Climate of Turkey

The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea have a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Black Sea have a temperate Oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and cool to cold, wet winters. The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the most precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages 2,500 millimeters annually which is the highest precipitation in the country.

Climate diagram of Turkey[1]

The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Sea of Marmara (including Istanbul), which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate Oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters. Snow does occur on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but it usually lies no more than a few days. On the other hand, it is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea.

Conditions can be much harsher in the more arid interior. Mountains close to the coast prevent maritime influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a humid continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons.

Winters on the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of −30 °C to −40 °C (−22 °F to −40 °F) do occur in northeastern Anatolia, and snow may lie on the ground at least 120 days of the year and in the mountains almost the entire year. In central Anatolia the temperatures can drop below -20 °C (-4 °F), with higher elevated parts dropping below -30 °C (- 22 °F) at times. Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures generally around or above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day. Nights are cool. Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (15 in), with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest regions are the Konya Plain and the Malatya Plain, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimetres (12 in). May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.[2]

Below are the climates from the seven census regions of Turkey, showing how varied they can be in different places around the country:

İstanbul
(Marmara Region)
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
98
 
 
9
3
 
 
80
 
 
9
3
 
 
70
 
 
11
4
 
 
46
 
 
17
8
 
 
36
 
 
21
12
 
 
34
 
 
26
16
 
 
39
 
 
28
19
 
 
48
 
 
29
19
 
 
61
 
 
25
16
 
 
97
 
 
20
12
 
 
111
 
 
15
9
 
 
124
 
 
11
5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Turkish State Meteorology [3]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.9
 
 
48
37
 
 
3.2
 
 
48
37
 
 
2.8
 
 
52
39
 
 
1.8
 
 
62
46
 
 
1.4
 
 
71
54
 
 
1.3
 
 
79
61
 
 
1.5
 
 
83
65
 
 
1.9
 
 
83
66
 
 
2.4
 
 
77
60
 
 
3.8
 
 
68
54
 
 
4.4
 
 
60
47
 
 
4.9
 
 
52
42
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Ankara
(Central Anatolia Region)
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
40
 
 
2
−7
 
 
31
 
 
4
−5
 
 
36
 
 
10
−2
 
 
51
 
 
16
3
 
 
52
 
 
20
7
 
 
39
 
 
24
9
 
 
17
 
 
28
13
 
 
15
 
 
28
13
 
 
18
 
 
24
8
 
 
32
 
 
18
4
 
 
36
 
 
11
−1
 
 
48
 
 
4
−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Turkish State Meteorology [4][5]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.6
 
 
35
20
 
 
1.2
 
 
40
23
 
 
1.4
 
 
50
29
 
 
2
 
 
60
38
 
 
2
 
 
68
44
 
 
1.5
 
 
76
49
 
 
0.7
 
 
82
55
 
 
0.6
 
 
83
55
 
 
0.7
 
 
76
47
 
 
1.3
 
 
65
39
 
 
1.4
 
 
51
30
 
 
1.9
 
 
40
26
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
İzmir
(Aegean Region)
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
125
 
 
13
6
 
 
98
 
 
13
6
 
 
79
 
 
17
8
 
 
48
 
 
21
12
 
 
26
 
 
26
16
 
 
11
 
 
31
20
 
 
9.6
 
 
33
23
 
 
4.6
 
 
33
23
 
 
35
 
 
29
19
 
 
52
 
 
24
15
 
 
111
 
 
18
11
 
 
135
 
 
14
8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Turkish State Meteorology [6]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
4.9
 
 
55
43
 
 
3.8
 
 
56
43
 
 
3.1
 
 
62
46
 
 
1.9
 
 
70
53
 
 
1
 
 
79
60
 
 
0.4
 
 
88
68
 
 
0.4
 
 
92
73
 
 
0.2
 
 
91
73
 
 
1.4
 
 
84
66
 
 
2
 
 
75
59
 
 
4.4
 
 
65
51
 
 
5.3
 
 
57
46
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Antalya
(Mediterranean Region)
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
227
 
 
15
6
 
 
139
 
 
15
6
 
 
100
 
 
18
8
 
 
61
 
 
22
11
 
 
32
 
 
26
15
 
 
9
 
 
31
19
 
 
6
 
 
35
22
 
 
5
 
 
34
22
 
 
16
 
 
31
19
 
 
86
 
 
27
15
 
 
172
 
 
21
10
 
 
269
 
 
16
7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Turkish State Meteorology [7]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
8.9
 
 
59
43
 
 
5.5
 
 
59
43
 
 
3.9
 
 
64
46
 
 
2.4
 
 
72
52
 
 
1.3
 
 
79
59
 
 
0.4
 
 
88
66
 
 
0.2
 
 
95
72
 
 
0.2
 
 
93
72
 
 
0.6
 
 
88
66
 
 
3.4
 
 
81
59
 
 
6.8
 
 
70
50
 
 
11
 
 
61
45
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Zonguldak
(Black Sea Region)
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
133
 
 
9
4
 
 
86
 
 
9
3
 
 
88
 
 
11
5
 
 
58
 
 
15
8
 
 
51
 
 
19
12
 
 
71
 
 
23
16
 
 
81
 
 
25
18
 
 
88
 
 
25
18
 
 
123
 
 
22
15
 
 
153
 
 
18
12
 
 
147
 
 
15
8
 
 
154
 
 
11
5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Turkish State Meteorology [8]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
5.2
 
 
49
38
 
 
3.4
 
 
48
37
 
 
3.5
 
 
51
40
 
 
2.3
 
 
59
47
 
 
2
 
 
65
53
 
 
2.8
 
 
73
60
 
 
3.2
 
 
77
65
 
 
3.5
 
 
77
65
 
 
4.8
 
 
72
60
 
 
6
 
 
65
54
 
 
5.8
 
 
58
47
 
 
6.1
 
 
52
42
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Şanlıurfa
(Southeastern Anatolia Region)
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
74
 
 
10
2
 
 
74
 
 
12
3
 
 
63
 
 
17
6
 
 
43
 
 
22
11
 
 
27
 
 
29
16
 
 
5
 
 
35
21
 
 
3
 
 
39
25
 
 
5
 
 
38
24
 
 
7
 
 
34
20
 
 
28
 
 
27
15
 
 
49
 
 
18
8
 
 
76
 
 
12
4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Turkish State Meteorology [9]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.9
 
 
50
36
 
 
2.9
 
 
54
37
 
 
2.5
 
 
63
43
 
 
1.7
 
 
72
52
 
 
1.1
 
 
84
61
 
 
0.2
 
 
95
70
 
 
0.1
 
 
102
77
 
 
0.2
 
 
100
75
 
 
0.3
 
 
93
68
 
 
1.1
 
 
81
59
 
 
1.9
 
 
64
46
 
 
3
 
 
54
39
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Erzurum
(Eastern Anatolia Region)
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
20
 
 
−4
−15
 
 
24
 
 
−3
−14
 
 
33
 
 
3
−7
 
 
58
 
 
12
0
 
 
70
 
 
17
4
 
 
43
 
 
22
7
 
 
27
 
 
27
10
 
 
16
 
 
28
10
 
 
21
 
 
23
5
 
 
49
 
 
15
1
 
 
33
 
 
7
−5
 
 
22
 
 
−1
−11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Turkish State Meteorology [10]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.8
 
 
25
5
 
 
0.9
 
 
27
7
 
 
1.3
 
 
37
19
 
 
2.3
 
 
54
32
 
 
2.8
 
 
63
39
 
 
1.7
 
 
72
45
 
 
1.1
 
 
81
50
 
 
0.6
 
 
82
50
 
 
0.8
 
 
73
41
 
 
1.9
 
 
59
34
 
 
1.3
 
 
45
23
 
 
0.9
 
 
30
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

See also

References and notes

  1. "Climate of Turkey" (PDF). Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  2. Turkish State Meteorological Service (2006). "Climate of Turkey". Turkish State Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
  3. "Yıllık Toplam Yağış Verileri - Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Archived from the original on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2017-07-06.
  4. "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Archived from the original on 2011-06-20. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  5. "Historical Weather for Ankara, Turkey". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2010-03-30.
  6. "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Archived from the original on 2011-06-20. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  7. "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Archived from the original on 2011-06-20. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
  8. "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Archived from the original on 2011-03-13. Retrieved 2017-03-18.
  9. "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Archived from the original on 2011-06-20. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  10. "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Archived from the original on 2011-06-20. Retrieved 2011-05-31.
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