Chamber of Deputies (Brazil)

The Chamber of Deputies (Portuguese: Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. The chamber comprises 513 deputies, who are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. The current President of the Chamber is the Deputy Arthur Lira (PP-AL), who was elected on 1 February 2021.

Chamber of Deputies

Câmara dos Deputados
57th Legislature of the National Congress
Type
Type
Term limits
None
History
Founded6 May 1826 (1826-05-06)
New session started
1 February 2023 (2023-02-01)
Leadership
President
Arthur Lira, PP
since 1 February 2021
Government Leader
José Guimarães, PT
since 6 January 2023
Minority Leader
Eduardo Bolsonaro, PL
since 1 February 2023
Structure
Seats513
Political groups
Government (187)[1]
  •   Brazil of Hope (81)[lower-alpha 1]
  •   PP (47)
  •   PDT (17)
  •   PSB (14)
  •   PSOL REDE (14)[lower-alpha 2]
  •   Avante (7)
  •   Solidariedade (4)
  •   PROS (3)

Opposition (102)[1]

Independents (224)

Length of term
4 years
SalaryR$ 33,763 monthly (and benefits)[2]
Elections
Open list proportional representation (D'Hondt method) with a 2% election threshold[3]
Last election
2 October 2022
Next election
4 October 2026
Meeting place
Ulysses Guimarães plenary chamber
National Congress building
Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
Website
www.camara.leg.br

Structure

The number of deputies elected is proportional to the size of the population of the respective state (or of the Federal District) as of 1994. However, no delegation can be made up of less than eight or more than seventy seats. Thus the least populous state elects eight federal deputies and the most populous elects seventy. These restrictions favour the smaller states at the expense of the more populous states and so the size of the delegations is not exactly proportional to population.

Elections to the Chamber of Deputies are held every four years, with all seats up for election.

Federal representation

A census held every 10 years by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics is used as the basis for the distribution of the seats. Proportionality is followed as a principle, with the exception that there should be a minimum of eight (8) members and a maximum of seventy (70) members per state. Per the 2010 census, states with 3,258,117 inhabitants upwards have 9 to 70 deputies.

As a result, although most states hover around an average of 362,013 inhabitants by deputy (per the 2010 census), some states with smaller populations have a much lower average, such as Roraima (1 for 51,000 inhabitants).

Federal state Deputies currently allotted % Population (2010 Census) % Population per deputy Deputies in proportional allotment Difference (actual−proportional)
São Paulo 70 13.6% 39,924,091 21.5% 570,344 110 –40
Minas Gerais 53 10.3% 19,159,260 10.3% 361,495 53 0
Rio de Janeiro 46 9% 15,180,636 8.2% 330,014 42 +4
Bahia 39 7.6% 13,633,969 7.3% 349,589 38 +1
Rio Grande do Sul 31 6% 10,576,758 5.7% 341,186 29 +2
Paraná 30 5.8% 10,226,737 5.5% 340,891 28 +2
Pernambuco 25 4.9% 8,541,250 4.6% 341,650 24 +1
Ceará 22 4.3% 8,450,527 4.4% 371,822 23 –1
Maranhão 18 3.5% 6,424,340 3.5% 356,908 18 0
Goiás 17 3.3% 5,849,105 3.1% 344,065 16 +1
Pará 17 3.3% 7,443,904 4.0% 437,877 21 –4
Santa Catarina 16 3.1% 6,178,603 3.3% 386,163 17 –1
Paraíba 12 2.3% 3,753,633 2.0% 312,803 10 +2
Espírito Santo 10 1.9% 3,392,775 1.8% 339,278 9 +1
Piauí 10 1.9% 3,086,448 1.7% 308,645 9 +1
Alagoas 9 1.7% 3,093,994 1.7% 343,777 9 0
Acre 8 1.6% 707,125 0.4% 88,391 2 +6
Amazonas 8 1.6% 3,350,773 1.8% 418,847 9 –1
Amapá 8 1.6% 648,553 0.3% 81,069 2 +6
Distrito Federal 8 1.6% 2,469,489 1.3% 308,686 7 +1
Mato Grosso do Sul 8 1.6% 2,404,256 1.3% 300,532 7 +1
Mato Grosso 8 1.6% 2,954,625 1.6% 369,328 8 0
Rio Grande do Norte 8 1.6% 3,121,451 1.7% 390,181 9 –1
Rondônia 8 1.6% 1,535,625 0.8% 191,953 4 +4
Roraima 8 1.6% 425,398 0.2% 53,175 1 +7
Sergipe 8 1.6% 2,036,227 1.1% 254,528 6 +2
Tocantins 8 1.6% 1,373,551 0.7% 171,694 4 +4
Total 513 100% 185,712,713 100% 362,013 514 –2

Present composition

Parties in the 57th Chamber of Deputies
Party Floor leader Seats
Liberal Altineu Côrtes 99
Brazil of Hope Zeca Dirceu 81
Brazil Union Elmar Nascimento 59
Progressistas André Fufuca 47
Brazilian Democratic Movement Isnaldo Bulhões Junior 42
Social Democratic Antonio Brito 42
Republicanos Hugo Motta 40
Always Forward Adolfo Viana 18
Democratic Labour André Figueiredo 17
Brazilian Socialist Felipe Carreras 14
PSOL REDE Federation Guilherme Boulos 14
Podemos Fábio Macedo 12
Avante Luis Tibé 7
Social Christian 6
Patriota Fred Costa 4
Republican Party of the Social Order 4
Solidariedade Aureo Ribeiro 4
New Adriana Ventura 3
Brazilian Labour Carlos Roberto Rodrigues 1
Total 513

Partisan blocs composition

Partisan bloc leadership is organized into the following roles:

  • Government Leader: elected by members of the party of the Cabinet in the Chamber to speak on behalf of the cabinet
  • Majority Leader: elected by the leaders of the majority bloc in the Chamber, usually in support of the Cabinet
  • Opposition Leader: elected by the members of the largest party in opposition to the Cabinet
  • Minority Leader: elected by the leaders of the minority bloc, usually in opposition to the Cabinet
Bloc Deputies Leader
Government 189 José Guimarães (PT)
Majority
Opposition 102
Minority

Bodies

The House of Deputies is composed of the Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil by College Leaders and the Commissions, which can be permanent, temporary, or special inquiry.

Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil

The current composition of the Board of the Chamber of Deputies is the following:

President: Arthur Lira (PP-AL)
1st Vice President:
2nd Vice President:
1st Secretary:
2nd Secretary:
3rd Secretary:
4th Secretary:
1st Substitute:
2nd Substitute:
3rd Substitute:
4th Substitute:

Standing committees

On 6 March 2012, was defined division of committees between parties. The House President, Marco Maia, believes that the proportionality between the parties / blocs must take into account the data of the last election. Thus, PT and PMDB, with the highest benches, were three committees (the PT made the choice first). DEM and PSDB, the two largest opposition, were two commissions each.[4] On the other hand, PSD, most harmed by this decision, filed a lawsuit in the Supreme Court (STF) trying to reverse this decision.[5]

The chair of the committee, was defined as follows:[6]

Committee Chair
Agriculture, Livestock, Supply and Rural Development
Consumer Defence
Constitution, Justice and Citizenship
Culture
Defense of Women Rights
Defense of Elderly Rights
Defense of People with Disabilities Rights
Economic Development, Industry, Trade and Services
Education
Environment and Sustainable Development
Ethics and Parliamentary Decorum
Finances and Taxation
Financial Oversight and Control
Foreign Affairs and National Defence
Human Rights and Minorities
Labour, Administration and Public Service
Mines and Energy
National Integration, Regional Development and Amazon
Participative Legislation
Public Security and Fight Against Organized Crime
Roads and Transports
Science and Technology, Communication and Computing
Social Security and Family
Sports
Tourism
Urban Development

See also

Notes

References

  1. "A configuração da Câmara após a investida de Bolsonaro". Câmara (in Portuguese). Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  2. "Conheça o valor do salário de um deputado e demais verbas parlamentares - Notícias". Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 5 October 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  3. "Com dura cláusula de barreira, metade das siglas corre risco de acabar". O Tempo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 12 July 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  4. Finch, Nathalia (6 March 2012), G1, defines the distribution of the standing committees {{citation}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. Santos, Deborah (27 February 2012), G1, going to have the Supreme Command of committees in the House {{citation}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. "Definidos os partidos dos presidentes das comissões; veja os nomes já indicados". Câmara dos Deputados (in Portuguese). 9 March 2021. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
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