Calophyllum

Calophyllum is a genus of tropical flowering plants in the family Calophyllaceae. They are mainly distributed in Asia, with some species in Africa, the Americas, Australasia, and the Pacific Islands.[7]

Calophyllum
Calophyllum inophyllum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Calophyllaceae
Genus: Calophyllum
L.
Species

about 187, see text

Synonyms[1][2][3][4][5][6]
  • Apoterium Blume
  • Balsamaria Lour.
  • Calaba Mill.
  • Ponna Boehm.
  • Schmidelia Boehm.

History

Members of the genus Calophyllum native to Malesia and Wallacea are of particular importance to traditional shipbuilding of the larger Austronesian outrigger ships and were carried with them in the Austronesian expansion as they migrated to Oceania and Madagascar. They were comparable in importance to how oaks were in European shipbuilding and timber industries. The most notable species is the mastwood (Calophyllum inophyllum) which grows readily in the sandy and rocky beaches of the island environments that the Austronesians colonized.[8][9]

Description

Calophyllum are trees or shrubs. They produce a colorless, white, or yellow latex. The oppositely arranged leaves have leathery blades often borne on petioles.[7] The leaves are distinctive, with narrow parallel veins alternating with resin canals.[10] The inflorescence is a cyme or a thyrse of flowers that grows from the leaf axils or at the ends of branches. In the flower the sepals and petals may look similar and are arranged in whorls. There are many stamens. The fruit is a drupe with thin layers of flesh over a large seed.[7]

Uses

Many species are used for their wood. Some are hardwood trees that can reach 30 meters in height. They tend to grow rapidly. The outer sapwood is yellowish, yellow-brown, or orange, sometimes with a pink tinge, and the inner heartwood is light reddish to red-brown. The wood has a streaked, ribboned, or zig-zag grain. The wood has been used to build boats, flooring, and furniture, and made into plywood.[11][12] Calophyllum wood may be sold under the name bitangor, and the species may be used interchangeably; one shipment may contain boards from several different species.[13]

Plants of the genus are also known for their chemistry, with a variety of secondary metabolites isolated, such as coumarins, xanthones, flavonoids, and triterpenes. Compounds from the genus have been reported to have cytotoxic, anti-HIV, antisecretory, cytoprotective, antinociceptive, molluscicidal, and antimicrobial properties. Some plants are used in folk medicine to treat conditions such as peptic ulcers, tumors, infections, pain, and inflammation.[14]

C. inophyllum is the source of tamanu oil, a greenish, nutty-scented oil of commercial value. It has been used as massage oil, topical medicine, lamp oil, and waterproofing, and is still used in cosmetics. Tacamahac is the resin of the tree. This species is also cultivated for its wood and planted in coastal landscaping as a windbreak and for erosion control.[13]

Symbolism

A stylized Calophyllum is featured on the national coat of arms of Nauru.

Diversity

There are approximately 187 species in the genus.[7]

Species include:

  • Calophyllum acidus
  • Calophyllum acutiputamen
  • Calophyllum antillanum
  • Calophyllum austroindicum
  • Calophyllum bicolor
  • Calophyllum bifurcatum
  • Calophyllum biflorum
  • Calophyllum blancoi
  • Calophyllum bracteatum
  • Calophyllum brasiliense Santa Maria
  • Calophyllum brassii
  • Calophyllum calaba
  • Calophyllum caledonicum
  • Calophyllum candidissimum
  • Calophyllum canum
  • Calophyllum caudatum
  • Calophyllum chapelieri
  • Calophyllum collinum
  • Calophyllum confusum
  • Calophyllum cordato-oblongum
  • Calophyllum costatum
  • Calophyllum cuneifolium
  • Calophyllum dasypodum
  • Calophyllum dispar ref
  • Calophyllum donatianum
  • Calophyllum elatum
  • Calophyllum elegans
  • Calophyllum euryphyllum
  • Calophyllum exiticostatum
  • Calophyllum ferrugineum
  • Calophyllum flavo-ramulum
  • Calophyllum floribundum
  • Calophyllum fraseri
  • Calophyllum garcinioides
  • Calophyllum goniocarpum
  • Calophyllum griseum
  • Calophyllum havilandii
  • Calophyllum heterophyllum
  • Calophyllum hirasimum
  • Calophyllum inophyllum mastwood, Alexandrian laurel, tamanu, beauty leaf
  • Calophyllum insularum
  • Calophyllum lanigerum
  • Calophyllum laticostatum
  • Calophyllum leleanii
  • Calophyllum longifolium
  • Calophyllum lucidum
  • Calophyllum macrophyllum
  • Calophyllum mesoamericanum[10]
  • Calophyllum molle
  • Calophyllum mooni
  • Calophyllum morobense
  • Calophyllum neoebudicum
  • Calophyllum novoguineense
  • Calophyllum nubicola
  • Calophyllum obscurum
  • Calophyllum papuanum
  • Calophyllum parvifolium
  • Calophyllum pauciflorum
  • Calophyllum peekelii
  • Calophyllum persimile
  • Calophyllum piluliferum
  • Calophyllum pisiferum
  • Calophyllum polyanthum poonspar, sirpoontree
  • Calophyllum pubescens[10]
  • Calophyllum pulcherrimum
  • Calophyllum retusum
  • Calophyllum rigidum
  • Calophyllum robustum
  • Calophyllum rufinerve
  • Calophyllum savannarum
  • Calophyllum scriblitifolium
  • Calophyllum sil
  • Calophyllum soulattri bitangoor boonot, Nicobar canoetree
  • Calophyllum streimannii
  • Calophyllum sundaicum
  • Calophyllum symingtonianum
  • Calophyllum tacamahaca
  • Calophyllum tahanense
  • Calophyllum tetrapterum
  • Calophyllum teysmannii
  • Calophyllum thwaitesii
  • Calophyllum tomentosum pink touriga
  • Calophyllum trapezifolium
  • Calophyllum vexans
  • Calophyllum vitiense
  • Calophyllum waliense
  • Calophyllum walkeri
  • Calophyllum wallichianum
  • Calophyllum woodii

See also

References

  1. "Calophyllum L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2022. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  2. Blume 1825, p. 218.
  3. Loureiro 1790, p. 468.
  4. Miller 1754, p. .
  5. Ludwig & Böhmer 1760, p. 268.
  6. Ludwig & Böhmer 1760, p. 371.
  7. Li, Xi-wen; Li, Jie; Stevens, Peter (n.d.). "Calophyllum (Linnaeus) Sp. Pl. 1: 513. 1753., 1841. 红厚壳属 hong hou ke shu". Flora of China. p. 1, 38.
  8. Damon, Frederick H. (2016). "A Story of Calophyllum: From Ecological to Social Facts". Trees, Knots, and Outriggers: Environmental Knowledge in the Northeast Kula Ring. Berghahn Books. pp. 180–246. ISBN 9781785332333.
  9. Orwa, C.; Mutua, A.; Kindt, R.; Anthony, S. (2009). "Calophyllum inophyllum" (PDF). Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry.
  10. Díaz, D. M. V. (March 2013). "Multivariate analysis of morphological and anatomical characters of Calophyllum (Calophyllaceae) in South America: Multivariate Analysis of Calophyllum". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 171 (3): 587–626. doi:10.1111/boj.12012.
  11. Calophyllum. Archived 2014-09-11 at the Wayback Machine Wood Properties and Uses of Australian Timbers. Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 2010.
  12. Richter, H. G. and M. J. Dallwitz. 2000 onwards. Calophyllum. Commercial Timbers. DELTA. Version: 25 June 2009.
  13. Friday, J. B. and R. Ogoshi. Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum). In: Elevitch, C. R. (ed.) Specialty Crops for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agriculture Resources. Holualoa, Hawaii. 2011.
  14. Cechinel Filho, V.; Meyre-Silva, C.; Niero, R. (2009). "Chemical and Pharmacological Aspects of the Genus Calophyllum". Chemistry & Biodiversity. 6 (3): 313–327. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200800082. PMID 19319867. S2CID 45018591.

Bibliography

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