Child marriage

Child marriage is a marriage or similar union, formal or informal, between a child under a certain age – typically 18 years – and an adult or another child.[1] The vast majority of child marriages are between a female child and a male adult,[2][3] and are rooted in gender inequality.[2][4]

A poster warning against child marriage, in a refugee camp in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Although the age of majority (legal adulthood) and marriageable age are usually designated at age 18, both vary across countries, and therefore the marriageable age may be older or younger in a given country.[5] Even where the age is set at 18 years, cultural traditions may override legislation and many jurisdictions permit earlier marriage with parental consent or in special circumstances, such as teenage pregnancy.[6]

Child marriage violates the rights of children and has long-term consequences for both child brides and child grooms.[2][5] For child brides, in addition to mental health issues and lack of access to education and career opportunities,[2] these include adverse health effects as a result of early pregnancy and childbirth.[5] Effects on child grooms include being ill-prepared for certain responsibilities such as providing for the family, early fatherhood, and a lack of access to education and career opportunities.[5] Child marriage is part of the practice of child betrothal, which often includes civil cohabitation and a court-approval of the engagement[7][8] Causes of child marriages include poverty, bride price, dowries, cultural traditions, religious and social pressures, regional customs, fear of the child remaining unmarried into adulthood, illiteracy, and perceived inability of women to work for money.[4][9][10] Research indicates that comprehensive sex education can help to prevent child marriage.[11] Reducing child marriage in developing countries requires educating and strengthening the rural community. Girls may make better life and marriage decisions with education. Rural development programmes like healthcare, water, and sanitation may aid families financially and minimise child marriage. Education and rural development may break the cycle of poverty and child marriage[12].

Child marriages have been common throughout history and continue to be widespread, particularly in developing countries such as parts of Africa,[13][14] South Asia,[15] Southeast Asia,[16][17] West Asia,[18][19] Latin America,[18] and Oceania.[20] However, even in developed countries, legal exceptions still allow child marriage including exceptions in 44 US states.[21]

The incidence of child marriage has been falling in most parts of the world. 2018 data from UNICEF showed that about 21 percent of young women worldwide (aged 20 to 24) were married as children, a 25 percent decrease from 10 years ago.[22] The countries with the highest observed rates of child marriages (below the age of 18) were Niger, Chad, Mali, Bangladesh, Guinea, the Central African Republic, Mozambique, and Nepal, all of which had rates above 50%.[23] Niger, Chad, Bangladesh, Mali, and Ethiopia were the countries with child marriage rates greater than 20% below the age of 15, according to multiple 2003–2009 surveys.[24][25] Each year, an estimated 12 million girls globally become married under the age of 18.[26]


In 1533, 17-year-old Princess Emilia of Saxony was wed to George the Pious, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, then aged 48 years. Early marriages have been common in historical times, including in Europe.
Presentation of Marie Antoinette to Dauphin Louis Auguste at Versailles, before their marriage – she at age 15, he at 16 – on 16 May 1770.

Before the industrial revolution, in many parts of the world including India, China, and Eastern Europe, women tended to marry immediately after reaching puberty. These practices carried well into the 19th century in societies with largely rural populations.[27] Men tended to marry later in societies where a married couple was expected to establish a household of their own. That usually meant that men remained unmarried until they accumulated sufficient wealth to support a new home, and were married in their mature age to adolescent girls.[28]

In ancient and medieval societies, it was common for girls to be betrothed at or even before the age of puberty.[29][30] According to Mordechai A. Friedman, "arranging and contracting the marriage of a young girl were the undisputed prerogatives of her father in ancient Israel." Most girls were married before the age of 15, often at the start of their puberty.[31] In the Middle Ages, the age at marriage seems to have been around puberty throughout the Jewish world.[32]

Ruth Lamdan writes: "The numerous references to child marriage in the 16th-century Responsa literature and other sources, shows that child marriage was so common, it was virtually the norm. In this context, it is important to remember that in halakha, the term "minor" refers to a girl under twelve years and a day. A girl aged twelve and a half was already considered an adult in all respects."[33]

In Ancient Greece, early marriage and teenage motherhood for girls existed.[34] Boys were expected to marry in their teens, as well. In the Roman Empire, girls were married from age of 12 and boys from age 14.[35] In the Middle Ages, under English civil laws derived from Roman laws, marriages before the age of 16 existed. In Imperial China, child marriage was the norm.[36][37]

In contrast to other pre-modern societies – and for reasons that are subject to debate – Northwest Europe was characterized by relatively late marriages for both men and women, with both sexes commonly delaying marriage until their mid-20s or even 30s.[38][39][40] The data available for England suggest this was the case by the 14th century. The pattern was reflected in English common law, which was the first in Western Europe to establish statutory rape laws and ages of consent for marriage. In 1275, sexual relations with girls under either 12 or 14 (depending on interpretation of the sources) were criminalized; a second law was made with more severe punishments for under the age of 10 in 1576. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the British colonial administration introduced marriage age restrictions for Hindu and Muslim girls on the Indian subcontinent.[27]

A Scottish physician living in the 18th century Syria reported that locals tried to contract marriages for their children at a young age, but the marriage was not consummated until the girl "had come of age". Evidence from 19th century Palestine suggests that husbands sometimes initiated sexual relations before their wives reached puberty, but that it was a rare occurrence, condemned socially and censured by sharia courts. Writing in the 1830s, Edward William Lane observed that few Egyptian girls remained single by the age of 16, but socio-economic transformation, educational reforms and modernity brought significant changes, and by 1920 fewer than 10% of Egyptian women married before the age of 20. In 1923, Egypt's parliament set the minimum age of marriage at 16 for women and 18 for men.[41]

Religious norms and laws

Most of the religions which have been practiced throughout history have established a minimum age for marriage in one way or another. Christian canon law forbade the marriage of a girl before the onset of puberty.[42] The Hindu Vedas, specifically the Rigveda and Atharvaveda, have verses that indicate that during the Vedic period, girls married well after attaining puberty and were of a mature age.[43] The early Dharmaśāstra also states that girls should be married after they have attained puberty[44] while some texts extend the marriageable age to before puberty.[45] In the Manusmriti, which was not implemented as law,[46] a father is considered to have wronged his daughter if he fails to marry her before puberty and if the girl is not married in less than three years after reaching puberty, she can search for the husband herself.[47]

Jewish scholars and rabbis strongly discouraged marriages before the onset of puberty,[31] but at the same time, in exceptional cases, girls ages 3 through 12 (the legal age of consent according to halakha) might be given in marriage by their fathers.[48][49] By Judaism, the minimum girl age, for marriage, was 12 years and one day, "na'arah", as mentioned in the ancient Talmud Mishnah books (compiled between 536 BCE – 70 CE, redacted in the 3rd century CE), Order Nashim Masechet Kiddushin 41 a & b.[50]

According to halakha, girls should not marry until they are 12 years and six months old, "bogeret".[51][52] Although Moses Maimonides mentions in the Talmud Mishneh Torah (compiled between 1170 and 1180 CE) that in exceptional cases girls ages 3 through 12 might be given in marriage by their fathers,[48][53] he also clarifies in verse 3:19 of the same chapter that: "Although a father has the option of consecrating his daughter to anyone he desires while she is a minor or while she is a maiden, it is not proper for him to act in this manner."[54]

According to the 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia, apocryphal accounts that, at the time of her betrothal to Joseph, Mary, the mother of Jesus, was 12–14 years old.[55] However the site warn readers that it isn't reliable. To quote what the site said itself: "the apocryphal literature is full of details, the non-admittance of these works into the Canon of the Sacred Books casts a strong suspicion upon their contents" Apocryphal is spurious", "of questionable authenticity"

Historically within the Catholic Church, before the 1917 Code of Canon Law, the minimum age for a dissoluble betrothal (sponsalia de futuro) was seven years in the contractees. The minimum age for a valid marriage was puberty, or nominally 14 for males and 12 for females.[56] The 1917 Code of Canon Law raised the minimum age for a valid marriage at 16 for males and 14 for females.[57] The 1983 Code of Canon Law maintained the minimum age for a valid marriage at 16 for males and 14 for females.[58]:c. 1083 §1[lower-alpha 1]

English Ecclesiastical Law forbade the marriage of a girl before the age of puberty.[60]

There is no minimum marriage age defined in traditional Islamic law, and the legal discussion of this topic centered primarily on women's physical maturity. Classical Sunni jurisprudence allows a father to contract a marriage for his underaged daughter. The appropriate age for consummating the marriage, which could occur several years after signing the marriage contract, was to be determined by the bride, groom, and the bride's guardian since medieval jurists held that the age of fitness for intercourse was too variable for legislation.[61] This was based in part on the precedent set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as described in the hadith collections considered to be authentic by Muslims. According to these sources, Muhammad married Aisha, his third wife, when she was about six,[lower-alpha 2] and consummated the marriage when she was about nine.[lower-alpha 3][lower-alpha 4] Some modern Muslim authors and Islamic scholars, such as Ali Gomaa, who served as the Grand Mufti of Egypt, doubt the traditionally accepted narrative and believe based on other evidence that Aisha was in her late teens at the time of her marriage.[62] As a general rule, intercourse was prohibited for girls "not able to undergo it," on the grounds of potential physical harm. Disputes regarding physical maturity between the involved parties were to be resolved by a judge, potentially after examination by a female expert witness.[61] The 1917 Codification of Islamic Family Law in the Ottoman Empire distinguished between the age of competence for marriage, which was set at 18 for boys and 17 for girls, and the minimum age for marriage, set at 12 for boys and nine for girls. Marriage below the age of competence was permissible only if proof of sexual maturity was accepted in court, while marriage under the minimum age was forbidden. During the 20th century, sharia-based legislation in most countries in the Middle East followed the Ottoman precedent in defining the age of competence, while raising the minimum age to 15 or 16 for boys and 13 to 16 for girls.[63] In 2019, Saudi Arabia raised the age of marriage to 18.[64]

Although by the beginning of the 21st century, the laws of most countries have established the general minimum age for marriage at 18 years, in many countries some exceptions allow marriage before this age with the consent of the parents and/or by court decision. In some countries, a religious marriage is still recognized by the state authorities while in others, a registered civil marriage is mandatory.

Effects on each gender

Child marriage has lasting consequences on girls, from their health (mental and physical), education and social development perspectives.[2] These consequences last well beyond adolescence.[65] One of the most common causes of death for girls aged 15 to 19 in developing countries was pregnancy and childbirth.[66] In Niger, which is estimated to have the highest rate of child marriage in the world, about 3 in 4 girls marry before their 18th birthday.[67][68]

Boys are sometimes married as children, almost always to a female minor. UNICEF states that "girls [are] disproportionately affected by the practice. Globally, the prevalence of child marriage among boys is just one-sixth that among girls."[4] Research on the effects of child marriage on underage boys is scant, which researchers state is likely because child marriage involving boys is less common and boys do not face the adverse health effects as a result of early pregnancy and childbirth.[5] The effects of child marriage on boys include being ill-prepared for certain responsibilities such as providing for the family, early fatherhood, and a lack of access to education and career opportunities.[5] As of September 2014, 156 million living men were married as underage boys.[69]

In its first in-depth analysis of child grooms, UNICEF revealed that an estimated 115 million boys and men around the world were married as children. Of these, 1 in 5, or 23 million, boys were married before the age of 15. According to the data, the Central African Republic has the highest prevalence of child marriage among males (28%), followed by Nicaragua (19%) and Madagascar (13%). The estimates bring the total number of child brides and child grooms to 765 million. Girls remain disproportionately affected, with 1 in 5 young women aged 20 to 24 years old married before their 18th birthday, compared to 1 in 30 young men.[70]


According to UNFPA, factors that promote and reinforce child marriage include poverty and economic survival strategies; gender inequality; sealing land or property deals or settling disputes; control over sexuality and protecting family honor; tradition and culture; and insecurity, particularly during war, famine or epidemics.[71] Other factors include family ties in which marriage is a means of consolidating powerful relations between families.[71]

Dowry and bride price

A traditional, formal presentation of the bride price at a Thai engagement ceremony

Providing a girl with a dowry at her marriage is an ancient practice which continues in some parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. Parents bestow property on the marriage of a daughter as a dowry, which is often an economic challenge for many families. The difficulty to save and preserve wealth for dowry was common, particularly in times of economic hardship, or persecution, or unpredictable seizure of property and savings. These difficulties pressed families to betroth their girls, irrespective of her age, as soon as they had the resources to pay the dowry. Thus, Goitein notes that European Jews would marry their girls early, once they had collected the expected amount of dowry.[72]

A bride price is the amount paid by the groom to the parents of a bride for them to consent to him marrying their daughter. In some countries, the younger the bride, the higher the bride price.[73][74] This practice creates an economic incentive where girls are sought and married early by her family to the highest bidder. Child marriages of girls is a way out of desperate economic conditions, or simply a source of income to the parents.[75][76][77] Bride price is another cause of child marriage and child trafficking.[9][10][78][79]

Bride kidnapping

Depiction of bride kidnapping

Bride kidnapping, also known as bridenapping,[80] marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a male abducts[81] the female he wishes to marry. Bride kidnapping has been practiced around the world and throughout history. It continues to occur in countries in Central Asia, the Caucasus region, and parts of Africa, and among people as diverse as the Hmong in Southeast Asia, the Tzeltal in Mexico, and the Romani in Europe.

In most nations, bride kidnapping is considered a crime rather than a valid form of marriage. Some types of it may also be seen as falling along the continuum between forced marriage and arranged marriage. However, even when the practice is against the law, judicial enforcement remains lax in some areas. Bride kidnapping occurs in various parts of the world, but it is most common in the Caucasus and Central Asia.[82] Bride kidnapping is often a form of child marriage.[83] It may be connected to the practice of bride price, and the inability or unwillingness to pay it.[84]

Debt repayment

Money marriage refers to a marriage where a girl, usually, is married off to a man to settle debts owed by her parents.[85]

Persecution, forced migration, and slavery

Social upheavals such as wars, major military campaigns, forced religious conversion, taking natives as prisoners of war and converting them into slaves, arrest and forced migrations of people often made a suitable groom a rare commodity. Bride's families would seek out any available bachelors and marry them to their daughters before events beyond their control moved the boy away. Persecution and displacement of Roma and Jewish people in Europe, colonial campaigns to get slaves from various ethnic groups in West Africa across the Atlantic for plantations, Islamic campaigns to get Hindu slaves from India across Afghanistan's Hindu Kush as property and for work, were some of the historical events that increased the practice of child marriage before the 19th century.[72][86][87]

Among Sephardi Jewish communities, child marriages became frequent from the 10th to 13th centuries, especially in Muslim Spain.[88] This practice intensified after the Jewish community was expelled from Spain, and resettled in the Ottoman Empire. Child marriages among the Eastern Sephardic Jews continued through the 18th century in Islamic majority regions.[88][89][90]

Fear, poverty, social pressures and a sense of protection

English stage actress Ellen Terry was married at age 16 to George Frederic Watts who was 46 years old, a marriage her parents thought would be advantageous; later she said she was uncomfortable being a child bride. Terry died at the age of 81, in 1928.

A sense of social insecurity is a cause of child marriages across the world. For example, in Nepal, parents fear social stigma if adult daughters (past 18 years) stay at home. Others fear crimes such as rape, which not only would be traumatic but may lead to less acceptance of the girl if she becomes a victim of such a crime.[91] For example, girls may not be seen as eligible for marriage if they are not virgins.[92] In other cultures, the fear is that an unmarried girl may engage in illicit relationships,[93] or elope, causing a permanent social blemish to her siblings, or that the impoverished family may be unable to find bachelors for grown-up girls in their socioeconomic group. Such fears and social pressures have been proposed as causes that lead to child marriages. Insofar as child marriage is a social norm in practicing communities, the elimination of child marriage must come through a changing of those social norms. The mindset of the communities, and what is believed to be the proper outcome for a child bride, must be shifted to bring about a change in the prevalence of child marriage.[94]

Extreme poverty may make daughters an economic burden on the family, which may be relieved by their early marriage,[95] to the benefit of the family as well as the girl herself. Poor parents may have few alternatives they can afford for the girls in the family; they often view marriage as a means to ensure their daughter's financial security and to reduce the economic burden of a growing adult on the family.[6][96] Child marriage can also be seen as means of ensuring a girl's economic security, particularly if she lacks family members to provide for her.[97] In reviews of Jewish community history, scholars[98][99][100] claim poverty, shortage of grooms, uncertain social and economic conditions were a cause of frequent child marriages.

Drawings by young Syrian refugee girls in a community center in southern Lebanon promote the prevention of child marriage.

An additional factor causing child marriage is the parental belief that early marriage offers protection. Parents feel that marriage provides their daughter with a sense of protection from sexual promiscuity and safe from sexually transmitted infections.[6][74] However, in reality, young girls tend to marry older men, placing them at an increased risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection.

Protection through marriage may play a specific role in conflict settings. Families may have their young daughters marry members of an armed group or military in hopes that they will be better protected. Girls may also be taken by armed groups and forced into marriages.[97]

Religion, culture and civil law

Although the general marriageable age is 18 in the majority of countries, most jurisdictions allow for exceptions for underage youth with parental and/or judicial consent.[71] Such laws are neither limited to developing countries, nor a state's religion. In some countries, a religious marriage by itself has legal validity, while in others it does not, as civil marriage is obligatory. For Catholics incorporated into the Latin Church, the 1983 Code of Canon Law sets the minimum age for a valid marriage at 16 for males and 14 for females.[58]:c. 1083 §1[lower-alpha 1] In 2015, Spain raised its minimum marriageable age to 18 (16 with court consent) from the previous 14.[101] In Mexico, marriage under 18 is allowed with parental consent, from age 14 for girls and age 16 for boys.[102] In Ukraine, in 2012, the Family Code was amended to equalize the marriageable age for girls and boys to 18, with courts being allowed to grant permission to marry from 16 years of age if it is established that the marriage is in the best interest of the youth.[103]

Many states in the US permit child marriages, with the court's permission. Since 2015, the minimum marriageable age throughout Canada is 16. In Canada the age of majority is set by province/territory at 18 or 19, so minors under this age have additional restrictions (i.e. parental and court consent). Under the Criminal Code, Art. 293.2 Marriage under the age of 16 years reads: "Everyone who celebrates, aids or participates in a marriage rite or ceremony knowing that one of the persons being married is under the age of 16 years is guilty of an indictable offense and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years."[104] The Civil Marriage Act also states: "2.2 No person who is under the age of 16 years may contract marriage."[105] In the UK, marriage is allowed for 16–17 years old with parental consent in England and Wales as well as in Northern Ireland, and even without parental consent in Scotland.[106] However, a marriage of a person under 16 is void under the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973.[107] The United Nations Population Fund stated the following:[71]

In 2010, 158 countries reported that 18 years was the minimum legal age for marriage for women without parental consent or approval by a pertinent authority. However, in 146 countries, state or customary law allows girls younger than 18 to marry with the consent of parents or other authorities; in 52 countries, girls under age 15 can marry with parental consent. In contrast, 18 is the legal age for marriage without consent among males in 180 countries. Additionally, in 105 countries, boys can marry with the consent of a parent or a pertinent authority, and in 23 countries, boys under age 15 can marry with parental consent.

Lower legally allowed marriage age does not necessarily cause high rates of child marriages. However, there is a correlation between restrictions placed by laws and the average age of first marriage. In the United States, per 1960 Census data, 3.5% of girls married before the age of 16, while an additional 11.9% married between 16 and 18. States with lower marriage age limits saw higher percentages of child marriages.[35] This correlation between the higher age of marriage in civil law and the observed frequency of child marriages breaks down in countries with Islam as the state religion. In Islamic nations, many countries do not allow child marriage of girls under their civil code of laws. But, the state recognized Sharia religious laws and courts in all these nations have the power to override the civil code, and often do. UNICEF reports that the top eight nations in the world with the highest observed child marriage rates are Niger (75%), Chad (72%), Mali (71%), Bangladesh (64%), Guinea (63%), Central African Republic (61%), Mozambique (56%), and Nepal (51%).[23]


Ancient Rabbis set the age of marriage for every Israelite at 18 years old; males are expected to be married by 20 years old in teenage marriage and females can stay unmarried but must be celibate.[108]

In Rabbinic Judaism, males cannot consent to marriage until they reach the age of 13 years and a day and have undergone puberty. They are considered minors until the age of twenty. The same rules apply to females, except their age is 12 years and a day. If females show no signs of puberty and males show no signs of puberty or do show impotence, they automatically become adults by age 35 and can marry.[109][110]

A large age gap between spouses, in either direction, is advised against as unwise.[111] A younger woman marrying a significantly older man however is especially problematic: marrying one's young daughter to an old man was declared as reprehensible as forcing her into prostitution.[112]

A ketannah (literally meaning "little [one]") was any girl between the age of 3 years and 12 years plus one day;[113] she was subject to her father's authority, and he could arrange a marriage for her without her agreement.[113] However, after reaching the age of maturity, she would have to agree to the marriage to be considered married.[114][115]

Catholic Church

The minimum ages of consent for marriage in the Catholic Church are 14 for girls and 16 for boys. Being underage constitutes a diriment impediment. That is, a marriage involving an underage bride or groom is canonically invalid. A Conference of Bishops may adopt a higher age for marriage, but in that case, the higher age only creates a prohibitive impediment, that is, a marriage involving a bride or groom above the Church's minimum age but below that set by the Conference is valid but illicit. Permission to marry against a civil authority's directive requires the permission of the Ordinary, which, in the case of sensible and equal laws regarding marriage age, is not usually granted. The permission by the Ordinary is also required in case of a marriage of a minor when their parents are unaware of his marriage or if their parents reasonably oppose the marriage.[116]


In classical Islamic law, suitability for marital relations is conditional on physical maturity (bulugh) and mental maturity (rushd). Classical jurists did not stipulate a minimum marriageable age because they did not believe that maturity is reached by everyone at a specific age.[117][118][105][6][119] Büchler and Schlater observe that "marriageable age according to classical Islamic law coincides with the occurrence of puberty. The notion of puberty refers to signs of physical maturity such as the emission of semen or the onset of menstruation". Traditional schools of Islamic jurisprudence (madhaahib) define the age of full legal capacity to enter marriage as follows:[120]

Male ageFemale ageNotes
Hanafi12–189–17Marriageable age is whenever the person reaches puberty, which may vary person to person. Listed ages are when Hanafis presume puberty occurs in males and females.[121]

According to Büchler and Schlater, while marriageable age is not the same as the legal majority under civil law, these age limits may correspond.[120]

The 1917 codification of Islamic family law in the Ottoman Empire distinguished between the age of competence for marriage, which was set at 18 for boys and 17 for girls, and the minimum age for marriage, which followed the traditional Hanafi ages of the legal majority of 12 for boys and 9 for girls. Marriage below the age of competence was permissible only if proof of sexual maturity was accepted in court, while marriage under the minimum age was forbidden. During the 20th century, most countries in the Middle East followed the Ottoman precedent in defining the age of competence, while raising the minimum age to 15 or 16 for boys and 13–16 for girls. Marriage below the age of competence is subject to approval by a judge and the legal guardian of the adolescent. Egypt diverged from this pattern by setting the age limits of 18 for boys and 16 for girls, without a distinction between competence for marriage and minimum age.[63] In 2020, Saudi Arabia officially banned all marriages under the age of 18.[122] The push to ban child marriage was initially opposed by senior clergy, who argued that a woman reaches adulthood at puberty.[123] However, by 2019 the Saudi Shura Council had outlawed marriages under the age of 15, and required court approval for those under 18.[124]

Politics and financial relationships

Child marriage in 1697 of Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, age 12 to Louis, heir apparent of France age 15. The marriage created a political alliance.

Child marriages may depend upon socio-economic status. The aristocracy in some cultures, as in the European feudal era tended to use child marriage as a method to secure political ties. Families were able to cement political and/or financial ties by having their children marry.[125] The betrothal is considered a binding contract between the families and the children. The breaking of a betrothal can have serious consequences both for the families and for the betrothed individuals themselves.

Effects on global regions

A UNFPA report stated, "For the period 2000–2011, just over one third (an estimated 34 percent) of women aged 20 to 24 years in developing regions were married or in union before their eighteenth birthday. In 2010 this was equivalent to almost 67 million women. About 12 percent of them were married or in union before age 15."[71] The prevalence of child marriage varies substantially among countries.[71] Around the world, girls from rural areas are twice as likely to marry as children as those from urban areas.[126]


RUN, a short documentary film focusing on child marriage in Nigeria.
Poster against child and forced marriage

According to UNICEF, Africa has the highest incidence rates of child marriage, with over 50% of girls marrying under the age of eighteen in five nations.[23] Girls in West and Central Africa have the highest risk of marrying in childhood. Niger has one of the highest rates of early marriage in sub-Saharan Africa. Among Nigerien women between the ages of twenty and twenty-four, 76% reported marrying before the age of eighteen and 28% reported marrying before the age of fifteen.[127] This UNICEF report is based on data that is derived from a small sample survey between 1995 and 2004, and the current rate is unknown given the lack of infrastructure and in some cases, regional violence.[128]

UNICEF stated in 2018 that although the number of child marriages has declined on a worldwide scale, the problem remains most severe in Africa, despite the fact that Ethiopia cut child marriage rates by a third.[129]

African countries have enacted marriageable age laws to limit marriage to a minimum age of 16 to 18, depending on the jurisdiction. In Ethiopia, Chad and Niger, the legal marriage age is 15, but local customs and religious courts have the power to allow marriages below 12 years of age.[130] Child marriages of girls in West Africa, Central Africa and Northeast Africa are widespread.[131] Additionally, poverty, religion, tradition, and conflict make the rate of child marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa very high in some regions.[74][132]

In many traditional systems, a man pays a bride price to the girl's family to marry her (comparable to the customs of dowry and dower). In many parts of Africa, this payment, in cash, cattle, or other valuables, decreases as a girl gets older. Even before a girl reaches puberty, it is common for a married girl to leave her parents to be with her husband. Many marriages are related to poverty, with parents needing the bride price of a daughter to feed, clothe, educate, and house the rest of the family. In Mali, the female: male ratio of marriage before age 18 is 72:1; in Kenya, 21:1.[74]

The various reports indicate that in many Sub-Saharan countries, there is a high incidence of marriage among girls younger than 15. Many governments have tended to overlook the particular problems resulting from child marriage, including obstetric fistulae, premature births, stillbirth, sexually transmitted diseases (including cervical cancer), and malaria.[74]

In parts of Ethiopia and Nigeria, many girls are married before the age of 15, some as young as 7[133][127] In parts of Mali, 39% of girls are married before the age of 15. In Niger and Chad, over 70% of girls are married before the age of 18.[74]

The Gambia

In 2016, during a feast ending the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, Gambian President Yahya Jammeh announced that child and forced marriages were banned.[134][135]


In Kenya 23% of girls are married before age 18, including 4% by age 15.[136]


In 2015, Malawi passed a law banning child marriage, which raises the minimum age for marriage to 18.[137] This major accomplishment came following years of effort by the Girls Empowerment Network campaign, which ultimately led to tribal and traditional leaders banning the cultural practice of child marriage.[138]


In Morocco, child marriage is a common practice. Over 41,000 marriages every year involve child brides.[139] Before 2003, child marriages did not require a court or state's approval. In 2003, Morocco passed the family law (Moudawana) that raised the minimum age of marriage for girls from 14 to 18, with the exception that underage girls may marry with the permission of the government-recognized official/court and girl's guardian.[140][141] Over the 10 years preceding 2008, requests for child marriages have been predominantly approved by Morocco's Ministry for Social Development, and have increased (c. 29% of all marriages).[139][142] Some child marriages in Morocco are a result of Article 475 of the Moroccan penal code, a law that allows rapists to avoid punishment if they marry their underage victims.[143][144] Article 475 was amended in January 2014 after much campaigning, and rapists can legally no longer avoid sentencing by marrying their victims.[145]


In 2019, Mozambique's national assembly passed a law prohibiting child marriage. This law came after national movements condemning Mozambique's high rate of child marriage with 50% of girls marrying under the age of 18.[146]


As of 2006, 15–20% of school dropouts in Nigeria were the result of child marriage.[147] In 2013, Nigeria attempted to change Section 29, subsection 4 of its laws and thereby prohibit child marriages. Christianity and Islam are each practiced by roughly half of its population, and the country continues with personal laws from its British colonial-era laws, where child marriages are forbidden for its Christians and allowed for its Muslims.[148][149] In Nigeria, child marriage is a divisive topic and widely practiced. In northern states, predominantly Muslim, over 50% of the girls marry before the age of 15.[150]

South Africa

In South Africa, the law provides for respecting the marriage practices of traditional marriages, whereby a person might be married as young as 12 for females and 14 for males.[74] Early marriage is cited as "a barrier to continuing education for girls (and boys)". This includes absuma (arranged marriages set up between cousins at birth in local Islamic ethnic group), bride kidnapping and elopement decided on by the children.[151]


In 2016, the Tanzanian High Court – in a case filed by the Msichana Initiative, a lobbying group that advocates for girls' right to education – ruled in favor of protecting girls from the harms of early marriage.[135][152] It is now illegal for anyone younger than 18 to marry in Tanzania.[152]


A 2015 Human Rights Watch report stated that in Zimbabwe, one-third of women aged between 20 and 49 years old had married before reaching the age of 18.[153] In January 2016, two women who had been married as children brought a court case requesting a change in the legal age of marriage to the Constitutional Court,[154] with the result that the court declared that 18 is to be the minimum age for a legal marriage for both men and women (previously the legal age had been 16 for women and 18 for men). The law took effect immediately and was hailed by several of human rights, women's rights, medical, and legal groups as a landmark ruling for the country.[155]

Latin America

Child marriage is common in Latin America and the Caribbean island nations. About 29% of girls are married before age 18.[18] Dominican Republic, Honduras, Brazil, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Haiti and Ecuador report some of the highest rates in the Americas,[14] while Bolivia and Guyana have shown the sharpest decline in child marriage rates as of 2012.[156] Brazil is ranked fourth in the world in terms of absolute numbers of girls married or cohabitating by age fifteen.[157]

Poverty and lack of laws mandating minimum age for marriage have been cited as reasons of child marriage in Latin America.[158][159] In an effort to combat the widespread belief among poor, rural, and indigenous communities that child marriage is a route out of poverty, some NGOs are working with communities in Latin America to shift norms and create safe spaces for adolescent girls.[157]

In Guatemala, early marriage is most common among indigenous Mayan communities.[160] In southeastern Colombia, historically the indigenous Nasa sometimes married at early ages to dissuade colonizers from coercively taking girls.[161]


Since 2015, the minimum marriageable age throughout Canada is 16. In Canada the age of majority is set by province/territory at 18 or 19, so minors under this age have additional restrictions (i.e. parental and court consent). Under the Criminal Code, Art. 293.2 Marriage under age of 16 years reads: "Everyone who celebrates, aids or participates in a marriage rite or ceremony knowing that one of the persons being married is under the age of 16 years is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years."[104] The Civil Marriage Act also states: "2.2 No person who is under the age of 16 years may contract marriage."[105]

According to a study from McGill University, from 2000 to 2018, 3,600 marriage certificates were issued to children (mostly girls) under 18 in Canada.[162]

United States

Child marriage, as defined by UNICEF, is observed in the United States. The UNICEF definition of child marriage includes couples who are formally married, or who live together as a sexually active couple in an informal union, with at least one member – usually the girl – being less than 18 years old.[4] The latter practice is more common in the United States, and it is officially called cohabitation. According to a 2010 report by the United States' National Center for Health Statistics, 2.1% of all girls in the 15–17 age group were either in a child marriage or in an informal union. In the age group of 15–19, 7.6% of all girls in the United States were formally married or in an informal union. The child marriage rates were higher for certain ethnic groups and states. In Hispanic groups, for example, 6.6% of all girls in the 15–17 age group were formally married or in an informal union, and 13% of the 15–19 age group were.[7] Over 350,000 babies are born to teenage mothers every year in the United States, and over 50,000 of these are second babies to teen mothers.[163]

Laws regarding child marriage vary in the different states of the United States. Generally, children 16 and over may marry with parental consent, with the age of 18 being the minimum in all but two states to marry without parental consent. However all states but Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania have exceptions for child marriage within their laws, and although those under 16 generally require a court order in addition to parental consent,[164] when those exceptions are taken into account, 17 states have no minimum age requirement.[21]

Until 2008 the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints practiced child marriage through the concept of "spiritual marriage" as soon as it was possible for girls to bear children, as part of its polygamy practice, but laws have raised the age of legal marriage in response to criticism of the practice.[165] In 2007 church leader Warren Jeffs was convicted of being an accomplice to statutory rape of a minor due to arranging a marriage between a 14-year-old girl and a 19-year-old man.[166] In March 2008 officials of the state of Texas believed that children at the Yearning For Zion Ranch were being married to adults and were being abused.[167] The state of Texas removed all 468 children from the ranch and placed them into temporary state custody.[167] After the Austin's 3rd Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court of Texas ruled that Texas acted improperly in removing them from the YFZ Ranch, the children were returned to their parents or relatives.[168] In 2008 the Church changed its policy in the United States to no longer marry individuals younger than the local legal age.[169][170]

Between 2000 and 2015 there were at least 207,468 child marriages in the United States of which over 1,000 marriage licences were for children under 15, some as young as ten years old.[171]

In 2018, Delaware became the first state to ban child marriage without exceptions,[172] followed by New Jersey the same year.[173] In 2020, Pennsylvania became the third state to ban it.[173]


More than half of all child marriages occur in the South Asian countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal.[174] There was a decrease in the rates of child marriage across the Indian subcontinent from 1991 to 2007, but the decrease was observed among young adolescent girls and not girls in their late teens. Some scholars[175] believe this age-specific reduction was linked to girls increasingly attending school until about age 15 and then marrying.

Western Asia

A 2013 report claims 53% of all married women in Afghanistan were married before age 18, and 21% of all were married before age 15. Afghanistan's official minimum age of marriage for girls is 15 with her father's permission.[176] In all 34 provinces of Afghanistan, the customary practice of ba'ad is another reason for child marriages; this custom involves village elders, jirga, settling disputes between families or unpaid debts or ruling punishment for a crime by forcing the guilty family to give their 5- to 12-year-old girls as a wife. Sometimes a girl is forced into child marriage for a crime her uncle or distant relative is alleged to have committed.[177][178] Andrew Bushell claims rate of marriage of 8- to 13-year-old girls exceeding 50% in Afghan refugee camps along the Pakistan border.[179]

Over half of Yemeni girls are married before 18, some by the age eight.[180][181] Yemen government's Sharia Legislative Committee has blocked attempts to raise marriage age to either 15 or 18, on grounds that any law setting minimum age for girls is un-Islamic. Yemeni Muslim activists argue that some girls are ready for marriage at age 9.[182][183] According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), in 1999 the minimum marriage age 15 for women was abolished; the onset of puberty, interpreted by conservatives to be at age nine, was set as a requirement for consummation of marriage.[184] In practice "Yemeni law allows girls of any age to wed, but it forbids sex with them until the indefinite time they're 'suitable for sexual intercourse'."[180] As with Africa, the marriage incidence data for Yemen in HRW report is from surveys between 1990 and 2000. Current data is difficult to obtain because of regional violence.

In April 2008, Nujood Ali, a 10-year-old girl, successfully obtained a divorce after being raped under these conditions. Her case prompted calls to raise the legal age for marriage to 18.[185] Later in 2008, the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood proposed to define the minimum age for marriage at 18 years. The law was passed in April 2009, with the age voted for as 17. But the law was dropped the next day following maneuvers by opposing parliamentarians. Negotiations to pass the legislation continue.[186] Meanwhile, Yemenis inspired by Nujood's efforts continue to push for change, with Nujood involved in at least one rally.[187] In September 2013, an 8-year-old girl died of internal bleeding and uterine rupture on her wedding night after marrying a 40-year-old man.[188]

The widespread prevalence of child marriage in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been documented by human rights groups.[189] Saudi clerics have justified the marriage of girls as young as 9, with sanction from the judiciary.[190] No laws define a minimum age of consent in Saudi Arabia, though drafts for possible laws have been created since 2011.[191] Members of the Saudi Shoura Council in 2019 approved fresh regulations for minor marriages that will outlaw the marrying of 15-year-olds and force the need for court approval for those under 18. Chairman of the Human Rights Committee at the Shoura Council, Dr. Hadi Al-Yami, said that introduced controls were based on in-depth studies presented to the body. He pointed out that the regulation, vetted by the Islamic Affairs Committee at the Shoura Council, has raised the age of marriage to 18 and prohibited it for those under 15.[124] Saudi Arabia has officially updated the law banning all marriages under the age of 18.[122]

Research by the United Nations Population Fund indicates that 28.2% of marriages in Turkey – almost one in three – involve girls under 18.[192][193]

Child marriage was also found to be prevalent among Syrian and Palestinian Syrian refugees in Lebanon, in addition to other forms of sexual and gender-based violence. Marriage was seen as a potential way to protect family honor and protect a girl from rape given how common rape was during the conflict.[194] Incidents of child marriages increased in Syria and among Syrian refugees over the course of the conflict. The proportion of Syrian refugee girls living in Jordan who were married increased from 13% in 2011 to 32% in 2014.[195] Journalists Magnus Wennman and Carina Bergfeldt documented the practice, and some of its results.[196]

Southeast Asia

Hill tribes girls are often married young. For the Karen people it is possible that two couples can arrange their children's marriage before the children are born.[197]


In a move to curb child marriage in Indonesia, the minimum marriage age for girls in Indonesia will be raised to 19 in 2022. Previously, under the 1974 marriage law, the marriage age for girls was 16, and there was no minimum with judicial consent.[198][199]

There has been an increase in underage marriage which has been attributed to a rise in social networking sites like Facebook. It has been reported that in areas like Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, couples become acquainted through Facebook and continuing their relationships until girls became pregnant.[200] Under Indonesian law underage marriage is prosecuted as sexual abuse, though unregistered marriages between young girls and older men are common in rural areas.[201] In one case that caused a nationwide outcry, a wealthy Muslim cleric married a 12-year-old girl. He was prosecuted for sexually abusing a minor and sentenced to 4 years in jail.[201][202]

Among the Atjeh of Sumatra girls formerly married before puberty. The husbands, though usually older, were still unfit for sexual union.[203]


In June 2018, the Malaysian public learned that a 41-year-old Malaysian man had married an 11-year-old girl in Golok, a border town in southern Thailand.[204] The man, who already had two wives and six children, was said to be the imam of a surau at a village in Gua Musang, Kelantan.[205] The parents of the 11-year-old girl defended their decision to allow their daughter's marriage to the man.[206]

In response to this incident, Deputy Prime Minister Datuk Seri Wan Azizah Wan Ismail said that the marriage remained valid under Islam.[207] She also said in a press statement that "the Malaysian government "unequivocally" opposes child marriages and is already taking steps to raise the minimum age of marriage to 18".[208]

Following this controversy, Minister in the Prime Minister's Department Datuk Mujahid Yusof Rawa proposed a blanket ban on marriages involving minors.[209][210][211][212] In response, PAS Vice President Datuk Mohd Amar Nik Abdullah said that imposing a blanket ban on child marriage contravened Islamic religious teachings and, therefore, could not be accepted.[213] He also claimed it would be better to enforce existing laws to protect young children from being forced into unwanted early marriages.[214]

In July 2018 another case of a child bride was reported in Malaysia, involving a 19-year-old man from Terengganu and a 13-year-old girl from Kelantan.[215]

In August 2018, Selangor announced plans for an amendment to the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003 which would raise the minimum age of marriage for Muslim women from 16 to 18 years.[216]

Another child marriage case was covered by the media in September 2018.[217][218]

Malaysia planned to tighten the requirements for child marriages in 2019.[219] Subsequently, any marriage with minors would have to go through a stringent approval process involving Shariah Court Department, the Home Ministry, State Religious Council and Customary Courts.


In December 2021, President Rodrigo Duterte signed a law criminalizing child marriage, including its facilitation and solemnization, and cohabitation of an adult with a child outside wedlock.[220][221]

Before the law change, the legal age for marriage was 18 for most Filipinos, however Muslim Filipino boys were able to marry from age 15, and Muslim girls from puberty.[222]

According to UNICEF, 15% of Filipino girls were married before age 18, and 2% were married by 15.[223] mostly in the Muslim-dominated Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao region[224]


Child marriage rates in Bangladesh are amongst the highest in the world.[23] Every 2 out of 3 marriages involve child marriages. According to statistics from 2005, 49% of women then between 25 and 29 were married by the age of 15 in Bangladesh.[127] According to a 2008 study, for each additional year a girl in rural Bangladesh is not married she will attend school an additional 0.22 years on average.[225] The later girls were married, the more likely they were to utilize preventive health care.[225] Married girls in the region were found to have less influence on family planning, higher rates of maternal mortality, and lower status in their husband's family than girls who married later.[225] Another study found that women who married at age 18 or older were less likely to experience IPV (intimate partner violence) than those married before age 18. It also found that girls married before age 15 were at an even higher risk for IPV.[226]


In 1900, Rana Prathap Kumari, aged 12, married Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV, aged 16. Two years later, he was recognized as the Maharaja of Mysore under British India.

According to UNICEF's "State of the World's Children-2009" report, 47% of India's women aged 20–24 married before the legal age of 18, with 56% marrying before age 18 in rural areas.[227] The report also showed that 40% of the world's child marriages occur in India.[228] As with Africa, this UNICEF report is based on data that is derived from a small sample survey in 1999.[229] The latest available UNICEF report for India uses 2004–2005 household survey data, on a small sample, and other scholars[174] report lower incidence rates for India. According to Raj et al., the 2005 small sample household survey data suggests 22% of girls ever married aged 16–18, 20% of girls in India married between 13 and 16, and 2.6% married before age 13. According to 2011 nationwide census of India, the average age of marriage for women in India is 21.[230] The child marriage rates in India, according to a 2009 representative survey, dropped to 7%.[231] In its 2001 demographic report, the Census of India stated zero married girls below age 10, 1.4 million married girls out of 59.2 million girls in the age 10–14, and 11.3 million married girls out of 46.3 million girls in the age 15–19 (which includes 18–19 age group).[232] For 2011, the Census of India reports child marriage rates dropping further to 3.7% of females aged less than 18 being married.[233]

The Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929 was passed during the tenure of British rule on Colonial India. It forbade the marriage of a male younger than 21 or a female younger than 18 for Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and most people of India. However, this law did not and currently does not apply to India's 165 million Muslim population, and only applies to India's Hindu, Christian, Jain, Sikh and other religious minorities. This link of law and religion was formalized by the British colonial rule with the Muslim personal laws codified in the Indian Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act of 1937. The age at which India's Muslim girls can legally marry, according to this Muslim Personal Law, is 9, and can be lower if her guardian (wali) decides she is sexually mature.[234][235] Over the last 25 years, All India Muslim Personal Law Board and other Muslim civil organizations have actively opposed India-wide laws and enforcement action against child marriages; they have argued that Indian Muslim families have a religious right to marry a girl aged 15 or even 12.[236] Several states of India claim specially high child marriage rates in their Muslim and tribal communities.[237][238] India, with a population of over 1.2 billion, has the world's highest total number of child marriages. It is a significant social issue. As of 2016, the situation has been legally rectified by The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006.

According to "National Plan of Action for Children 2005", published by Indian government's Department of Women and Child Development, set a goal to eliminate child marriage completely by 2010. In 2006, The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 was passed to prohibit solemnization of child marriages. This law states that men must be at least 21 years of age and women must but be at least 18 years of age to marry.

Some Muslim organizations planned to challenge the new law in the Supreme Court of India.[239] In latter years, various high courts in India – including the Gujarat High Court,[240] the Karnataka High Court[241] and the Madras High Court[242] – have ruled that the act prevails over any personal law (including Muslim personal law).


UNICEF reported that 28.8% of marriages in Nepal were child marriages as of 2011.[243] A UNICEF discussion paper determined that 79.6 percent of Muslim girls in Nepal, 69.7 percent of girls living in hilly regions irrespective of religion, and 55.7 percent of girls living in other rural areas, are all married before the age of 15. Girls born into the highest wealth quintile marry about two years later than those from the other quintiles.[244]


According to a UNICEF report from 2018, around 18% of the girls in Pakistan were married before the age of 18[245][246] and 4% of the girls were married before the age of 15.[245] In the past two 2013 reports suggest that over 50% of all marriages in Pakistan involve girls less than 18 years old.[247][248]

The exact number of child marriages in Pakistan below the age of 13 is unknown, but rising according to the United Nations.[249]

Another custom in Pakistan, called swara or vani, involves village elders solving family disputes or settling unpaid debts by marrying off girls. The average marriage age of swara girls is between 5 and 9.[250][251] Similarly, the custom of watta satta has been cited[252] as a cause of child marriages in Pakistan.

According to Population Council, 35% of all females in Pakistan become mothers before they reach the age of 18, and 67% have experienced pregnancy – 69% of these have given birth – before they reach the age of 19.[253] Less than 4% of married girls below the age of 19 had some say in choosing her spouse; over 80% were married to a near or distant relative. Child marriage and early motherhood is common in Pakistan.[254]


Though the legal age of marriage in Iran is 13 years for girls and 15 for boys, there are cases of girls below the age of 10 being married.[255] The same source pointed out that "child marriages are more common in socially backward rural areas often afflicted with high levels of illiteracy and drug addiction". In October 2019, a prosecutor annulled the marriage of an 11-year-old girl to her adult cousin in rural Iran, and said he was indicting the mullah (officiant) and the girl's parents for an illegal underage marriage.[256] According to the Iranian Students News Agency, nearly 6,000 children are married each year in Iran.[256]

The U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) examining child marriage in Iran has warned of a rising number of young girls forced into marriage in Iran.[257] The Committee deplored the fact that the State party allows sexual intercourse involving girls as young as 9 lunar years and that other forms of sexual abuse of even younger children is not criminalized.[258] CRC said that Tehran must "repeal all provisions that authorize, condone or lead to child sexual abuse" and called for the age of sexual consent to be increased from nine years old to 16. The Society For Protecting The Rights of The Child said that 43,459 girls aged under 15 married in 2009. In 2010, 716 girls under the age of 10 married, up from 449 in the year prior.[257] On 8 March 2018 a member of the Tehran City Council, Shahrbanoo Amani said that there were 15,000 widows under the age of 15 in the country.[259]


Each European country has its own laws; in both the European Union and the Council of Europe the marriageable age falls within the jurisdiction of individual member states. The Istanbul convention, the first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of violence against women and domestic violence,[260] only requires countries which ratify it to prohibit forced marriage (Article 37) and to ensure that forced marriages can be easily voided without further victimization (Article 32), but does not make any reference to a minimum age of marriage.

European Union

In the European Union, the general age of marriage as a right is 18 in all member states. When all exceptions are taken into account (such as judicial or parental consent), the minimum age is 16 in most countries, and in Estonia it is 15. In 6 countries marriage under 18 is completely prohibited. By contrast, in 6 countries there is no set minimum age, although all these countries require the authorization of a public authority (such as judge or social worker) for the marriage to take place.

State Minimum age Notes
Minimum age when all exceptions are taken into account General age
 Austria 16 18 16 with parental consent.[261]
 Belgium none 18 Younger than 18 and only after judicial consent (with no strict minimum age). With parental consent, serious reasons are required for a minor to obtain judicial consent for a marriage; without parental consent, serious reasons are required and the unwillingness of the parents has to constitute an abuse.[262]
 Bulgaria 16 18 The new 2009 Family Code fixes the age at 18, but allows for an exception for 16 years olds, stating that "Upon exception, in case that important reasons impose this, matrimony may be concluded by a person at the age of 16 with permission by the regional judge". It further states that both persons wanting to marry, as well as the parents/guardians of the minor, must be consulted by the judge. (Chapter 2, Article 6)[263]
 Croatia 16 18 16 with judicial consent.
 Cyprus 16 18 16 with parental consent, if there are serious reasons for the marriage.[264][265]
 Czech Republic 16 18 Article 672 of Act No. 89/2012 Coll. the Civil Code (which came into force in 2014) states that the court may, in exceptional cases, allow a marriage of a 16-year-old, if there are serious reasons for it.[266]
 Denmark 18 18 Since 2017, marriage is no longer allowed under 18.[267]
 Estonia 15 18 15 with court permission.[268][269]
 Finland 18 18 Under 18 marriages with judicial authorization were banned in 2019.[270]
 France none 18 Under 18 needs judicial authorization.[271]
 Germany 18 18 The minimum age was set at 18 in 2017.[272]
 Greece none 18 Under 18 requires court permission, which may be given if there are serious reasons for such a marriage[264][273]
 Hungary 16 18 16 with authorization from the guardianship authority[274]
 Ireland 18 18 Since 2019, marriage under 18 is banned.[275]
 Italy 16 18 16 with court consent.[276]
 Latvia 16 18 16 with court consent.[277]
 Lithuania none girls/15 boys 18 15 with court permission. Girls can marry below 15 with court permission if they are pregnant.[278]
 Luxembourg none 18 Under 18 need judicial permission. New laws of 2014 fixed the marriageable at 18 for both sexes; prior to these regulations the age was 16 for females and 18 for males. The new laws still allow both sexes to obtain judicial consent to get married under 18.[279]
 Malta 16 18 16 with parental consent.[280]
 Netherlands 18 18 Exceptions were removed by a change in the law in 2015.[281]
 Poland 16 girls/18 boys 18 16 for girls with court consent.[282]
 Portugal 16 18 16 with parental consent.[283]
 Romania 16 18 16, if there are valid reasons, with both judicial and parental permission, as well as medical approval.[284]
 Slovakia 16 18 16 with court consent, with a serious reason such as pregnancy.
 Slovenia none 18 Under 18 may be approved by the Social Work Centre if there are "well founded reasons" arising upon the investigation of the situation of the minor. (Art 23, 24 of the Law on Marriage and Family Relations).[285]
 Spain 16 18 16 with court consent.
 Sweden 18 18 Not possible to marry under the age of 18 for Swedish citizens since 1 July 2014.[286] Authorities take a different approach to individuals who were already married when the arrive in Sweden, as during the European migrant crisis, the Swedish Migration Agency identified 132 married children, of which 65 were in Malmö.[287]


In April 2016, Reuters reported "Child brides sometimes tolerated in Nordic asylum centers despite bans". For example, at least 70 girls under 18 were living as married couples in Sweden; in Norway, "some" under 16 lived "with their partners". In Denmark, it was determined there were "dozens of cases of girls living with older men", prompting Minister Inger Stojberg to state she would "stop housing child brides in asylum centres".[288]

Marriage under 18 was completely banned in Sweden in 2014, in Denmark in 2017,[267] and in Finland in 2019.[289]

Balkans/Eastern Europe

In these areas, child and forced marriages are associated with the Roma community and with some rural populations. However, such marriages are illegal in most of the countries from that area. In recent years, many of those countries have taken steps in order to curb these practices, including equalizing the marriageable age of both sexes (e.g. Romania in 2007, Ukraine in 2012). Therefore, most of those 'marriages' are informal unions (without legal recognition) and often arranged from very young ages. Such practices are common in Serbia,[290] Bulgaria and Romania[291][292] (in these countries the marriageable age is 18, and can only be lowered to 16 in special circumstances with judicial approval[293][294][295]). A 2003 case involving the daughter of an informal 'gypsy king' of the area has made international news.[296]


The Washington Post reported in April 2016 that "17 child brides" arrived in Belgium in 2015 and a further 7 so far in 2016. The same report added that "Between 2010 and 2013, the police registered at least 56 complaints about a forced marriage."[297]


In 2016 there were 1475 underage foreigners were registered in Germany, of which 1100 were girls. Syrians represented 664, Afghans 157 and Iraqis 100. In July 2016, 361 foreign children under 14 were registered as married.[298]


The Dutch government's National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings and Sexual Violence against Children wrote that "between September 2015 and January 2016 around 60 child brides entered the Netherlands".[299] At least one was 14 years old.[300][301] The Washington Post reported that asylum centres in the Netherlands were "housing 20 child brides between ages 13 and 15" in 2015.[302]


The common marriageable age established by the Family Code of Russia is 18 years old. Marriages of persons at age from 16 to 18 years allowed only with good reasons and by local municipal authority permission. Marriage before 16 years old may be allowed by federal subject of Russia law as an exception just in special circumstances.[303]

By 2016, a minimum age for marriage in special circumstances had been established at 14 years (in Adygea,[304] Kaluga Oblast,[305] Magadan Oblast,[306] Moscow Oblast,[307] Nizhny Novgorod Oblast,[308] Novgorod Oblast,[309] Oryol Oblast,[310] Sakhalin Oblast,[311] Tambov Oblast,[312] Tatarstan,[313] Vologda Oblast[314]) or to 15 years (in Murmansk Oblast[315] and Ryazan Oblast[316]). Others subjects of Russia also can have marriageable age laws.

Abatement of marriageable age is an ultimate measure acceptable in cases of life threat, pregnancy and childbirth.[304][315]

United Kingdom

The marriageable age in both England and Wales is 18 with no exemptions since 1 May 2022 (16 with consent of both parents or guardians, plus also a magistrate approval required within Northern Ireland only),[317][318] although in Scotland[319] no parental consent is required over 16.[320] Scotland and Andorra are the only European jurisdictions where 16 year-olds can marry as a right (i.e. without parental or court approval); see Marriageable age § Europe.

In the UK girls as young as 12 have been smuggled in to be brides of men in the Muslim community, according to a 2004 report in The Guardian. Girls trying to escape this child marriage can face death because this breaks the honor code of her husband and both families.[321]

As with the United States, underage cohabitation is observed in the United Kingdom. According to a 2005 study, 4.1% of all girls in the 15–19 age group in the UK were cohabiting (living in an informal union), while 8.9% of all girls in that age group admitted to having been in a cohabitation relation (child marriage per UNICEF definition[4]), before the age of 18. Over 4% of all underage girls in the UK were teenage mothers.[8]

In July 2014, the United Kingdom hosted its first global Girl Summit; the goal of the Summit was to increase efforts to end child, early, and forced marriage and female genital mutilation within a generation.[322]


The Marquesas Islands have been noted for their sexual culture. Many sexual activities seen as taboo in Western cultures are viewed appropriate by the native culture. One of these differences is that children are introduced and educated to sex at a very young age. Contact with Western societies has changed many of these customs, so research into their pre-Western social history has to be done by reading antique writings. Children slept in the same room as their parents and were able to witness their parents while they had sex. Intercourse simulation became real penetration as soon as boys were physically able. Adults found simulation of sex by children to be funny. As children approached 11 attitudes shifted toward girls. When a child reaches adulthood, they are educated on sexual techniques by a much older adult.

Yuri Lisyansky in his memoirs[323] reports that:

The next day, as soon as it was light, we were surrounded by a still greater multitude of these people. There were now a hundred females at least; and they practised all the arts of lewd expression and gesture, to gain admission on board. It was with difficulty I could get my crew to obey the orders I had given on this subject. Amongst these females were some not more than ten years of age. But youth, it seems, is here no test of innocence; these infants, as I may call them, rivalled their mothers in the wantonness of their motions and the arts of allurement.

Adam Johann von Krusenstern in his book[324] about the same expedition as Yuri's, reports that a father brought a 10- to 12-year-old girl on his ship, and she had sex with the crew. According to the book[325] of Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu and Étienne Marchand, eight-year-old girls had sex and other unnatural acts in public.[326][327][328][329][330]


Birth rates per 1,000 women aged 15–19 years, worldwide.

Child marriage has lasting consequences on girls that last well beyond adolescence.[65][331] Women married in their teens or earlier struggle with the health effects of pregnancy at a young age and often with little spacing between children.[92] Early marriages followed by teen pregnancy also significantly increase birth complications and social isolation. In poor countries, early pregnancy limits or can even eliminate a woman's education options, affecting her economic independence. Girls in child marriages are more likely to suffer from domestic violence, child sexual abuse, and marital rape.[65][332]


Child marriage threatens the health and life of girls.[333] Complications from pregnancy and childbirth are the main cause of death among adolescent girls below age 19 in developing countries. Girls aged 15 to 19 are twice as likely to die in childbirth as fully-grown women in their 20s, and girls under the age of 15 are five to seven times more likely to die during childbirth.[74] These consequences are due largely to girls' physical immaturity wherefore the pelvis and birth canal are not fully developed. Teen pregnancy, particularly below age 15, increases risk of developing obstetric fistula, since their smaller pelvises make them prone to obstructed labor.[74] Girls who give birth before the age of 15 have an 88% risk of developing fistula.[74] and those between 18 and 15 have a 25% chance. Fistula leaves its victims with urine or fecal incontinence that causes lifelong complications with infection and pain.[334] Unless surgically repaired, obstetric fistulas can cause years of permanent disability, shame to mothers, and can result in being shunned by the community.[6][335] Married girls also have a higher risk of sexually transmitted infections, cervical cancer, and malaria than non-married peers or girls who marry in their 20s.[74]

Child marriage also threatens the lives of offspring. Mothers under the age of 18 years have 35 to 55% increased risk of delivering pre-term or having a low birth weight baby than a mother who is 19 or 20 years old. In addition, infant mortality rates are 60% higher when the mother is under 18 years old. Infants born to child mothers tend to have weaker immune systems and face a heightened risk of malnutrition.[6]

Prevalence of child marriage may also be associated with higher rates of population growth, more cases of children left orphaned, and the accelerated spread of disease which for many translate into prolonged poverty.[225]

Illiteracy and poverty

Child marriage often ends a girl's education, particularly in impoverished countries where child marriages are common.[336] In addition, uneducated girls are more at risk for child marriage. Girls who have only a primary education are twice as likely to marry before age 18 than those with a secondary or higher education, and girls with no education are three times more likely to marry before age 18 than those with a secondary education.[71] Early marriage impedes a young girl's ability to continue with her education as most drop out of school following marriage[337] to focus their attention on domestic duties and having or raising children.[338] Girls may be taken out of school years before they are married due to family or community beliefs that allocating resources for girls' education is unnecessary given that her primary roles will be that of wife and mother.[97] Without education, girls and adult women have fewer opportunities to earn an income and financially provide for themselves and their children. This makes girls more vulnerable to persistent poverty if their spouses die, abandon them, or divorce them.[65] Given that girls in child marriages are often significantly younger than their husbands, they become widowed earlier in life and may face associated economic and social challenges for a greater portion of their life than women who marry later.[97]

Domestic violence

Married teenage girls with low levels of education suffer greater risk of social isolation and domestic violence than more educated women who marry as adults.[74][339] Following marriage, girls frequently relocate to their husband's home and take on the domestic role of being a wife, which often involves relocating to another village or area. This transition may result in a young girl dropping out of school, moving away from her family and friends, and a loss of the social support that she once had.[6] A husband's family may also have higher expectations for the girl's submissiveness to her husband and his family because of her youth.[92] This sense of isolation from a support system can have severe mental health implications including depression.

Large age gaps between the child and her spouse makes her more vulnerable to domestic violence and marital rape.[340] Girls who marry as children face severe and life-threatening marital violence at higher rates.[341] Husbands in child marriages are often more than ten years older than their wives. This can increase the power and control a husband has over his wife and contribute to prevalence of spousal violence.[97] Early marriage places young girls in a vulnerable situation of being completely dependent on her husband. Domestic and sexual violence from their husbands has lifelong, devastating mental health consequences for young girls because they are at a formative stage of psychological development.[65] These mental health consequences of spousal violence can include depression and suicidal thoughts.[92] Child brides, particularly in situations such as vani, also face social isolation, emotional abuse and discrimination in the homes of their husbands and in-laws.

Women's rights

The United Nations, through a series of conventions has declared child marriage a violation of human rights. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination of Women ('CEDAW'), the Committee on the Rights of the Child ('CRC'), and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights form the international standard against child marriage.[71] Child marriages impact violates a range of women's interconnected rights such as equality on grounds of sex and age, to receive the highest attainable standard of health, to be free from slavery, access to education, freedom of movement, freedom from violence, reproductive rights, and the right to consensual marriage.[65][342][343] The consequence of these violations impact woman, her children and the broader society.


High rates of child marriage negatively impact countries' economic development because of early marriages' impact on girls' education and labor market participation.[337] Some researchers and activists note that high rates of child marriage prevent significant progress toward each of the eight Millennium Development Goals and global efforts to reduce poverty due to its effects on educational attainment, economic and political participation, and health.[337]

A UNICEF Nepal issued report noted that child marriage impacts Nepal's development due to loss of productivity, poverty, and health effects. Using Nepal Multi-Indicator Survey data, its researchers estimate that all girls delaying marriage until age 20 and after would increase cash flow among Nepali women in an amount equal to 3.87% of the country's GDP.[243] Their estimates considered decreased education and employment among girls in child marriages in addition to low rates of education and high rates of poverty among children from child marriages.

International initiatives to prevent child marriage

In December 2011 a resolution adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/66/170) designated 11 October as the International Day of the Girl Child.[344] On 11 October 2012 the first International Day of the Girl Child was held, the theme of which was ending child marriage.[344]

In 2013 the first United Nations Human Rights Council resolution against child, early, and forced marriages was adopted; it recognizes child marriage as a human rights violation and pledges to eliminate the practice as part of the U.N.'s post-2015 global development agenda.[345][346][347]

In 2014 the UN's Commission on the Status of Women issued a document in which they agreed, among other things, to eliminate child marriage.[348]

The World Health Organization recommends increased educational attainment among girls, increased enforcement structures for existing minimum marriage age laws, and informing parents in practicing communities of the risks associated as primary methods to prevent child marriages.[349]

Programs to prevent child marriage have taken several different approaches. Various initiatives have aimed to empower young girls, educate parents on the associated risks, change community perceptions, support girls' education, and provide economic opportunities for girls and their families through means other than marriage. A survey of a variety of prevention programs found that initiatives were most effect when they combined efforts to address financial constraints, education, and limited employment of women.[350]

Girls in families participating in an unconditional cash transfer program in Malawi aimed at incentivizing girls' education married and had children later than their peers who had not participated in the program. The program's effects on rates of child marriage were greater for unconditional cast transfer programs than those with conditions. Evaluators believe this demonstrated that the economic needs of the family heavily influenced the appeal of child marriage in this community. Therefore, reducing financial pressures on the family decreased the economic motivations to marry daughters off at a young age.[350]

The Haryana state government in India operated a program in which poor families were given a financial incentive if they kept their daughters in school and unmarried until age 18. Girls in families who were eligible for the program were less likely to be married before age 18 than their peers.[350]

A similar program was operated in 2004 by the Population Council and the regional government in Ethiopia's rural Amhara Region. Families received cash if their daughters remained in school and unmarried during the two years of the program. They also instituted mentorship programs, livelihood training, community conversations about girls' education and child marriage, and gave school supplies for girls. After the two-year program, girls in families eligible for the program were three times more likely to be in school and one tenth as likely to be married compared to their peers.[350]

In the other free program the Global Campaign for the Prevention of Child Marriage (GCPCM) has been launched in March 2019, and the primary goal of this Campaign is raising awareness and illuminating people's minds to address child marriage in the world.[351][352]

Other programs have addressed child marriage less directly through a variety of programming related to girls' empowerment, education, sexual and reproductive health, financial literacy, life skills, communication skills, and community mobilization.[353]

In 2018, UN Women announced that Jaha Dukureh would serve as Goodwill Ambassador in Africa to help organize to prevent child marriage.[354]

Tipping point analysis

Researchers at the International Center for Research on Women found that in some communities rates of child marriage increase significantly when girls are a particular age. This "tipping point", or age at which rates of marriage increase dramatically, may occur years before the median age of marriage. Therefore, the researchers argue prevention programs should focus their programming on girls who are pre-tipping point age rather than only girls who are married before they reach the median age for marriage.[355]

Prevalence data

Prevalence data by country
Country  % Females married < 18 Year of assessment Article Ref
 Afghanistan 28% 2017 Child marriage in Afghanistan [245][356]
 Angola 30% 2017 Child marriage in Angola [357]
 Bangladesh 59% 2018 Child marriage in Bangladesh [358]
 Burkina Faso 52% 2018 [358]
 Central African Republic 68% 2018 [358]
 Chad 67% 2017 [359]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 37% 2017 Child marriage in Democratic Republic of the Congo [360]
 Cameroon 31% 2017 Child marriage in Cameroon [361]
 Republic of the Congo 33% 2017 Child marriage in Republic of the Congo [362]
 Eritrea 41% 2018 [358]
 Ethiopia 40% 2017 Child marriage in Ethiopia [363]
 India 27% 2015–16 Child marriage in India [364][365]
 Ivory Coast 27% 2017 Child marriage in Ivory Coast [366]
   Nepal 40% 2018 [358]
 Niger 76% 2018 [358]
 Nigeria 43% 2017 Child marriage in Nigeria [367]
 Malawi 42% 2018 [358]
 Madagascar 41% 2018 [358]
 Mali 52% 2017 Child marriage in Mali [368]
 Mauritania 37% 2018 [358]
 Mozambique 48% 2018 [358]
 Pakistan 18% 2018 Child marriage in Pakistan [245]
 Senegal 31% 2017 [369]
 Sierra Leone 39% 2018 [358]
 Somalia 45% 2017 Child marriage in Somalia [370]
 South Sudan 52% 2017 Child marriage in South Sudan [371]
 Uganda 40% 2018 [358]
 Zimbabwe 32% 2017 Child marriage in Zimbabwe [372]
Country  % males married <18[373] year assessed
 Albania 1.2 2018
 Angola 6 2016
 Armenia 0.4 2016
 Benin 4.8 2018
 Belize 22.2 2016
 Bolivia 5.2 2016
 Côte d'Ivoire 3.5 2016
 Burundi 1.4 2017
 Ethiopia 5 2016
 Haiti 1.6 2017
 India 4.2 2016
 Laos 10.8 2017
   Nepal 10.3 2016
 Nigeria 3 2017
 Senegal 0.6 2017
 Sierra Leone 6.5 2017
 Timor-Leste 1.2 2016
 Tanzania 3.9 2016
 Uganda 5.5 2016

See also


  1. While canon 1083 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law sets the minimum age for a valid marriage at 16 for males and 14 for females,[58]:c. 1083 §1 canon 97 defines a person younger than 18 year of age as a minor and subject to parental authority.[58]:cc. 97 §1, 98 §2 The authorization of the local ordinary must precede the celebration of the marriage of a minor if the marriage "cannot be recognized or celebrated according to the norm of civil law" or if the parents of a minor are "unaware or reasonably opposed".[58]:c. 1071 §1,2° and 6° Each conference of bishops can "establish a higher age for the licit celebration of marriage".[58]:c. 1083 §§1–2 Canon 1072 requires that pastors discourage "marriage before the age at which a person usually enters marriage according to the accepted practices of the region."[58]:c. 1072 Edward N. Peters explains that canon 1083 "authorized episcopal conferences to recognize the concrete circumstances of marriage in their own territories and to raise the ages for licit marriages within a given nation" to more than the minimum age for a valid marriage.[59] Other canons that regulate marriage in general also apply, for example persons "who lack the sufficient use of reason" or "who suffer from a grave defect of discretion of judgment concerning the essential matrimonial rights and duties mutually to be handed over and accepted" "are incapable of contracting marriage."[58]:c. 1095
  2. some sources suggest age at marriage as six and some as seven, see Denise Spellberg (1996), Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: The Legacy of 'A'isha Bint Abi Bakr, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231079990, pp 39–40
  3. Most sources suggest age at consummation as nine, and one that it may have been age 10; See: Denise Spellberg (1996), Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: The Legacy of 'A'isha Bint Abi Bakr, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231079990, pp. 39–40;
    The Ahmadiyya minority sect has published Pakistan's Muhammad Ali view that Sahih al-Bukhari is unauthentic, and argued that Aisha may have been a teenager; See: Ali, Muhammad (1997). Muhammad the Prophet. Ahamadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam. ISBN 978-0913321072.
    However, Ahmadiyya sect views about Islam and its history are widely disputed by mainstream Islam. See: Siddiq & Ahmad (1995), Enforced Apostasy: Zaheeruddin v. State and the Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan, Law & Inequality'-, 14: pp. 275–284.
  4. See:
    • L. Ahmed, Women and the Advent of Islam, Signs, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Summer, 1986), pp. 677–678;
    • Cynthia Gorney, "Too Young to Wed – The secret world of child brides", National Geographic, June 2011, quote: "'If there were any danger in early marriage, Allah would have forbidden it,' a Yemeni member of parliament named Mohammed Al-Hamzi told me in the capital city of Sanaa one day. 'Something that Allah himself did not forbid, we cannot forbid.' Al-Hamzi, a religious conservative, is vigorously opposed to the legislative efforts in Yemen to prohibit marriage for girls below a certain age (17, in a recent version), and so far those efforts have met with failure. Islam does not permit marital relations before a girl is physically ready, he said, but the Holy Koran contains no specific age restrictions and so these matters are properly the province of family and religious guidance, not national law. Besides, there is the matter of the Prophet Muhammad's beloved Ayesha—nine years old, according to the conventional account, when the marriage was consummated."


  1. Parsons, Jennifer; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Aslihan, Kes; Petroni, Suzanne; Sexton, Maggie; Wodon, Quentin (2015). "Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: A Review of the Literature". The Review of Faith & International Affairs. 13 (3): 12–22. doi:10.1080/15570274.2015.1075757. hdl:10.1080/15570274.2015.1075757. S2CID 146194521.
  2. Atkinson MP, Korgen KO, Trautner MN (2019). Social Problems: Sociology in Action. SAGE Publications. p. 238. ISBN 978-1544358642.
  3. "Child marriage". UNICEF. March 2020.
  4. Gastón, Colleen Murray; Misunas, Christina; Cappa (2019). "Child marriage among boys: a global overview of available data". Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. 14 (3): 219–228. doi:10.1080/17450128.2019.1566584.
  5. Nour, NM (2009). "Child Marriage: a silent health and human rights issue". Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2 (1): 51–56. PMC 2672998. PMID 19399295.
  6. "Marriage and Cohabitation in the United States: A Statistical Portrait Based on Cycle 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth" (PDF). US Department of Health and Human Services.
  7. Sharon K. Houseknecht and Susan K. Lewis, "Explaining Teen Childbearing and Cohabitation: Community Embeddedness and Primary Ties", Family Relations, Vol. 54, No. 5, Families and Communities (Dec., 2005), pp. 607–620
  8. "Child Marriage".
  9. "Eradicating child marriage in Africa". FORWARD UK. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  10. International technical guidance on sexuality education: an evidence-informed approach (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. 2018. p. 13. ISBN 978-92-3-100259-5.
  11. Fatima, Sana (19 January 2023). "Rural Development and Education: Critical Strategies for Ending Child Marriages". Archives of the Social Sciences: A Journal of Collaborative Memory. Pakistan. 1 (1): 1–15.
  12. "Africa: Child Brides Die Young". AllAfrica.
  13. "Marrying Too Young: End Child Marriage" (PDF). UNFPA. p. 23.
  14. Early Marriage, Child Spouses UNICEF, See section on Asia, page 4 (2001)
  15. "Southeast Asia's big dilemma: what to do about child marriage?". Plan International Australia. 20 August 2013. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  16. "IRIN Asia – PHILIPPINES: Early marriage puts girls at risk – Philippines – Gender Issues – Health & Nutrition – Human Rights". The New Humanitarian. 26 January 2010.
  17. "Child Brides – Child Marriage: What We Know". PBS. 12 October 2007.
  18. "Child marriage still an issue in Saudi Arabia". San Francisco Chronicle. 14 March 2010.
  19. "Early Marriage, Child Spouses" (PDF). UNICEF. p. 5. (See section on Oceania.)
  20. "Child marriage traps girls in an inescapable legal hell. But it is still legal in 46 US states". Business Insider.
  21. "Child Marriage: Latest trends and future prospects". UNICEF DATA. 5 July 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  22. "Child Marriage is a Death Sentence for Many Young Girls" (PDF). UNICEF. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
  23. Child brides – For poorer, most of the time The Economist (28 February 2011)
  24. Child Marriage Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Ford Foundation (2011)
  25. "Child brides call on U.S. states to end 'legal rape'". Reuters. 25 October 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  26. Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2015). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications (Kindle edition). pp. 3140–3150 (Kindle locations).
  27. Patricia Crone (2015). Pre-Industrial Societies: Anatomy of the Pre-Modern World. Oneworld (Kindle Edition). p. 2747 (Kindle loc.).
  28. Angeliki Laiou (1993), Coercion to sex and marriage in ancient and medieval societies, Washington, DC, pages 85–190
  29. Ross Kraemer (1993), The Jewish Family in Antiquity, Scholars Press (Atlanta), pages 82–110
  30. M. A. Friedman (1980), Jewish Marriage in Palestine, Vol. 1, The Jewish Theological Seminary of America
  31. Steven M. Lowenstein: The Jewish Cultural Tapestry: International Jewish Folk Traditions, p. 108. Oxford, 2002.
  32. Ruth Lamdan: A Separate People: Jewish Women in Palestine, Syria, and Egypt in the sixteenth Century, p. 47. Leiden, 2000.
  33. Nancy Demand (1994), Birth, Death, and Motherhood in Classical Greece, Johns Hopkins University Press, pages 101–104
  34. Dahl, GB (2010). "Early Teen Marriage and Future Poverty". Demography. 47 (3): 689–718. doi:10.1353/dem.0.0120. PMC 3000061. PMID 20879684.
  35. Saito, O. (1996). "Historical demography: achievements and prospects". Population Studies. 50 (3): 537–553. doi:10.1080/0032472031000149606. PMID 11618380.
  36. Zhao, Z. (1997). "Demographic systems in historic China: some new findings from recent research". Journal of the Australian Population Association. 14 (2): 201–232. doi:10.1007/BF03029340. PMID 12322104. S2CID 8006287.
  37. Levine, David (1977). Family Formation in an Age of Nascent Capitalism. Academic Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-12-445050-9.
  38. Hajnal, John (1965). "European marriage pattern in historical perspective". In Glass, D. V.; Eversley, D.E.C. (eds.). Population in History. London: Arnold. pp. 101–143.
  39. Coontz, Stephanie (2005). Marriage, a History: From Obedience to Intimacy, or How Love Conquered Marriage. New York, New York: Viking Press, Penguin Group. pp. 125–129. ISBN 978-0-670-03407-9.
  40. Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2015). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications (Kindle edition). pp. 3120–3160(Kindle location).
  41. Burn, Richard; Tyrwhitt, Robert; Phillimore, Robert. The Ecclesiastical Law. Vol. 4. London: Sweet Stevens & Norton. p. 54.
  42. Nagi, B. S. (1 January 1993). Child Marriage in India: A Study of Its Differential Patterns in Rajasthan. Mittal Publications. p. 6. ISBN 978-81-7099-460-2.
  43. Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 420.
  44. Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 420. ISBN 9788131716779.
  45. Donald Davis (2010), The Spirit of Hindu Law, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521877046, page 14
  46. Allan Dahlaquist (31 December 1996). Megasthenes and Indian Religion: A Study in Motives and Types. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 113–114. ISBN 9788120813236.
  47. "MAJORITY –". Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  48. Lőw, Leopold Lőw (1969). Beiträge zur jüdischen Altherthumskunde, Band 2. Gregg. pp. 170, 175, 176. ISBN 9780576801270.
  49. "Mishnah, Book Nashim, Kiddushin, chapter 41a".
  50. "Mishneh Torah, Book Nashim, Ishut, Chapter 2".
  51. "Mishneh Torah, Book Nashim, Ishut, Chapter 3:11,14".
  52. Lőw, Leopold Lőw (1969). Beiträge zur jüdischen Altherthumskunde, Band 2. Gregg. pp. 170, 175, 176. ISBN 9780576801270.
  53. "Mishneh Torah, Book Nashim, Ishut, Chapter 3:19".
  54. "St. Joseph". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  55.  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rock, P. M. J. (1907). "Canonical Age". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  56. Bachofen, Charles A. (1920). "A commentary on the new Code of the canon law. V.5.". A commentary on the new code of the canon law. New Code of canon law, A commentary on the. Vol. 5 (2nd rev. ed.). St. Louis, MO; London: B. Herder book. c. 1067. hdl:2027/wu.89088314570. LCCN 19004568.
  57. Catholic Church (1999) [©1998]. "Codex Iuris Canonici". Code of canon law: new English translation. IntraText. Washington, D.C.: Canon Law Society of America. ISBN 978-0-943616-79-7. Archived from the original on 20 February 2008 via
  58. Peters, Edward N. (22 June 1996). "Too young to marry". America. 174 (20): 14–16. ISSN 0002-7049. Reprinted in Peters, Edward. "Too young to marry". Archived from the original on 21 February 2006. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  59. Richard Burn, Robert Tyrwhitt and Robert Phillimore, The Ecclesiastical Law, Volume 4, Sweet Stevens & Norton (London), page 54.
  60. Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2015). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications (Kindle edition). pp. 3090–3110 (Kindle locations.
  61. Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2015). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications (Kindle edition). pp. 3200 (Kindle location).
  62. Schacht, J.; Layish, A.; Shaham, R.; Ansari, Ghaus; Otto, J.M.; Pompe, S.; Knappert, J.; Boyd, Jean (1995). "Nikāḥ". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. 8 (2nd ed.). Brill. p. 29.
  63. "Saudi Arabia bans under 18 marriage". 24 December 2019.
  64. "Q & A: Child Marriage and Violations of Girls' Rights". Human Rights Watch. 14 June 2013.
  65. 5 Things you may not know about Child Marriage NPR, Washington DC
  66. "Niger". Girls Not Brides. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  67. "Child Marriage Facts and Figures – ICRW – PASSION. PROOF. POWER". Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  68. Strochlic, Nina (18 September 2014). "The Sad Hidden Plight of Child Grooms". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  69. "115 million boys and men around the world married as children – UNICEF".
  70. "Marrying Too Young: End Child Marriage" (PDF). UNFPA.
  71. S.D. Goitein (1978), A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World, Vol. 3, University of California Press
  72. Bearak, Barry (9 July 2006). "The bride price". The New York Times.
  73. Nour, Nawal M. (2006), "Health Consequences of Child Marriage in Africa", Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12 (11): 1644–1649, doi:10.3201/eid1211.060510, ISSN 1080-6059, PMC 3372345, PMID 17283612
  74. Tremayne, Soraya (Winter 2006). "Modernity and early marriage in Iran: a view from within". Journal of Middle East Women's Studies. 2 (1): 65–94. doi:10.1215/15525864-2006-1003. JSTOR 40326888. S2CID 54509784. Pdf.
  75. Boyden, Jo; Pankhurst, Alula; Tafere, Yisak (June 2012). "Child protection and harmful traditional practices: female early marriage and genital modification in Ethiopia". Development in Practice. 22 (4): 510–522. doi:10.1080/09614524.2012.672957. S2CID 144583426.
  76. Chowdhury, F.D. (July 2004). "The socio‐cultural context of child marriage in a Bangladeshi village". International Journal of Social Welfare. 13 (3): 244–253. doi:10.1111/j.1369-6866.2004.00318.x.
  77. Warner, Elizabeth (2004). "Behind the wedding veil: Child marriage as a form of trafficking in girls". Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law. 12 (2): 233–247.
  78. "The trafficking of children in the Asia–Pacific". Archived from the original on 27 October 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  79. "'Bridenapping': a growing hidden crime". The Independent. 9 October 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  80. "Captured Hearts". Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  81. "Police swoop on fake 'bride kidnapping'". 2 September 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  82. "One in five girls and women kidnapped for marriage in Kyrgyzstan:..." Reuters. 1 August 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  83. Smith, Craig S. (30 April 2005). "Abduction, Often Violent, a Kyrgyz Wedding Rite". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  84. "Nigeria's young daughters are sold as 'money wives'". Al Jazeera. 21 September 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  85. Andre Wink (1997), Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 2, The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th–13th Centuries (Leiden)
  86. Assaf Likhovski (2006), Law and Identity in Mandate Palestine, ISBN 978-0-8078-3017-8; University of North Carolina Press, pages 93–103
  87. Julia Rebollo Lieberman (2011), Sephardi Family Life in the Early Modern Diaspora, pages 8–10; Brandeis University Press; ISBN 978-1-58465-957-0
  88. Ruth Lamdan, Child Marriages in Jewish Society in Eastern Mediterranean during the 16th Century, Mediterranean Historical Review, 2 (June 1996); Vol 11, pages 37–59
  89. Joseph Hacker, in Moreshet Sheparad: The Sephardi Legacy, Vol 2, (Editor: Haim Beinart), Magnes Press, 1992; pages 109–133
  90. Thapa, S. (1996). ITS PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES. Contributions to Nepalese Studies, 23(2), pages 361–375
  91. Raj, Anita (2010). "When the Mother Is a Child: The Impact of Child Marriage on the Health and Human Rights of Girls". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 95 (11): 931–935. doi:10.1136/adc.2009.178707. PMID 20930011. S2CID 41625496.
  92. "8-year-old Saudi girl divorces 50-year-old husband". USA Today.
  93. Bicchieri C, Lindemans, Jiang. A social norms perspective on child marriage: The general framework. UNICEF, 2014
  94. "Targeting Girls in the Name of Tradition: Child Marriage". U.S. Department of State.
  95. Asad Zia, 42% of underage married girls from Pakistan, Express Tribune / International Herald Tribune (New York Times), 2 January 2013
  96. Gaffney-Rhys, Ruth (2011). "International Law as an Instrument to Combat Child Marriage". The International Journal of Human Rights. 15 (3): 359–373. doi:10.1080/13642980903315398. S2CID 143307822.
  97. Lamdān, R. (2000). A Separate People: Jewish Women in Palestine, Syria, and Egypt in the Sixteenth Century (Vol. 26). Brill; see pages 28–31
  98. A. Grossman, 'Child marriage in Jewish society in the Middle Ages until the thirteenth century' (in Hebrew), Peamim 45 (1990), 108–126
  99. Abrahams, Israel (2005). Jewish life in the Middle Ages. Routledge; see pages 183–189
  100. "Spain marriage age of consent Europe". time-com. 24 July 2015.
  101. "Marriage requirements in Mexico". Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  103. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Criminal Code". Legislative Services Branch. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  104. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Civil Marriage Act". Legislative Services Branch. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  105. "Marriages and civil partnerships in the UK". GOV.UK. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  106. "Matrimonial Causes Act 1973". Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  107. "MARRIAGE LAWS". Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  108. "MAJORITY".
  109. "MI'UN".
  110. Yebamot 44a
  111. Sanhedrin 76a
  112.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Majority". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
  113. Tirzah Meacham. "CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR LEGAL MARRIAGE". Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  114. Solomon Schechter; Julius H. Greenstone. "MARRIAGE LAWS". Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  115. "Code of Canon Law – IntraText". Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  116. Watt 1960
  117. Spellberg 1996, p. 40
  118. Barlas 2002, pp. 125–126
  119. Büchler, Andrea; Schlatter, Christina (2013). "Marriage Age in Islamic and Contemporary Muslim Family Laws: A Comparative Survey" (PDF). Electronic Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law. 1. ISSN 1664-5707.
  120. Büchler, Andrea; Schlatter, Christina (2013). "Marriage Age in Islamic and Contemporary Muslim Family Laws: A Comparative Survey" (PDF). Electronic Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law. 1. ISSN 1664-5707. Marriageable age according to classical Islamic law coincides with the occurrence of puberty. The notion of puberty refers to signs of physical maturity such as the emission of semen or the onset of menstruation. In the absence of such signs, the Hanafi school assumes that puberty will occur no later than at eighteen years for males and seventeen years for females
  121. "Saudi Arabia moves to ban child marriage with a new ruling". The National. 24 December 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  122. Wael Mahdi (1 July 2009). "Saudi push to end child marriages". The National.
  123. Al Khataf, Iman. "Saudi Arabia Introduces New Regulations for Early Marriage". Asharq Al-aswat.
  124. Shulamith Shaha (1983), The Fourth Estate: A History of Women in the Middle Ages, ISBN 0-415-30851-8, Routledge, pages 131–149
  125. UNICEF (2015) A Profile of Child Marriage in Africa.
  126. "Child marriage – UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund".
  127. "Child Marriage" (PDF). UNICEF. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  128. "Child marriages declining, says Unicef". BBC News. 6 March 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  129. "IRIN Africa – NIGER: Early marriage – from rural custom to urban business – Niger – Children – Economy – Education – Gender Issues – Human Rights". The New Humanitarian. 16 January 2009.
  130. Lbarnes. "Africa – Child marriage". Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  131. "Ending Forced Child Marriage". Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  132. "FEATURE | 'Living as orphan': The story of Nigerian girls running away from child marriage". The Informant247. 16 May 2022. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  133. "Gambia's leader says ban on child marriage 'as from today'". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
  134. "Gambia and Tanzania outlaw child marriage – BBC News". BBC. 16 December 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
  135. "Child marriage around the world: KENYA", Girls Not Brides
  136. Batha, Emma (9 February 2009). "Malawi bans child marriage, lifts minimum age to 18". Reuters. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  137. "United Nations General Assembly. Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: Preventing and eliminating child, early and forced marriage" (PDF).
  138. "Outlawing Child Marriage in Morocco – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. 27 December 2012.
  139. "Les marocains évaluent les progrès de la Moudawana Siham Ali, Magharebia à Rabat (October 9, 2009)". Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  140. Morocco: Underage marriages increase CRIN, Rabat (28 January 2011)
  141. "Morocco: Child marriages continue despite law to curb practice – Adnkronos Culture And Media". Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  142. "In Morocco, the rape and death of an adolescent girl prompts calls for changes to the penal code". UNICEF. 28 March 2012. Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  143. "Morocco eyes law on rape and child marriage". MSN. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013.
  144. "Morocco amends controversial rape marriage law". BBC News. 23 January 2014.
  145. "Mozambique Passes Law to End Child Marriage". Human Rights Watch. 19 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  146. "Nguyen, Minh Cong and Quentin Wodon. 2012. "Child Marriage and Education: A Major Challenge"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  147. "Nigeria: Senate Denies Child Marriage Wrongdoing, Says Law May Be Revisited". AllAfrica.
  148. "More on child brides: After a political fight, Nigeria will continue allowing them". The Washington Post.
  149. "Nigeria – Child Not Bride". AllAfrica. 4 September 2013.
  150. "Learning from Children, Families and Communities to Increase Girls' Participation in Primary School" (PDF). Save the Children USA report. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008.
  151. "Dispatches: Tanzanian High Court Rules Against Child Marriage | Human Rights Watch". Human Rights Watch. 8 July 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
  152. (, Deutsche Welle. "Zimbabwe's top court outlaws child marriage | News | DW.COM | 20.01.2016". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  153. "Zimbabwe's Constitutional Court Outlaws Child Marriages". VOA. Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  154. "Landmark ruling hailed | The Herald". Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  155. "Marrying Too Young: End Child Marriage" (PDF). UNFPA. p. 24.
  156. "Women Around the World » Child Marriage in Latin America". Council on Foreign Relations – Women Around the World. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  157. "Early Marriages – Child Spouses" (PDF). UNICEF. 2010. pp. 5–9.
  158. Myers, Juliette; Harvey, Rowan. "Breaking Vows: Early and Forced Marriage and Girls' Education". London: Plan UK. p. 24.
  159. "What's Next in the Fight to End Child Marriage in Guatemala?". Rise Up. 10 October 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  160. Llano Quintero, Alejandra (2019). "Feminismo indígena es volver al origen de nuestra cultura – entrevista por Claudia Palacios". In Palacios, Claudia (ed.). HemBRujaS: Muchas voces de una lucha en la que faltan hombres. Bogotá: Planeta. p. 507. ISBN 9789584283924.
  161. "Child marriage is legal and persists across Canada". McGill Reporter. 12 January 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  162. "Breaking the Cycle of Teen Pregnancy CDC, US Government (April 2013)". Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  163. "Understanding State Statutes on Minimum Marriage Age and Exceptions « Tahirih Justice Center".
  164. D'Onofrio, Eve (2005), "Child Brides, Inegalitarianism, and the Fundamentalist Polygamous Family in the United States", International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 19 (3): 373–394, doi:10.1093/lawfam/ebi028.
  165. Dobner, Jennifer. Polygamist Leader Convicted in Utah. Associated Press. ABC News. 2007-09-25.
  166. Blumenthal, Ralph. "Court Says Texas Illegally Seized Sect's Children". The New York Times. 2008-05-23. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
  167. Winslow, Ben (5 June 2008), "All FLDS children returned to parents", Deseret News, San Angelo, Texas
  168. Anthony, Paul A. (2 June 2008). "Sect renounces underage marriage as children return". Standard Times – San Angelo. Scripps Newspaper Group. Archived from the original on 10 July 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  169. Winslow, Ben; O'Donoghue, Amy Joi (2 June 2008), "FLDS official: No more underage marriages, reunifications begin with the children", Deseret News, retrieved 10 September 2013
  170. Baynes, Chris (8 July 2017). "More than 200,000 children married in US over the last 15 years". The Independent. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  171. Thomsen, Jacqueline (10 May 2018). "Delaware becomes first state to ban child marriage".
  172. McNamara, Audrey (9 May 2020). "Pennsylvania just became the third state to ban child marriage". CBS News. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  173. Raj, A.; Saggurti, N.; Balaiah, D.; Silverman, J. G. (2009). "Prevalence of child marriage and its effect on fertility and fertility-control outcomes of young women in India: a cross-sectional, observational study". The Lancet. 373 (9678): 1883–1889. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60246-4. PMC 2759702. PMID 19278721.
  174. Raj, Anita (2012). "Changes in Prevalence of Girl Child Marriage in South Asia". JAMA. 307 (19): 2027–9. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.3497. PMC 4386922. PMID 22665097.
  175. "Afghanistan – Ending Child Marriage and Domestic Violence" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. September 2013. pp. 3–10.
  176. "United Nations News Centre". UN News Service Section. 20 May 2013.
  177. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld – Afghan Girls Suffer for Sins of Male Relatives". Refworld.
  178. "Child Marriage in Afghanistan and Pakistan". America Magazine. 11 March 2002.
  179. Power, Carla (12 August 2009), "Nujood Ali & Shada Nasser win "Women of the Year Fund 2008 Glamour Award"", Yemen Times, archived from the original on 5 April 2011, retrieved 16 February 2010
  180. "'How Come You Allow Little Girls to Get Married?' – Child Marriage in Yemen Human Rights Watch, (2011); pages 15–23" (PDF). Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  181. "Yemen's Child Bride Backlash Foreign Policy, April 30, 2010". Archived from the original on 2 October 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  182. "IRIN Middle East – YEMEN: Deep divisions over child brides – Yemen – Gender Issues – Human Rights". The New Humanitarian. 28 March 2010.
  183. "Yemen: Human Rights Developments", World Report 2001, Human Rights Watch, 2001, retrieved 8 April 2010
  184. Daragahi, Borzou (11 June 2008), "Yemeni bride, 10, says I won't", Los Angeles Times, retrieved 16 February 2010
  185. Mahmoud Assamiee and Nadia Al (25 March 2010), "Relative breakthrough in Yemen's early marriage dilemma", Yemen Times, archived from the original on 8 June 2011, retrieved 8 April 2010
  186. Sadeq Al-Wesabi (25 February 2010), "Yemen's children say no to early marriage", Yemen Times, archived from the original on 11 August 2010, retrieved 9 April 2010
  187. "Yemeni child bride, eight, 'dies on wedding night'". The Guardian. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  188. "Saudi Human Rights Commission Tackles Child Marriages". Asharq Al Awsat. 13 January 2009. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  189. "Top Saudi cleric: OK for young girls to wed". CNN. 17 January 2009.
  190. "Saudi Arabia to set minimum marriage age following surge in such weddings". Al Arabiya. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  191. "Turkey – Child Marriage" (PDF). United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  192. "Turkish women strive for gender equality". The Jerusalem Post. 20 August 2013.
  193. Charles, Lorraine (2013). "Syrian and Palestinian Syrian Refugees in Lebanon: The Plight of Women and Children". Journal of International Women's Studies. 14 (5): 96–111.
  194. Berti, Benedetta (2015). "The Syrian Refugee Crisis: Regional and Human Security Implications". Strategic Assessment.
  195. Pierson, Elizabeth (31 March 2016). "He was 28, I was 13: The stories of Syrian child brides". Mashable. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  196. Marshall, H. I., (1922) The Karen of Burma. Bangkok: White Lotus (Reprinted, 1997).
  197. Indonesia raises minimum age for marriage to curb child brides
  198. "Indonesia raises minimum age for brides to end child marriage". Reuters. 17 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  199. "Facebook blamed for sharp increase in underage marriage in G. Kidul". The Jakarta Post. 4 August 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  200. "Cleric With Child Bride Should Be Jailed Six Years, Court Told". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
  201. "Indonesia Cleric Jailed for Marrying 12-Year-Old". The Associated Press/CBS News. 24 November 2010.
  202. Metchnikoff, Elie (1903). The Nature of Man: Studies in Optimistic Philosophy. New York: Putnam. p. 90. ISBN 9780405095788.
  203. Tan, Royce (30 June 2018). "41-year-old Malaysian weds 11-year-old girl in Thailand". The Star Online. Archived from the original on 30 June 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  204. Busby, Mattha (2 July 2018). "Marriage of 11-year-old girl to a 41-year-old man provokes backlash in Malaysia". The Independent. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  205. "'I'm just 11 and you're 41, but I'll wait for you'". Free Malaysia Today. 30 June 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  206. Phung, Adrian (10 July 2018). "Govt powerless to nullify child marriage as it is valid under Islamic laws". The Sun Daily. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  207. Chew, Amy (17 July 2018). "Malaysia 'unequivocally' opposes child marriages: DPM Wan Azizah on case of man who married 11-year-old". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  208. Muah, Nurulfatiha (25 July 2018). "Sekat kahwin bawah umur: Mujahid". Sinar Online. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  209. "Mujahid: Syariah court will have temporary SOP on child marriage". Star TV. 25 July 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  210. Khairulrijal, Rahmat (18 July 2018). "Mujahid wants review of laws which allow child marriages". The New Straits Times. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  211. Loone, Susan (18 July 2018). "Mujahid: Underage marriage must be stopped". Malaysia Kini. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  212. Habibu, Sira (25 July 2018). "Kelantan PAS: Imposing child marriage blanket ban contravenes religious teachings". The Star Online. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  213. "PAS says no to ban on child marriage". The Star Online. 26 July 2018. Archived from the original on 26 July 2018. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  214. Abdullah, Sharifah Mahsinah (22 July 2018). "[Exclusive] Another child bride case". The New Straits Times. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  215. "Selangor to raise minimum age for marriage for Muslim women". Free Malaysia Today. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  216. Abdullah, Sharifah Mahsinah (18 September 2018). "Yet another one: 15-year-old girl marries father of two in Tumpat". The New Straits Times. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  217. "Teenage girl marries 44-year-old man in Kelantan". Free Malaysia Today. 18 September 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  218. "DPM: Child marriage amendments only next year". Malay Mail. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  219. Parrocha, Azer (6 January 2022). "Duterte signs law criminalizing child marriage". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  220. Slisco, Aila (7 January 2022). "Philippines bans child marriage while 44 U.S. states allow it". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  221. Stephens, Matthew (2011). "Islamic Law in the Philippines: Between Appeasement and Neglect" (PDF). Islam, Syari'ah and Governance Background Paper Series: 8. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  222. Corrales, Nestor (7 January 2022). "New law bans child marriage: 'Major victory' vs abuse of girls". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  223. Nortajuddin, Athira (24 November 2020). "Child Brides in Philippines' Bangsamoro". The ASEAN Post. Archived from the original on 16 January 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2022. Although there are limited data in relation to child marriages in the region, the practice is reported to occur in BARMM, especially common among Moro and Indigenous communities
  224. Field, Erica; Ambrus, Attila (2008). "Early Marriage, Age of Menarche, and Female Schooling Attainment in Bangladesh" (PDF). Journal of Political Economy. 116 (5): 881–930. doi:10.1086/593333. S2CID 215805592.
  225. Yount, Kathryn M.; Crandall, AliceAnn; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Bates, Lisa M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Schuler, Sidney Ruth (1 December 2016). "Child Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in Rural Bangladesh: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis". Demography. 53 (6): 1821–1852. doi:10.1007/s13524-016-0520-8. ISSN 1533-7790. PMC 5568420. PMID 27812927.
  226. "Child Protection" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
  227. "40 p.c. child marriages in India: UNICEF". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 January 2009. Archived from the original on 27 January 2009.
  228. "Child Marriage" (PDF). UNICEF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  229. "Women and men in India 2012" (PDF). CSO/Census India 2011, Government of India. p. xxi, Highlights item 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2013.
  230. K. Sinha Nearly 50% fall in brides married below 18 The Times of India (10 February 2012)
  231. Table C-2 Marital Status by Age and Sex Subtable C0402, India Total Females Married by Age Group, 2001 Census of India, Government of India (2009)
  232. "Percentage of Female by age at effective marriage and by residence India and bigger States, 2011, chapter 2: Population Composition, Table Statement 12, India totals for < 18, 2011 Census of India, Government of India (2013), page 26" (PDF).
  233. Htun, M., & Weldon, L., "Sex equality in family law: historical legacies, feminist activism, and religious power in 70 countries" (PDF). World Development Report, (Purdue University, 2012). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2013.
  234. "Wakf Board bristles at women panel's advice on child marriages". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013.
  235. Haviland, Charles (5 September 2002). "Battle over India's marriage age". BBC News.
  236. Call to avoid ambiguity on minimum age of marriage The Hindu (29 October 2010)
  237. "Legalising underage marriage is Indian Union Muslim League's new ploy to gain political mileage in Kerala : NATION". India Today.
  238. "Muslim marital age: CPI(M) criticises, Congress cautious". Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  239. "Prohibition of Child Marriage Act to prevail over personal laws: HC". 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  240. "Child Marriage Act overrides Muslim Personal Law: Karnataka high court". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  241. "Madras HC says anti-child marriage act prevails over Muslim Personal Law". 1 April 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  242. Rabi, Amjad (2014). "Cost of Inaction: Child and Adolescent Marriage in Nepal" (PDF). UNICEF Nepal Working Paper Series. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  243. "Child Marriages in Southern Asia (see Solutions to Ending Child Marriage in Southern Asia: Nepal, Australian AID – ICRW" (PDF). 2009.
  244. Child Marriage Database. UNICEF. 30 July 2021.
  245. Atlas: Pakistan. Girls Not Brides. 31 July 2021
  246. Nasrullah, M; et al. (2013). "Bielefeld University, Germany, Girl Child Marriage and Its Effect on Fertility in Pakistan: Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006–2007". Matern Child Health J. 18 (3): 534–43. doi:10.1007/s10995-013-1269-y. PMID 23580067. S2CID 26184621.
  247. "Social customs: 'Nearly half of Pakistani women are married before the age of 18' – The Express Tribune". 31 August 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  248. "IRIN Asia – PAKISTAN: Child marriages on the rise across rural Sindh – Pakistan – Children – Human Rights". The New Humanitarian. 31 March 2006.
  249. "Pakistan's child brides: suffering for others' crimes". Toronto Star. 26 August 2013.
  250. Mehreen Zahra-Malik. "Child brides blot tribal Pakistan". Al Jazeera.
  251. Lane, Samuel (2012). "Stealing innocence: child marriage in Pakistan" (PDF). Abo Akademi University. Finland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  252. Adolescents and Youth in Pakistan Archived 12 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Zeba Sathar, Cynthia Lloyd, et al., Population Council, with support from UNICEF; pp. 96–101
  253. Sathar, Zeba; Lloyd, Cynthia; et al. "Adolescents and Youth in Pakistan" (PDF). Population Council, with support from UNICEF. pp. 188–193. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 March 2014.
  254. PM, Vivian Tsai 08/30/12 AT 4:30 (30 August 2012). "Child Bride Practice Rising in Iran, Parliament Seeks To Lower Girl's Legal Marriage Age To 9". International Business Times.
  255. Watch: Iranian man marries 11-year-old girl
  256. "U.N. condemns Iran for increase in child brides as young as 10 years old". Newsweek. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  257. "UN decries child marriages in Iran whose laws permit sexual intercourse with girls as young as 9". Daily Sabah. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  258. "وجود ۱۵ هزار بیوه زیر ۱۵ سال در کشور". ایسنا. 8 March 2018.
  260. "Marriage in Austria". Austria. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  261. Articles 144, 145 and 148 of the Civil Code of Belgium.
  262. "Family Code : General Provisions" (PDF). Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  263. "Council of Europe Family Policy Database : 4. Social Policy and family Law : Marriage, Divorce and Parenthood" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  264. "Youth Policy Fact Sheet : Cyprus" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  265. "Občanský zákoník (nový) – č. 89/2012 Sb. – Aktuální znění". Zákony pro lidi. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  266. "SIDSTE STJERNEITEM". Folketinget.
  267. Riigi Infosüsteemi Amet. "Formalizing a marriage". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  268. "Contraction of marriage". Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  269. Vahtera, Niko (20 February 2019). "Lapsiavioliitot kielletään Suomessa – Oikeusministeri: "Lapsien tulee saada olla lapsia täysi-ikäisyyteen asti"" (in Finnish). Turun Sanomat. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  270. Code civil – Article 145, retrieved 8 July 2019
  271. "Bundesgesetzblatt". Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  272. "Getting Married in Greece". Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  273. "Current Legal Framework: Marriage or Child Marriage in Hungary". Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  274. "Legal requirements for marriage". Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  275. "National law and policies on minimum ages – Italy – Right to Education". Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  276. "National law and policies on minimum ages – Latvia – Right to Education". Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  277. "Powered by Google Docs". Retrieved 14 January 2013.
  278. "Mariage et adoption s'ouvrent aux couples de personnes du même sexe". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  279. "Marriage Act, Section 3 "Restrictions on Marriage"". Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  280. " – Regeling – Wet tegengaan huwelijksdwang – BWBR0037085". (in Dutch). Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  281. "National law and policies on minimum ages – Poland – Right to Education". Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  282. "Getting Married in Portugal – Portugal – Angloinfo". Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  283. "Art. 272 Noul cod civil Vârsta matrimonială Condiţiile de fond pentru încheierea căsătoriei Încheierea căsătoriei | Noul Cod Civil actualizat 2015 – Legea 287/2009". 29 October 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  284. "Law on marriage and family relations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  285. Marriage. "Marriage". Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  286. "132 gifta barn i Sverige – 65 i Malmö". Sydsvenskan (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  287. Doyle, Alister (21 April 2016). "Child brides sometimes tolerated in Nordic asylum centers despite bans". Oslo. Reuters. Retrieved 22 April 2016. 10 of those aged under 16 – the minimum local age for sex or marriage – were married and four had children, the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration (UDI) said. Of the 10 "some live in adult asylum centers, some in their own rooms and some with their partners", it said in emailed replies to Reuters questions ... Minister Inger Støjberg said that she would "stop housing child brides in asylum centers" after a review found dozens of cases of girls living with older men. ... authorities said that at least 70 girls under 18 were married in asylum centers run by municipalities including Stockholm and Malmo.
  288. "Lapsiavioliitot kielletään Suomessa – Oikeusministeri: "Lapsien tulee saada olla lapsia täysi-ikäisyyteen asti"". (in Finnish). 20 September 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  289. "Child marriages in the Roma population in Serbia", UNICEF, 2017.
  290. "Romanian gypsy children become engaged aged six and four". The Daily Telegraph. London. 11 March 2009. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  291. "Bulgarian Roma Girls Still Quitting School Young". 22 February 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  292. Porodični zakon Republike Srbije "The Family Law of The Republic of Serbia: Article 23" (in Serbian), 2005.
  294. "Art. 272 Noul cod civil Vârsta matrimonială Condiţiile de fond pentru încheierea căsătoriei Încheierea căsătoriei". Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  295. "Gypsy child couple separated". BBC News. 2 October 2003. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  296. Ishaan, Ishaan (1 April 2016). "Refugee child bride went on a hunger strike after Belgium separated her from husband". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 April 2016. Official figures indicate some 17 child brides arrived among the refugee influx last year and another seven this year ... Belgium has had wider concerns over the prevalence of forced child marriages among some of the country's communities. Between 2010 and 2013, the police registered at least 56 complaints about a forced marriage.
  297. "Kinderehen: 1475 Minderjährige in Deutschland sind verheiratet". Der Spiegel. 9 September 2016. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  298. "National Rapporteur concerned about Syrian child brides and Roma children". National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings and Sexual Violence against Children. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2016. child marriages occur in the Netherlands, drawing attention to the Syrian child brides who travel from Syria, often with an adult male. Between September 2015 and January 2016 around 60 child brides entered the Netherlands.
  299. "Key advisor warns on Syrian child brides, calls for more action –". 15 April 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  300. "Some 60 Syrian child brides, as young as 14, entered Netherlands". 14 April 2016. Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  301. Ishaan, Ishaan (1 April 2016). "Refugee child bride went on a hunger strike after Belgium separated her from husband". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 April 2016. Last year, asylum centers next door in the Netherlands were reportedly housing 20 child brides between ages 13 and 15.
  302. "Ст. 13 Семейного кодекса РФ" (in Russian). Garant. 30 December 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  303. "Закон Республики Адыгея от 30 ноября 1998 г. N 101 "О порядке и условиях вступления в брак граждан Российской Федерации в возрасте от четырнадцати до шестнадцати лет, постоянно либо преимущественно проживающих на территории Республики Адыгея"". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  304. "Закон Калужской области от 06 июня 1997 года №10-ОЗ "О порядке и условиях вступления в брак на территории Калужской области лиц, не достигших возраста шестнадцати лет"". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 29 May 1997. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  305. "Закон Магаданской области от 04 мая 2001 года №182-ОЗ "О порядке и условиях получения разрешения на вступление в брак на территории Магаданской области лиц, не достигших возраста шестнадцати лет" (с изменениями на: 10.03.2016)". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 10 March 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  306. "Закон Московской области от 30 апреля 2008 года №61/2008–ОЗ "О порядке и условиях вступления в брак на территории Московской области лиц, не достигших возраста шестнадцати лет" (с изменениями на 15 июля 2015 года)". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 15 July 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  307. "Постановление Правительства Нижегородской области от 23 октября 2013 года №765 "Об утверждении Положения о порядке принятия решений о разрешении на вступление в брак гражданам, не достигшим возраста шестнадцати лет, в Нижегородской области"". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  308. "Закон Новгородской области от 02 февраля 2009 года №465-ОЗ "О порядке и условиях вступления в брак на территории Новгородской области лиц, не достигших возраста шестнадцати лет" (с изменениями на: 25.04.2014)". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  309. "Закон Орловской области от 04 марта 2011 года №1177-ОЗ "О порядке и условиях выдачи разрешения на вступление в брак лицам, не достигшим возраста шестнадцати лет, в Орловской области"". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  310. "Закон Сахалинской области от 11 июля 2005 года №46-ЗО "О порядке и условиях вступления в брак граждан, проживающих на территории Сахалинской области, не достигших возраста шестнадцати лет" (ред. от 29.06.2015)". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 29 June 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  311. "Закон Тамбовской области от 24 июня 1997 года №120-З "О порядке и условиях вступления в брак на территории Тамбовской области лиц, не достигших возраста шестнадцати лет" (с изменениями на 5 мая 2014 года)". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  312. "Закон Республики Татарстан от 13 января 2009 года №4-ЗРТ "Семейный кодекс Республики Татарстан" (с изменениями на 07.05.2016)". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 7 May 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  313. "Закон Вологодской области от 14 августа 1996 года №95-ОЗ "О снижении брачного возраста" (с изменениями на: 27.11.2000)". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 27 November 2000. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  314. "Закон Мурманской области от 18 ноября 1996 года №42-01-ЗМО "Об условиях и порядке вступления в брак лиц, не достигших возраста шестнадцати лет"". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 18 November 1996. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  315. "Закон Рязанской области от 30 декабря 2014 года №105-ОЗ "О порядке и условиях выдачи разрешения на вступление в брак лицам, не достигшим возраста шестнадцати лет"". Электронный фонд правовой и нормативно-технической документации (in Russian). Kodeks. 30 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  316. "Minimum marriage age to be raised from 16 to 18 in England and Wales". 28 April 2022.
  317. "Marriage Act 1949". sections 2, 3 and 78 as amended by the Family Law Reform Act 1987. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  318. Caloum, Leslie (4 February 2014). "How has Scotland's law on marriage evolved over the centuries?". BBC News. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  319. "Did You Know? – How to Get Married in Scotland". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  320. Hill, Amelia (22 February 2004). "Revealed: the child brides who are forced to marry in Britain". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  321. "'Girl Summit' Aims To End Child Marriage". Yahoo! News. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  322. Lisiansky, Urey (1814). A Voyage Round the World. ISBN 9780839811626.
  323. Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803, 1804, 1805 und 1806 auf Befehl Seiner Kaiserliche Majestät Alexanders des Ersten auf den Schiffen Nadeschda und Newa (Journey around the World in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806 at the Command of his Imperial Majesty Alexander I in the Ships Nadezhda and Neva) published in Saint Petersburg in 1810. volume I, p. 116
  324. Voyage autour du monde par Étienne Marchand, précédé d'une introduction historique; auquel on a joint des recherches sur les terres australes de Drake, et un examen critique de voyage de Roggeween, avec cartes et figures, Paris, years VI-VIII, 4 vol. p109
  325. International Encyclopedia of Sexuality in volume 1, French Polynesia (Anne Bolin, PhD), 5. Interpersonal Heterosexual Behaviors, A. Children, edited by Robert T. Francoeur publish by Continuum International Publishing Group
  326. "CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: French Polynesia". Archived from the original on 27 December 2008.
  327. "The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: French Polynesia". Archived from the original on 27 December 2008.
  328. "Sexual Behavior in Pre Contact Hawai段". Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2008.
  329. "Sexual Behavior in Pre Contact Hawai'i". Archived from the original on 24 December 2008.
  330. Bunting, Annie. 2005. Stages of development: marriage of girls and teens as an international human rights issue. Social and Legal Studies 14(2):17–38
  331. "I have a right to | BBC World Service". BBC. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  332. "Yemeni child bride dies of internal bleeding". CNN.
  333. Cook, Rebecca J.; Dickens, Bernard M.; Syed, S. (2004). "Obstetric fistula: the challenge to human rights". International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 87 (1): 72–77. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2004.07.005. PMID 15464787. S2CID 42899619.
  334. Nour, Nawal (2006). "Health Consequences of Child Marriage in Africa". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (11): 1644–1649. doi:10.3201/eid1211.060510. PMC 3372345. PMID 17283612.
  335. International Center for Research in Women (2005), Too young to wed: education & action toward ending child marriage. Washington DC
  336. Lee-Rife, Susan; Malhotra, Anju; Warner, Ann; McGonagle Glinski, Allison (2012). "What Works to Prevent Child Marriage: A Review of the Evidence". Studies in Family Planning. 43 (4): 287–303. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4465.2012.00327.x. PMID 23239248.
  337. Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky; Kumar, Chandan (April 2014). "Individual Characteristics and Use of Maternal and Child Health Services by Adolescent Mothers in Niger". Maternal and Child Health Journal. 18 (3): 592–603. doi:10.1007/s10995-013-1276-z. PMID 23737107. S2CID 10581145.
  338. Haberland, Nicole, Eric L. Chong, and Hillary J. Bracken. 2006. A world apart: the disadvantage and social isolation of married adolescent girls. Brief based on background paper prepared for the WHO/UNFPA/Population Council Technical Consultation on Married Adolescents. New York: The Population Council
  339. "Council on Foreign Relations".
  340. Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Lawrence, Danielle; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G. (2010). "Association between adolescent marriage and marital violence among young adult women in India". International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 110 (1): 35–39. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.01.022. PMC 3260080. PMID 20347089.
  341. "Child Marriage And the Law" (PDF). UNICEF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  342. Clark, Shelley; Bruce, Judith; Dude, Annie (2006). "Protecting young women from HIV/AIDS: the case against child and adolescent marriage". International Family Planning Perspectives. 32 (2): 79–88. doi:10.1363/3207906. PMID 16837388.
  343. "United Nations Official Document". United Nations. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  344. Stuart, Hunter (16 October 2013). "Country with the Most Child Brides Won't Agree To End Forced Child Marriage". HuffPost.
  345. "UN Takes Major Action to End Child Marriage | Center for Reproductive Rights". 17 October 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  346. Girls Not Brides (27 September 2013). "States adopt first-ever resolution on child, early and forced marriage at Human Rights Council". Girls Not Brides. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  347. Liz Ford. "Campaigners welcome 'milestone' agreement at UN gender equality talks | Global development". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  348. Chandra- Mouli, Venkatraman; Virginia Camacho, Alma; Michaud, Pierre-Andre (2013). "WHO Guidelines on Preventing Early Pregnancy and Poor Reproductive Outcomes Among Adolescents in Developing Countries". Journal of Adolescent Health. 52 (5): 517–22. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.03.002. PMID 23608717.
  349. Parsons, Jennifer; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer. 2014. Preventing child marriage: lessons from World Bank Group gender impact evaluations. enGender Impact : the World Bank's Gender Impact Evaluation Database. Washington, DC : World Bank Group.
  350. "The Global Campaign for the Prevention of Child Marriage". 26 May 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  351. "The Global campaign for the prevention of child marriage". World News TV, UK. 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  352. "More power to her: how empowering girls can end child marriage". ICRW | PASSION. PROOF. POWER. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  353. Mlambo-Ngcuka, Phumzile. "See Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka's activity on LinkedIn". LinkedIn. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  354. Jain, Saranga, and Kathleen Kurz. 2007. New Insights on Preventing Child Marriage. International Center for Research on Women. Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  355. Bahgam, S; Mukhatari (2004). "Study on Child Marriage in Afghanistan" (PDF). Medica Mondiale: 1–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  356. "Angola", Girls Not Brides
  357. Atlas Girls Not Brides. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  358. "Chad". Girls not brides. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  359. "Democratic Republic of the Congo". Girls not brides. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  360. "Cameroon", Girls Not Brides
  361. "Congo", Girls Not Brides
  362. "Ethiopia", Girls Not Brides
  363. Srivastava, Roli (6 March 2018). "India's child marriage numbers drop sharply, driving down global rate: UNICEF". Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  364. "Child marriage widespread in Bihar, Rajasthan and Bengal: Unicef report". India Today. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  365. "Cote D'Ivoire", Girls Not Brides
  366. "Nigeria", Girls Not Brides
  367. "Mali", Girls Not Brides
  368. "Senegal", Girls Not Brides
  369. "Somalia", Girls Not Brides
  370. "South Sudan", Girls Not Brides
  371. "Zimbabwe", Girls Not Brides
  372. "Data Warehouse – UNICEF DATA". United Nations Children's Fund. Retrieved 6 November 2019.

Works cited

  • Barlas, Asma (2002). Believing women in Islam : unreading patriarchal interpretations of the Qur'ān. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 9781477315927.
  • Spellberg, Denise A. (1996). Politics, gender, and the Islamic past : the Legacy of ʻAʼisha bint Abi Bakr. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-07999-0.
  • Watt, William Montgomery (1960). ʿĀʾis̲h̲a Bint Abī Bakr (2nd ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. ISBN 978-9004161214.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.