Country code top-level domain

A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs.

In 2018, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591, corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes. While gTLDs have to obey international regulations, ccTLDs are subjected to requirements that are determined by each country’s domain name regulation corporation. With over 150 million domain name registrations today or as of 2022, ccTLDs make up about 40% of the total domain name industry.[1]

Country code extension applications began in 1985. The registered country code extensions in that year included .us (United States), .uk (United Kingdom) and .il (Israel). The registered country code extensions in 1986 included .au (Australia), .de (Germany), .fi (Finland), .fr (France), .is (Iceland), .jp (Japan), .kr (South Korea), .nl (Netherlands) and .se (Sweden). The registered country code extensions in 1987 included .nz (New Zealand), .ch (Switzerland) and .ca (Canada).[2] The registered country code extensions in 1988 included .ie (Ireland) .it (Italy), .es (Spain) and .pt (Portugal). The registered country code extensions in 1989 included .in (India). In the 1990s, .cn (People’s Republic of China) and .ru (Russian Federation) were first registered.

There are 308 delegated ccTLDs. The .cn, .tk, .de, .uk, .nl and .ru ccTLDs contain the highest number of domains. The .jp, .kr, .ca, .pl, .gr, .cz, .hu, .au, .fr, .it, .es and .us ccTLDs do not contain as many domains as other ccTLDs. The top ten ccTLDs account for more than five-eighths of registered ccTLD domains. There were about 153 million ccTLD domains registered at the end of March 2022.[3]

Delegation and management

IANA is responsible for determining an appropriate trustee for each ccTLD. Administration and control are then delegated to that trustee, which is responsible for the policies and operation of the domain. The current delegation can be determined from IANA's list of ccTLDs.[4] Individual ccTLDs may have varying requirements and fees for registering subdomains. There may be a local-presence requirement (for instance, citizenship or other connection to the ccTLD), as, for example, the American (us), Japanese (jp), Canadian (ca), French (fr) and German (de) domains, or registration may be open.

History

The first registered ccTLD was .us, which was registered in 1985. Later ccTLDs registered in that year included .uk and .il. Then, .au, .de, .fi, .fr, .is, .jp, .kr, .nl and .se were also registered in 1986.[5] In 1987, .nz, .ch and .ca were registered. Later on, in 1988, .ie, .it, .es and .pt were also registered.

Lists

As of 20 May 2017, there were 255 country-code top-level domains, purely in the Latin alphabet, using two-character codes. The number was 316 as of June 2020, with the addition of internationalized domains.[6] The number is 308 as of June 2022.

Latin Character ccTLDs

Table columns – legend
Name  DNS name of the two-letter country-code top-level domain. They follow ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, with some exceptions such as ".ac" for Ascension Island, ".eu" for the European Union, or ".uk" for United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland instead of ".gb". ISO codes bv, bl, mf, sj, gb, and um are not used for country code top-level domains.
Entity  Country, dependency, or region
Explanation  Explanation of the code when it is not self-evident from the English name of the country. These are usually domains that arise from native name of the country (e.g. .de for Deutschland, German language name for Germany).
Notes  General remarks
Registry  Domain name registry operator, sometimes called a network information center (NIC)
IDN  Support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
DNSSEC  Presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions
SLD  Second level domain
IPv6  Registry fully supports IPv6 access
Overview of Latin-character country-code TLDs
Name[7] Entity Explanation Notes Registry[7] IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ac Ascension Island (United Kingdom)Ascension Island Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official academic domains used by several countries such as the United Kingdom (.ac.uk), India (.ac.in) or Indonesia (.ac.id). Also used in the accounting, consulting, and air-conditioning industries. Ascension Island Network Information Centre (run by Internet Computer Bureau) YesYesYesYes
.ad AndorraAndorra Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required[8][9] Nic.ad NoYesYes
.ae United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates .aeDA NoNoYes
.af AfghanistanAfghanistan NoYesYes
.ag Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft). NoYesYes
.ai Anguilla (United Kingdom)AnguillaAlso unofficially used by tech companies specializing in AI (Artificial Intelligence). NoNoYes
.al AlbaniaAlbania Citizenship no longer required. NoNoYes
.am ArmeniaArmeniaAlso unofficially used by AM radio stations, podcasts or related business. NoYesYesYes
.ao AngolaAngola NoNoUn­known
.aq AntarcticaAntarctiqueDefined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica. ?NoYes?
.ar ArgentinaArgentina nic.arSpanish[upper-alpha 1]YesYesYes
.as American Samoa (United States)American Samoa In some countries, like Norway and Denmark, "AS" or "A/S" is used as an abbreviation for stock-based or limited companies. Such companies will often make use of the domain. Also unofficially used by the Principality of Asturias, Spain. YesNoYes
.at AustriaAustria Nic.atYes[upper-alpha 2]YesYesYes
.au AustraliaAustralia Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must have an "Australian presence", and can be registered anywhere between 1 and 5 years.[12] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands. Direct second-level domain registration (marketed as ".au Direct") has been made available commencing 24 March 2022.[13] auDANoYesYes (*From 24 Mar 2022)[13]Yes
.aw Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands)Aruba, West IndiesRestricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens NoYesYes
.ax Åland (Finland).al and .ad already allocated NoYesYes
.az AzerbaijanAzerbaijanOnly for Residents. Has no WHOIS-Server. NoYesYesYes
.ba Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina University of Sarajevo - University tele-informatic Centre https://www.utic.unsa.ba https://www.nic.baNoNoYes
.bb BarbadosBarbados NoNoYes
.bd BangladeshBangladeshFor individuals, registrant must have a valid NID. For companies, registrant must have company or trademark registered in Bangladesh. YesNoYes
.be BelgiumBelgiumUsed for YouTube-related domains. Also unofficially used in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland. Latin[14]YesYesYes[15]
.bf Burkina FasoBurkina Faso NoNoYes
.bg BulgariaBulgariaSee also .бг (.bg in Cyrillic) for IDN ccTLD YesYesYes
.bh BahrainBahrain NoYesYes
.bi BurundiBurundi NoNoYes
.bj Benin.be, .bn, and .bi already allocated NoNoYes
.bm Bermuda (United Kingdom)BermudaLocal corporate registration required NoYesYes
.bn BruneiBrunei NoNoNo
.bo BoliviaBolivia NoNoYes
.bq Caribbean Netherlands ( Bonaire,  Saba, and  Sint Eustatius).be and .bs already allocated
.br BrazilBrasilRestricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.).[16] Yes[17]YesNo[upper-alpha 3]
.bs BahamasBahamas NoNoYes
.bt BhutanBhutanMust have local presence in Bhutan, and valid trade license[18] NoYesNo
.bw BotswanaBotswanaMay also be used for the Province of Walloon Brabant, Wallonia, Belgium NoNo[19]Yes
.by BelarusByelorussiaAlso unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany NoYesYes
.bz BelizeBelizeAlso unofficially used in the province of Bozen (or South Tyrol, see .st) NoYesYes
.ca CanadaCanadaSubject to Canadian Presence Requirements. Also unofficially used by some websites in the U.S. state of California. CIRAFrench[20]YesYesYes
.cc Cocos (Keeling) IslandsCocos IslandsAustralian territory: not to be confused with Cocos Island in Guam. Currently marketed as global domain, registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required; the domain is currently operated by eNIC, a VeriSign company. YesYesYes
.cd Democratic Republic of the CongoCongo, Democratic RepublicAlso unofficially used for Compact disc-related domains. NoNoYes
.cf Central African RepublicCentral African RepublicAlso used as a free domain service to the public. Freenom (for free domains)YesNoYes
.cg Republic of the CongoCongo NoNoYes
.ch SwitzerlandConfoederatio Helvetica Yes[upper-alpha 4]YesYes
.ci Ivory CoastCôte d'Ivoire NoNoYes
.ck Cook IslandsCook Islands NoNoYes
.cl ChileChile YesYesYesYes
.cm CameroonCameroonA local entity / company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name. NoNoYes
.cn People's Republic of ChinaChinaA local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid Resident Identity Card. See ICP license for more information regarding registrations. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs.

Also unofficially used for Cartoon Network-related domains.

YesYesYesYes
.co ColombiaColombiaMarketed as a global domain. Anyone can register. NoYesYes
.cr Costa RicaCosta Rica NoYesYes
.cu CubaCuba NoNoYes
.cv Cape VerdeCape VerdeAlso unofficially used for curriculum vitae-related domains. NoNoYes
.cw Curaçao (Kingdom of the Netherlands)Curaçao, West Indies NoUn­known
.cx Christmas IslandChristmas XmasMade infamous from Goatse.cx NoYesYes
.cy CyprusCyprus NoNoYes
.cz Czech RepublicCzech No[upper-alpha 5]YesYes
.de GermanyDeutschlandGerman postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed. DENICYes[upper-alpha 6]YesYesYes
.dj DjiboutiDjiboutiAlso unofficially used by disc jockeys. NoNoYes
.dk DenmarkDenmark DK HostmasterYes[upper-alpha 7]YesYesYes
.dm DominicaDominica NoNoYes
.do Dominican RepublicDominican NoNoYes
.dz AlgeriaEl Djazair / Dzayer NoYesYes
.ec EcuadorEcuadorIn Japan, "EC" is used as an acronym for "electronic commerce". Because of that, it's used unofficially by companies dedicated to provide online stores like BASE, a company that has two domains related to e-commerce: "base.in" and "official.ec".[25] NoNoYes
.ee EstoniaEesti Yes[upper-alpha 8]YesYes
.eg EgyptEgypt NoNoYes
.eh Western SaharaEspañol SaharaUnassigned NoNoNo
.er EritreaEritrea NoYes
.es SpainEspaña Yes[27]YesYes
.et EthiopiaEthiopia NoNoNo
.eu European UnionEuropean UnionRestricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use. Yes[upper-alpha 9]YesYesYes[29]
.fi FinlandFinlandRegistration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. Yes[upper-alpha 10]YesYesYes
.fj FijiFiji NoNoYes
.fk Falkland Islands (United Kingdom)Falkland NoNoNo
.fm Federated States of MicronesiaFederated States of MicronesiaAlso unofficially used by FM radio stations, podcasts or related business. YesYesYes
.fo Faroe Islands (Kingdom of Denmark)royar NoYesYes
.fr FranceFranceRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[upper-alpha 11] AFNICYes[31]YesYes
.ga GabonGabonAlso used as a free domain service to the public. Freenom (for free domains)YesNoYes
.gd GrenadaGrenada NoYesYes
.ge GeorgiaGeorgiaAvailable for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant).[32] NoNoYes
.gf French Guiana (France)Guyane Française NoNo
.gg Guernsey.gu, .gs, and .gy already allocatedAlso unofficially used by video game-related websites (see GG (gaming)) YesNoYes
.gh GhanaGhana NoNoNo
.gi Gibraltar (United Kingdom)Gibraltar NoYesYes
.gl Greenland (Kingdom of Denmark)GreenlandPreviously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use and was implemented in mid-2014 NoYesYes
.gm The GambiaGambiaDomain name should match the domain owner's name or trademarks. Common nouns are blocked. NoNoYes
.gn GuineaGuineaA local contact is required NoYesNo
.gp Guadeloupe (France)Guadeloupe Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin NoNoYes
.gq Equatorial GuineaGuinée équatorialeAlso used as a free domain service to the public. YesNo
.gr GreeceGreece Yes[upper-alpha 12]YesYes
.gs South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (United Kingdom)South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands NoYesYes
.gt GuatemalaGuatemala YesNoYesYes
.gu Guam (United States)Guam NoNoNo
.gw Guinea-BissauGine-Bisaawo NoYesYes
.gy GuyanaGuyana NoYesYes
.hk Hong KongHong Kong YesYesYes
.hm Heard Island and McDonald IslandsHeard Island and McDonald IslandsUnused for its intended purposes (islands are uninhabited and government sites instead use .aq); registry open to the public. NoNoYes
.hn HondurasHonduras NoYesYes
.hr CroatiaHrvatska NoYesYes
.ht HaitiHaiti YesNoYes
.hu HungaryHungaryCitizens of the European Union or entities established by law within the territory of the EU Yes[34]YesYes
.id IndonesiaIndonesiaRestricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and opened to general registration on 17 August 2014.[35] PANDI YesYesYes
.ie IrelandIrelandIn 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[36][37] YesYesYesYes
.il IsraelIsrael YesYesYes
.im Isle of ManIsle of Man NoNoYes
.in IndiaIndiaUnder INRegistry since April 2005 (except for gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in). NIXI[38]Yes[39]YesYesYes
.io British Indian Ocean Territory (United Kingdom)Indian OceanUsed unofficially by technology companies, startups, and web applications because IO can be an acronym for input / output that is useful for domain hacks. NIC.IO (run by Internet Computer Bureau) YesYesYes
.iq IraqIraq NoPartial[upper-alpha 13]Yes
.ir IranIranOperated by IRNIC YesNoYes
.is IcelandÍslandAlso unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example it.is, that.is, etc.). YesYesYes
.it ItalyItalyRestricted to companies and individuals in the European Union. Yes[40]Yes[41]YesYes
.je JerseyJersey YesNoYes
.jm JamaicaJamaica NoNoNo
.jo JordanJordan NoYes
.jp JapanJapanRestricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan. YesYesYesYes[42]
.ke KenyaKenya NoNo[43]No
.kg KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstan NoYesYes
.kh CambodiaKhmer NoNoNo
.ki KiribatiKiribati NoYesYes
.km ComorosKomori NoNoYes
.kn Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevis NoNoYes
.kp North KoreaKorea, Democratic People's RepublicRestricted to companies, organizations, or government entities based in North Korea. Despite this, few domains are actually registered because of internet censorship in North Korea. NoNoNoNo
.kr South KoreaKorea, Republic YesYesYes
.kw KuwaitKuwait YesNo
.ky Cayman Islands (United Kingdom).ci and .cy already allocated NoYesYes
.kz KazakhstanKazakhstan YesNoYes
.la LaosLaosCurrently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles.[44] YesYes
.lb LebanonLebanonRestricted to registration with a company in Lebanon YesNo
.lc Saint LuciaSaint Lucia YesYes
.li LiechtensteinLiechtensteinAlso unofficially used by entities on Long Island, New York or people with the last name Li. In Russian, li can be used to create domain names that mean a verb with a past tense plural ending li . YesYesYes
.lk Sri LankaSri Lanka YesYesYes
.lr LiberiaLiberia Partial[upper-alpha 13]No
.ls LesothoLesotho NoNo
.lt LithuaniaLithuania YesYesYes
.lu LuxembourgLuxembourgAlso unofficially used in Lucerne, Switzerland YesYesYes
.lv LatviaLatvia YesYesYes
.ly LibyaLibyaUsed unofficially as a domain hack for words ending in -ly. YesYes
.ma MoroccoMaroc Partial[upper-alpha 13]Yes
.mc MonacoMonacoOnly for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco. YesYes
.md MoldovaMoldovaRestricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova. YesYes
.me MontenegroMontenegroAlso unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example love.me, meet.me, etc.). YesYes
.mg MadagascarMadagascarRestricted to registration with a company in Madagascar NoYes
.mh Marshall IslandsMarshallInactive No
.mk North MacedoniaMakedonijaRestricted to registration with a company in North Macedonia NoYes
.ml MaliMaliAlso used as a free domain service to the public. Freenom (for free domains)YesNoYes
.mm MyanmarMyanmar NoNo
.mn MongoliaMongoliaThe second-level domains .gov.mn, .org.mn, and .edu.mn are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information. YesYes
.mo MacauMacaoRegistrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register. NoYes
.mp Northern Mariana Islands (United States)Marianas Pacific NoYes
.mq Martinique (France)Martinique NoNo
.mr MauritaniaMauritania YesYes
.ms Montserrat (United Kingdom)MontserratAlso unofficially used for Microsoft-related domains. NoYes
.mt MaltaMalta NoNo
.mu MauritiusMauritius NoYes
.mv MaldivesMaldives NoYes
.mw MalawiMalawi NoYes
.mx MexicoMexico YesYes
.my MalaysiaMalaysiaRestricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia MYNICYes[45]YesYes
.mz MozambiqueMozambique NoNo
.na NamibiaNamibia YesYes
.nc New Caledonia (France)New CaledoniaRestricted to companies that have a New Caledonian Business Registration Certificate or individuals living in New Caledonia for at least 6 months. YesYes
.ne NigerNiger NoYes
.nf Norfolk IslandNorfolk YesYes
.ng NigeriaNigeria NoYes
.ni NicaraguaNicaragua NoNo
.nl NetherlandsNetherlandsFirst active country-code domain outside the US.[46] NoYesYesYes
.no NorwayNorwayBusinesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address. YesYesYesYes
.np   NepalNepalAll .np domains are free to register for individuals and registered businesses. Foreign businesses must provide proof of local presence in Nepal. NoNo
.nr NauruNauruWas previously used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr.[47] NoYes
.nu NiueNiueCommonly used by Danish, Dutch, and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now". Yes[48]YesYesYes
.nz New ZealandNew Zealand Māori[49]YesYes[50]Yes
.om OmanOmanRegistrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact. NoNo
.pa PanamaPanamaSome use in Pennsylvania NoNo
.pe PeruPeruAlso unofficially used for Private Equity-related businesses. YesYesYes
.pf French Polynesia (France)Polynésie françaiseWith Clipperton Island NoYes
.pg Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea NoNo
.ph PhilippinesPhilippines NoYes
.pk PakistanPakistanOperated by PKNIC since 1992 NoYes
.pl PolandPoland Yes[51]YesYes
.pm Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (France)Saint Pierre and MiquelonRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[upper-alpha 11] YesYes
.pn Pitcairn Islands (United Kingdom)PitcairnAs a part of a marketing campaign, Lionsgate used the TLD for some (now defunct) sites related to The Hunger Games franchise, presenting it as the "official" country code of the fictional nation of Panem; notable sites included thecapitol.pn and revolution.pn. NoYes
.pr Puerto Rico (United States)Puerto Rico YesYes
.ps Palestine[53]PalestineJerusalem, West Bank and Gaza Strip. NoYes
.pt PortugalPortugal PortugueseYesYesYes[54]
.pw PalauPelew YesYesYesYes[55]
.py ParaguayParaguay NoNo
.qa QatarQatar NoNo
.re Réunion (France)unionRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[upper-alpha 11] Yes[31]YesYes
.ro RomaniaRomania Yes[56]Yes[57]YesYes[58]
.rs SerbiaRepublika SrbijaSee also .срб (.srb in Cyrillic). Also unofficially used for Rust (programming language)-related domains. YesYesYesYes
.ru RussiaRussiaSee also .su, still in use, and .рф, for IDN. NoYesYesYes
.rw RwandaRwanda NoYes
.sa Saudi ArabiaSaudi ArabiaRegistrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[59] Arabic[14]Yes[60]YesYes[61]
.sb Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands, British YesNo
.sc SeychellesSeychellesAlso unofficially used for Snapchat-related domains. YesYes
.sd SudanSudan NoYes
.se SwedenSweden Yes[upper-alpha 14]YesYesYes
.sg SingaporeSingaporeAlso unofficially used in the Canton of St. Gallen, Switzerland YesYes
.sh Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom)Saint Helena NIC.SH (run by Internet Computer Bureau) Yes[63]YesYes
.si SloveniaSlovenia Yes[upper-alpha 15]YesYes
.sk SlovakiaSlovenskoRestricted to Slovak companies, organisations, and citizens. YesYesYes
.sl Sierra LeoneSierra Leone NoYes
.sm San MarinoSan MarinoDomain name must be same as company name or trademark. NoYes
.sn SenegalSenegalRegistration allowed for companies only. Individuals are not allowed to register. YesYes
.so SomaliaSomaliaRelaunched on 1 November 2010. NoNoYes
.sr SurinameSuriname NoYes
.ss South SudanSouth SudanAdded to the DNS root zone in February 2019. Registry is not yet available. Yes
.st São Tomé and PríncipeSão ToméAlso unofficially used in South Tyrol (or province of Bozen, see .bz). YesNoYes
.su Soviet UnionSoviet UnionStill in use. Also unofficially used by Student Unions. Yes[upper-alpha 16]YesYesYes[66]
.sv El SalvadorSalvador NoNo
.sx Sint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands).sm, .ma, and .mt already allocated; airport code is SXM YesNo
.sy SyriaSyria NoYes
.sz EswatiniSwazilandRegistration is restricted to Eswatini organizations with Eswatini Trading Licenses. NoNo
.tc Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom)Turks and Caicos Also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' (Republic of Turkey) is TC. NoYes
.td ChadTchadAvailable for registration to entities connected with Chad only. NoYes
.tf French Southern and Antarctic LandsTerres australes et antarctiques françaisesSeldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein. The domain also sees frequent use for community-run sites related to the video game Team Fortress 2.[upper-alpha 11] Yes[31]YesYes
.tg TogoTogo NoYes
.th ThailandThai YesYesNo
.tj TajikistanTajik NoYes
.tk TokelauTokelauAlso used as a free domain service to the public. Freenom (for free domains)YesNoYes
.tl East TimorTimor-LesteOld code .tp has been deactivated since 2015. YesYes
.tm TurkmenistanTurkmen Yes[67]YesYes
.tn TunisiaTunisiaCurrently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Tamil Nadu[68] YesYesYesYes
.to TongaTongaOften used unofficially for Torrent, Turin (Torino in Italian), Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins, and also as a domain hack in Slavic languages (to meaning it). YesNoYes
.tr TurkeyTurkey.ct.tr and .nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus Yes[upper-alpha 17]NoYesYes[upper-alpha 18]
.tt Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago YesYes
.tv TuvaluTuvaluUsed as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company. YesYes
.tw TaiwanTaiwanRegistration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that "TW" is "designated for use to represent Taiwan, Province of China".[71] Yes[upper-alpha 19]YesYes
.tz TanzaniaTanzaniaMust have a presence in Tanzania YesNo
.ua UkraineUkraina YesYes
.ug UgandaUganda YesYes
.uk United KingdomUnited KingdomThe ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[73] Nominet UKYesYesYes
.us United States of AmericaUnited StatesRegistrants must be United States citizens, residents, or organizations, or a foreign entity with a presence in the United States. Formerly commonly used by U.S. State and local governments, see also .gov TLD. Go DaddyYesYes
.uy UruguayUruguay2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[74] YesYes
.uz UzbekistanUzbek NoYes
.va  Vatican CityVaticanLimited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State). NoNo
.vc Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesVincent Partial[upper-alpha 13]Yes
.ve VenezuelaVenezuelaRegistration is at the third level. YesNo
.vg British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom)Virgin Islands NoYes
.vi United States Virgin Islands (United States)Virgin Islands NoYes
.vn VietnamViet Nam Yes[75]YesYes
.vu VanuatuVanuatu YesYes
.wf Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futuna Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein.[upper-alpha 11] Yes[31]YesYes
.ws SamoaWestern SamoaMarketed for use in general Websites YesYes[76]Yes
.ye YemenYemenAlso unofficially used by Kanye West. NoNo
.yt MayotteMayotteRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[upper-alpha 11] Also unofficially used for YouTube-related domains. Yes[31]YesYes
.za South AfricaZuid-Afrika .za derives from the Dutch name of the country, even though Dutch is no longer an official language. YesYes
.zm ZambiaZambia NoYes[upper-alpha 20]
.zw ZimbabweZimbabwe NoNo
Table Notes
  1. 17 November 2009, Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law.[10]
  2. Mostly latin characters (à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ø ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ œ š ž), see[11]
  3. Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered-in.
  4. Since March 2004, see[21]
  5. IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[22]
  6. 93 non-ASCII characters, see[23]
  7. 1 January 2004, support æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é: see[24]
  8. Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) starting from 13 June 2011[26]
  9. Supported characters: Latin, Greek, & Cyrillic; see[28]
  10. September 2005, supported characters: å, ä, ö and Sami language; see[30]
  11. (6 December 2011)[52]
  12. Support for Greek characters since July 2005; see[33]
  13. Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone has not yet been published.
  14. October 2003, for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish; see[62]
  15. Since October 2010, see[64]
  16. (28 April 2008) see[65]
  17. 14 November 2006; see[69]
  18. 21 July 2015; see[70]
  19. Traditional Chinese characters: see[72]
  20. Restricted to ISPs and other undefined entities. See .zm .

Internationalized ccTLDs

Internationalized country code top-level domains[77]
DNS name IDN ccTLD Country/Region Language Script Transliteration Comments Other ccTLD DNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8j.الجزائر AlgeriaArabicArabic (Arabic)al-Jazā'ir.dzNo
xn--y9a3aq.հայ ArmeniaArmenianArmenianhay.amYes
xn--mgbcpq6gpa1a.البحرين BahrainArabicArabical-BahrainNot in use.bhYes
xn--54b7fta0cc.বাংলা BangladeshBengaliBengaliBangla.bdNo
xn--90ais.бел BelarusBelarusianCyrillicbel.byYes
xn--90ae.бг[78] BulgariaBulgarianCyrillicbg.bgYes
xn--fiqs8s.中国 ChinaChineseChinese (Simplified)Zhōngguó.cnYes
xn--fiqz9s.中國 ChinaChineseChinese (Traditional)Zhōngguó.cnYes
xn--wgbh1c.مصر EgyptArabicArabic (Arabic)Miṣr / Maṣr[79].egYes
xn--e1a4c.ею European UnionBulgarianCyrilliceyu.euYes
xn--qxa6a.ευ European UnionGreekGreekeyIn use since 2022.euYes
xn--node.გე GeorgiaGeorgianGeorgian (Mkhedruli)GE.geNo
xn--qxam.ελ[78] GreeceGreekGreekelIn use since July 2018.grYes
xn--j6w193g.香港 Hong KongChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)Hoeng1 gong2.hkYes
xn--h2brj9c.भारत IndiaHindiDevanagariBhāratBecame available 27 August 2014[80].inYes
xn--mgbbh1a71e.بھارت IndiaUrduArabic (Urdu)BhāratBecame available 2017.inYes
xn--fpcrj9c3d.భారత్ IndiaTeluguTeluguBhāratBecame available 2017.inYes
xn--gecrj9c.ભારત IndiaGujaratiGujaratiBhāratBecame available 2017.inYes
xn--s9brj9c.ਭਾਰਤ IndiaPunjabiGurmukhīBhāratBecame available 2017.inYes
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h.இந்தியா IndiaTamilTamilIntiyāBecame available 2015.inYes
xn--45brj9c.ভারত IndiaBengaliBengaliBharôtBecame available 2017.inYes
xn--2scrj9c.ಭಾರತ IndiaKannadaKannadaBhārataBecame available 2020.inYes
xn--rvc1e0am3e.ഭാരതം IndiaMalayalamMalayalamBhāratamBecame available 2020.inYes
xn--45br5cyl.ভাৰত IndiaAssameseBengaliBharatamBecame available 2022.inYes
xn--3hcrj9c.ଭାରତ IndiaOriyaOriyaBhāratBecame available 2021.inYes
xn--mgbbh1a.بارت IndiaKashmiriArabic (Kashmiri)BāratBecame available 2022.inYes
xn--h2breg3eve.भारतम् IndiaSanskritDevanagariBhāratamBecame available 2022.inYes
xn--h2brj9c8c.भारोत IndiaSantaliDevanagariBharotBecame available 2022.inYes
xn--mgbgu82a.ڀارت IndiaSindhiArabic (Sindhi)BhāratBecame available 2022.inYes
xn--mgba3a4f16a.ایران IranPersianArabic (Persian)Īrān.irNo
xn--mgbtx2b.عراق IraqArabicArabic (Arabic)ʿIrāqNot in use.iqNo
xn--4dbrk0ce.ישראל IsraelHebrewHebrewIsraelBecame available 2022.ilYes
xn--mgbayh7gpa.الاردن JordanArabicArabic (Arabic)al-Urdun.joNo
xn--80ao21a.қаз KazakhstanKazakhCyrillic (Kazakh)qaz.kzNo
xn--q7ce6a.ລາວ LaosLaoLaoLaoBecame available 2020.laYes
xn--mix082f.澳门 MacaoChineseChinese (Simplified)Ou3 mun4 / ÀoménNot in use.moNo
xn--mix891f.澳門 MacaoChineseChinese (Traditional)Ou3 mun4 / ÀoménBecame available 2020.moNo
xn--mgbx4cd0ab.مليسيا MalaysiaMalayArabic (Jawi)Malaysīyā.myYes
xn--mgbah1a3hjkrd.موريتانيا MauritaniaArabicArabic (Arabic)Mūrītāniyā.mrYes
xn--l1acc.мон MongoliaMongolianCyrillic (Mongolian)mon.mnYes
xn--mgbc0a9azcg.المغرب MoroccoArabicArabic (Arabic)al-Maġrib.maNo
xn--d1alf.мкд North MacedoniaMacedonianCyrillic (Macedonian)mkd.mkNo
xn--mgb9awbf.عمان OmanArabicArabic (Arabic)ʿUmān.omNo
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j.پاکستان PakistanUrduArabic (Urdu)Pākistān.pkYes
xn--ygbi2ammx.فلسطين Palestinian AuthorityArabicArabic (Arabic)Filasṭīn.psNo
xn--wgbl6a.قطر QatarArabicArabic (Arabic)Qaṭar.qaNo
xn--p1ai.рф RussiaRussianCyrillic (Russian)rf.ruYes
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar.السعودية Saudi ArabiaArabicArabic (Arabic)as-Suʿūdīya.saYes
xn--90a3ac.срб SerbiaSerbianCyrillic (Serbian)srb.rsYes
xn--yfro4i67o.新加坡 SingaporeChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)Xīnjiāpō.sgYes
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd.சிங்கப்பூர் SingaporeTamilTamilCinkappūr.sgYes
xn--3e0b707e.한국 South KoreaKoreanHangulHan-guk.krYes
xn--fzc2c9e2c.ලංකා Sri LankaSinhalaSinhalaLanka.lkNo
xn--xkc2al3hye2a.இலங்கை Sri LankaTamilTamilIlaṅkai.lkNo
xn--mgbpl2fh.سودان SudanArabicArabic (Arabic)Sūdān.sdNo
xn--ogbpf8fl.سورية SyriaArabicArabic (Arabic)Sūriyya.syNo
xn--kprw13d.台湾 TaiwanChineseChinese (Simplified)Táiwān.twYes
xn--kpry57d.台灣 TaiwanChineseChinese (Traditional)Táiwān.twYes
xn--o3cw4h.ไทย ThailandThaiThaiThai.thYes
xn--pgbs0dh.تونس TunisiaArabicArabic (Arabic)Tūnis.tnYes
xn--j1amh.укр UkraineUkrainianCyrillic (Ukrainian)ukr.uaNo
xn--mgbaam7a8h.امارات United Arab EmiratesArabicArabic (Arabic)Imārāt.aeNo
xn--mgb2ddes.اليمن YemenArabicArabic (Arabic)al-YamanNot delegated.yeNo
Table notes

    Proposed internationalized ccTLDs

    Internationalised domain names have been proposed for Japan and Libya.

    Relation to ISO 3166-1

    The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list.

    Unused ISO 3166-1 codes

    Almost all current ISO 3166-1 codes have been assigned and do exist in DNS. However, some of these are effectively unused. In particular, the ccTLDs for the Norwegian dependency Bouvet Island (bv) and the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen (sj) do exist in DNS, but no subdomains have been assigned, and it is Norid policy to not assign any at present. Two French territories—bl (Saint Barthélemy) and mf (Saint Martin)—still await local assignment by France's government.

    The code eh, although eligible as ccTLD for Western Sahara, has never been assigned and does not exist in DNS. Only one subdomain is still registered in gb[82] (ISO 3166-1 for the United Kingdom), and no new registrations are being accepted for it. Sites in the United Kingdom generally use uk (see below).

    The former .um ccTLD for the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands was removed in April 2008. Under RFC 1591 rules, .um is eligible as a ccTLD on request by the relevant governmental agency and local Internet user community.

    ASCII ccTLDs not in ISO 3166-1

    Several ASCII ccTLDs are in use that are not ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes. Some of these codes were specified in older versions of the ISO list.

    • uk (United Kingdom): The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. However, the JANET network had already selected uk as a top-level identifier for its pre-existing Name Registration Scheme, and this was incorporated into the DNS root. gb was assigned with the intention of a transition, but this never occurred and the use of uk is now entrenched.[83]
    • su This obsolete ISO 3166 code for the Soviet Union was assigned when the Soviet Union still existed; moreover, new su registrations are accepted.
    • ac (Ascension Island): This code is a vestige of IANA's decision in 1996 to allow the use of codes reserved in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 reserve list for use by the Universal Postal Union. The decision was later reversed, with Ascension Island now the sole outlier. (Three other ccTLDs, gg (Guernsey), im (Isle of Man) and je (Jersey) also fell under this category from 1996 until they received corresponding ISO 3166 codes in March 2006.)
    • eu (European Union): On September 25, 2000, ICANN decided to allow the use of any two-letter code in the ISO 3166-1 reserve list that is reserved for all purposes. Only EU currently meets this criterion. Following a decision by the EU's Council of Telecommunications Ministers in March 2002, progress was slow, but a registry (named EURid) was chosen by the European Commission, and criteria for allocation set: ICANN approved eu as a ccTLD, and it opened for registration on 7 December 2005 for the holders of prior rights. Since 7 April 2006, registration is open to all in the European Economic Area.

    Historical ccTLDs

    ccTLDs may be removed if that country ceases to exist. There are three ccTLDs that have been deleted after the corresponding 2-letter code was withdrawn from ISO 3166-1: cs (for Czechoslovakia), zr (for Zaire) and tp (for East Timor). There may be a significant delay between withdrawal from ISO 3166-1 and deletion from the DNS; for example, ZR ceased to be an ISO 3166-1 code in 1997, but the zr ccTLD was not deleted until 2001. Other ccTLDs corresponding to obsolete ISO 3166-1 codes have not yet been deleted. In some cases they may never be deleted due to the amount of disruption this would cause for a heavily used ccTLD. In particular, the Soviet Union's ccTLD su remains in use more than twenty years after SU was removed from ISO 3166-1.

    The historical country codes dd for the German Democratic Republic and yd for South Yemen were eligible for a ccTLD, but not allocated; see also de and ye.

    The temporary reassignment of country code cs (Serbia and Montenegro) until its split into rs and me (Serbia and Montenegro, respectively) led to some controversies[84][85] about the stability of ISO 3166-1 country codes, resulting in a second edition of ISO 3166-1 in 2007 with a guarantee that retired codes will not be reassigned for at least 50 years, and the replacement of RFC 3066 by RFC 4646 for country codes used in language tags in 2006.

    The previous ISO 3166-1 code for Yugoslavia, YU, was removed by ISO on 23 July 2003, but the yu ccTLD remained in operation. Finally, after a two-year transition to Serbian rs and Montenegrin me, the .yu domain was phased out in March 2010.

    Australia was originally assigned the oz country code, which was later changed to au with the .oz domains moved to .oz.au.

    Internationalized ccTLDs

    An internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) is a top-level domain with a specially encoded domain name that is displayed in an end user application, such as a web browser, in its native language script or a non-alphabetic writing system, such as Latin script (.us, .uk and .br), Indic script (.भारत) and Korean script (.한국), etc. IDN ccTLDs are an application of the internationalized domain name (IDN) system to top-level Internet domains assigned to countries, including the United Kingdom, or independent geographic regions.

    ICANN started to accept applications for IDN ccTLDs in November 2009,[86] and installed the first set into the Domain Names System in May 2010. The first set was a group of Arabic names for the countries of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. By May 2010, 21 countries had submitted applications to ICANN, representing 11 languages.[87]

    ICANN requires all potential international TLDs to use at least one letter that does not resemble a Latin letter, or have at least three letters, in an effort to avoid IDN homograph attacks. Nor shall the international domain name look like another domain name, even if they have different alphabets. Between Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, for example, this could happen.

    Generic ccTLDs

    Generic Country Code Top-Level Domain or gccTLD refers to those TLDs which are technically "non-restricted ccTLDs" but used like traditional generic TLDs (gTLDs) rather than "country"-targeted ones.[88][89][90] Most of the gccTLDs are primarily used as domain hacks:

    gccTLD Country/Region Domain hacks
    .acAscension Island
    .adAndorraadvertising
    .agAntigua and BarbudaAktiengesellschaft (German for corporation)
    .aiAnguillaArtificial intelligence
    .amArmenia
    .asAmerican Samoa
    .azAzerbaijanArizona
    .bzBelize
    .ccCocos (Keeling) Islands
    .cdCongoCompact disc
    .coColombia
    .cuCubasee you
    .cvCape Verdecurriculum vitae
    .djDjiboutiDisc jockey
    .fmFederated States of Micronesia
    .gaGabonGeorgia
    .ggBailiwick of Guernsey
    .ioBritish Indian Ocean Territory
    .isIcelandit.is, that.is, etc.
    .itItalyInformation technology
    .kgKyrgyzstanKeygen
    .laLaos
    .lyLibyawords ending in -ly
    .mdMoldovaMedicine
    .meMontenegro
    .msMontserrat
    .nuNiue
    • new
    • now
    • nude
    .pePeruPrivate Equity
    .pnPitcairnPhone number
    .pwPalauPwned (leet speak)
    .reRéunionReverse engineering
    .scSeychelles
    .shSaint HelenaShell
    .sxSint Maartensex
    .tfFrench Southern and Antarctic Lands
    .tkTokelau
    .tmTurkmenistanTrademark
    .toTongalink-to
    .tvTuvalutelevision and broadcasts
    .wsWestern Samoa
    • website
    • websocket
    • world site
    • west
    .ytMayotteYouTube

    Unconventional usage

    Lenient registration restrictions on certain ccTLDs have resulted in various domain hacks. Domain names such as I.am, tip.it, start.at and go.to form well-known English phrases, whereas others combine the second-level domain and ccTLD to form one word or one title, creating domains such as blo.gs of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (gs), youtu.be of Belgium (be), del.icio.us of the United States (us), and cr.yp.to of Tonga (to). The .co domain of Colombia has been cited since 2010 as a potential competitor to generic TLDs for commercial use, because it may be an abbreviation for company.[91]

    Several ccTLDs allow the creation of emoji domains.

    Some ccTLDs may also be used for typosquatting. The domain cm of Cameroon has generated interest due to the possibility that people might miss typing the letter o for sites in the com.[92]

    Commercial use

    Some of the world's smallest countries and non-sovereign or colonial entities with their own country codes have opened their TLDs for worldwide commercial use, some of them free like .tk.

    See also

    Notes

      References

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