and acf. However, it notes that their rate of comprehension is 90%, which would qualify them as dialects of a single language.
  40. "The Creole Language of Dominica". Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  41. Mitchell, Edward S. (2010). St. Lucian Kwéyòl on Saint Croix: A Study of Language Choice and Attitudes. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4438-2147-6.
  42. Ethnologue report for language code:acf
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