Brahmic scripts

The Brahmic scripts, also known as Indic scripts, are a family of abugida writing systems. They are used throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia. They are descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India and are used by various languages in several language families in South, East and Southeast Asia: Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolic, Austroasiatic, Austronesian, and Tai. They were also the source of the dictionary order (gojūon) of Japanese kana.[1]

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The letters of the official scripts of the Indian Republic of the "Indic/Brahmic family" used by the official languages of India
(top row: Kannada/Telugu, Tamil, Gujarati;
middle row: Meitei, Devanagari, Eastern Nagari;
bottom row: Odia, Malayalam, Gurmukhi)
A Sanskrit phrase in different Brahmic scripts.

History

Brahmic scripts descended from the Brahmi script. Brahmi is clearly attested from the 3rd century BCE during the reign of Ashoka, who used the script for imperial edicts, but there are some claims of earlier epigraphy found on pottery in southern India and Sri Lanka. The most reliable of these were short Brahmi inscriptions dated to the 4th century BCE and published by Coningham et al. (1996).[2] Northern Brahmi gave rise to the Gupta script during the Gupta period, which in turn diversified into a number of cursives during the medieval period. Notable examples of such medieval scripts, developed by the 7th or 8th century, include Nagari, Siddham and Sharada.

The Siddhaṃ script was especially important in Buddhism, as many sutras were written in it. The art of Siddham calligraphy survives today in Japan. The tabular presentation and dictionary order of the modern kana system of Japanese writing is believed to be descended from the Indic scripts, most likely through the spread of Buddhism.[1]

Southern Brahmi evolved into the Kadamba, Pallava and Vatteluttu scripts, which in turn diversified into other scripts of South India and Southeast Asia. Brahmic scripts spread in a peaceful manner, Indianization, or the spread of Indian learning. The scripts spread naturally to Southeast Asia, at ports on trading routes.[3] At these trading posts, ancient inscriptions have been found in Sanskrit, using scripts that originated in India. At first, inscriptions were made in Indian languages, but later the scripts were used to write the local Southeast Asian languages. Hereafter, local varieties of the scripts were developed. By the 8th century, the scripts had diverged and separated into regional scripts.[4]

Characteristics

Some characteristics, which are present in most but not all the scripts, are:

Comparison

Below are comparison charts of several of the major Indic scripts, organised on the principle that glyphs in the same column all derive from the same Brahmi glyph. Accordingly:

  • The charts are not comprehensive. Glyphs may be unrepresented if they do not derive from any Brahmi character, but are later inventions.
  • The pronunciations of glyphs in the same column may not be identical. The pronunciation row is only representative; the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) pronunciation is given for Sanskrit where possible, or another language if necessary.

The transliteration is indicated in ISO 15919.

Consonants

ISO[lower-alpha 1]kakhagaghaṅacachajajhañaṭaṭhaḍaḍhaṇatathadadhanaṉapaphababhamayaẏaraṟalaḷaḻavaśaṣasaha
Ashoka Brahmi 𑀓𑀔𑀕𑀖𑀗𑀘𑀙𑀚𑀛𑀜𑀝𑀞𑀟𑀠𑀡𑀢𑀣𑀤𑀥𑀦𑀧𑀨𑀩𑀪𑀫𑀬𑀭𑀮𑀴𑀯𑀰𑀱𑀲𑀳
Devanagari
Bengali-
Assamese
য়র,ৰ
Gurmukhi ਲ਼ਸ਼
Gujarati
Odia
Tamil
Telugu
Kannada
Malayalam
Sinhala
Tibetan གྷཛྷཌྷདྷབྷ[lower-alpha 2]
ʼPhags-pa ꡂꡜꡆꡜꡫꡜꡊꡜꡎꡜ
Meitei Mayek[lower-alpha 3]
Lepcha ᰡ᰷
Limbu
Tirhuta 𑒏𑒐𑒑𑒒𑒓𑒔𑒕𑒖𑒗𑒘𑒙𑒚𑒛𑒜𑒝𑒞𑒟𑒠𑒡𑒢𑒣𑒤𑒥𑒦𑒧𑒨𑒩𑒪𑒬𑒭𑒮𑒯
Kaithi 𑂍𑂎𑂏𑂐𑂑𑂒𑂓𑂔𑂕𑂖𑂗𑂘𑂙𑂛𑂝𑂞𑂟𑂠𑂡𑂢𑂣𑂤𑂥𑂦𑂧𑂨𑂩𑂪𑂫𑂬𑂭𑂮𑂯
Grantham 𑌕𑌖𑌗𑌘𑌙𑌚𑌛𑌜𑌝𑌞𑌟𑌠𑌡𑌢𑌣𑌤𑌥𑌦𑌧𑌨𑌪𑌫𑌬𑌭𑌮𑌯𑌰𑌲𑌳𑌵𑌶𑌷𑌸𑌹
Sylheti Nagari
Chakma[lower-alpha 4] 𑄇𑄈𑄉𑄊𑄋𑄌𑄍𑄎𑄏𑄐𑄑𑄒𑄓𑄔𑄕𑄖𑄗𑄘𑄙𑄚𑄛𑄜𑄝𑄞𑄟𑄠𑄡𑄢𑄣𑅄𑄤𑄥𑄦
Burmese ကဉ /
Khmer
Thai ข,ฃ[lower-alpha 5]ค,ฅ[lower-alpha 5]ช,ซ[lower-alpha 5]ฎ,[lower-alpha 5]ด,[lower-alpha 5]บ,[lower-alpha 5]ผ,ฝ[lower-alpha 5]พ,ฟ[lower-alpha 5]ห,ฮ[lower-alpha 5]
Lao [lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 6]
Cham
Kawi 𑼒 𑼓 𑼔 𑼕 𑼖 𑼗 𑼘 𑼙 𑼚 𑼛 𑼜 𑼝 𑼞 𑼟 𑼠 𑼡 𑼢 𑼣 𑼤 𑼥 𑼳 𑼦 𑼧 𑼨 𑼩 𑼪 𑼫 𑼬 𑼭 𑼮 𑼯 𑼰 𑼱 𑼲
Balinese
Javanese[lower-alpha 7] [lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7][lower-alpha 7]
Sundanese [lower-alpha 8] [lower-alpha 9] [lower-alpha 10]
Lontara
Makasar 𑻠 𑻡 𑻢 𑻩 𑻪 𑻫 𑻦 𑻧 𑻨 𑻣 𑻤 𑻥 𑻬 𑻭 𑻮 𑻯 𑻰 𑻱
Rejang ꤿ
Batak (Toba) /
Baybayin                       
Buhid                       
Hanunuo                       
Tagbanwa                         
ISOkakhagaghaṅacachajajhañaṭaṭhaḍaḍhaṇatathadadhanaṉapaphababhamayaẏaraṟalaḷaḻavaśaṣasaha
Notes
  1. This list tries to include characters of same origins, not same sounds. In Bengali র is pronounced as but it is originally va which is still used for wa sound in Mithilakshar and modern Assamese ৱ (wabbô) was derived from middle Assamese র (wô). Compare with জ (ja) য (ya) and য় (ẏ) which are pronounced as , and in Bengali and , and in Assamese respectively. য is related to Devanagari य (ya) and it is still pronounced as "ya" in Mithilakshar. Since their sounds shifted, the dots were added to keep the original sounds.
  2. Letter used in Balti.
  3. includes supplementary consonants not in contemporary use
  4. inherent vowel is ā
  5. Modified forms of these letters are or were used for distinctions made in Thai; these distinctions are not made for Sanskrit and Pali in the Thai script.
  6. These letters are obsolete, but were used mainly for Sanskrit and Pali in the Lao script.
  7. Letters used in Old Javanese. They are now obsolete, but are used for honorifics in contemporary Javanese.
  8. Invented new character to represent the Arabic letter خ.
  9. Letter used in Old Sundanese. It is now obsolete.
  10. Invented new character. Actually to represent the Arabic letter ش, which has similar pronunciation with śa.

Vowels

Vowels are presented in their independent form on the left of each column, and in their corresponding dependent form (vowel sign) combined with the consonant k on the right. A glyph for ka is an independent consonant letter itself without any vowel sign, where the vowel a is inherent.

ISOaāêôiīuūeēaioōau ər̥̄ [lower-alpha 1][lower-alpha 1]l̥̄ [lower-alpha 1]
akaāêôikiīukuūekeēaikaiokoōaukau ə kr̥r̥̄kr̥̄kl̥l̥̄kl̥̄kṁkḥk
Ashoka Brahmi 𑀅𑀓𑀆𑀓𑀸    𑀇𑀓𑀺𑀈𑀓𑀻𑀉𑀓𑀼𑀊𑀓𑀽  𑀏𑀓𑁂𑀐𑀓𑁃  𑀑𑀓𑁄𑀒𑀓𑁅   𑀋𑀓𑀾𑀌𑀓𑀿𑀍𑀓𑁀𑀎𑀓𑁁𑀅𑀂𑀓𑀂𑀅𑀃𑀓𑀃𑀓𑁆
Devanagari काकॅकॉकिकीकुकूकॆकेकैकॊकोकौ   कृकॄकॢकॣअंकंअःकः क्
Bengali-
Assamese
কাঅ্যক্যঅ্যাক্যাকিকীকুকূ  কেকৈ  কোকৌ কৃকৄকৢকৣঅং কং অঃ কঃ ক্
Gujarati કા    કિકીકુકૂ  કેકૈ  કોકૌ કૃકૄકૢકૣઅં કં અઃ કઃ ક્,ક્‍
Odia କା    କିକୀକୁକୂ  କେକୈ  କୋକୌ କୃକୄକୢକୣକଂକଃ କ୍
Gurmukhi ਕਾ    ਕਿਕੀਕੁਕੂ  ਕੇਕੈ  ਕੋਕੌ         ਅਂ ਕਂ ਅਃਕਃ ਕ੍
Meitei Mayek[lower-alpha 2] ꯑꯥꯀꯥ    ꯀꯤꯑꫫꯀꫫꯀꯨꯑꫬꯀꫬ  ꯑꯦꯀꯦꯑꯩꯀꯩ  ꯑꯣꯀꯣꯑꯧꯀꯧ         ꯑꯪꯀꯪꯑꫵꯀꫵ
Tibetan[lower-alpha 3] ཨཱཀཱ    ཨིཀིཨཱིཀཱིཨུཀུཨཱུཀཱུ  ཨེཀེཨཻཀཻ  ཨོཀོཨཽཀཽ རྀཀྲྀརཱྀཀཷལྀཀླྀལཱྀཀླཱྀཨཾཀཾཨཿཀཿཀ྄
Lepcha ᰣᰦᰀᰦ    ᰣᰧᰀᰧᰣᰧᰶᰀᰧᰶᰣᰪᰀᰪᰣᰫᰀᰫ  ᰣᰬᰀᰬ    ᰣᰨᰀᰨᰣᰩᰀᰩ         ᰣᰴᰀᰴ   
Limbu ᤀᤠᤁᤠ    ᤀᤡᤁᤡᤀᤡ᤺ᤁᤡ᤺ᤀᤢᤁᤢᤀ᤺ᤢᤁ᤺ᤢᤀᤧᤁᤧᤀᤣᤁᤣᤀᤤᤁᤤᤀᤨᤁᤨᤀᤥᤁᤥᤀᤦᤁᤦ         ᤀᤲᤁᤲ  ᤁ᤻
Tirhuta 𑒁𑒏𑒂𑒏𑒰    𑒃𑒏𑒱𑒄𑒏𑒲𑒅𑒏𑒳𑒆𑒏𑒴 𑒏𑒺𑒋𑒏𑒹𑒌𑒏𑒻 𑒏𑒽𑒍𑒏𑒼𑒎𑒏𑒾 𑒇𑒏𑒵𑒈𑒏𑒶𑒉𑒏𑒷𑒊𑒏𑒸𑒁𑓀𑒏𑓀𑒁𑓁𑒏𑓁𑒏𑓂
Kaithi 𑂃𑂍𑂄𑂍𑂰    𑂅𑂍𑂱𑂆𑂍𑂲𑂇𑂍𑂳𑂈𑂍𑂴  𑂉𑂍𑂵𑂊𑂍𑂶  𑂋𑂍𑂷𑂌𑂍𑂸         𑂃𑂁𑂍𑂁𑂃𑂂𑂍𑂂𑂍𑂹
Sylheti Nagari  ꠇꠣ    ꠇꠤ  ꠇꠥ    ꠇꠦꠅꠂꠇꠂ  ꠇꠧ           ꠀꠋꠇꠋ  ꠇ꠆
Tamil கா    கிகீகுகூகெகேகைகொகோகௌ         அஂகஂஅஃகஃக்
Kannada ಕಾ    ಕಿಕೀಕುಕೂಕೆಕೇಕೈಕೊಕೋಕೌ ಕೃಕೄಕೢಕೣఅంಕಂఅఃಕಃ ಕ್
Telugu కా    కికీకుకూకెకేకైకొకోకౌ కృకౄకౢకౣఅంకంఅఃకః క్
Sinhala කාකැකෑකිකීකුකූකෙකේකෛකොකෝකෞ කෘකෲකෟකෳඅං කං අඃ කඃ ක්
Malayalam കാ    കികീകുകൂകെകേകൈകൊകോകൗ കൃകൄകൢകൣഅംകംഅഃകഃ ക്,ക്‍
Chakma 𑄃𑄧𑄇𑄧𑄃𑄇𑄃𑄬𑄬𑄇𑄬𑄬𑄃𑅅𑄇𑅅𑄄, 𑄃𑄨𑄇𑄨𑄃𑄩𑄇𑄩𑄅, 𑄃𑄪𑄇𑄪𑄃𑄫𑄇𑄫  𑄆, 𑄃𑄬𑄇𑄬𑄃𑄰𑄇𑄰  𑄃𑄮𑄇𑄮𑄃𑄯𑄇𑄯         𑄃𑄧𑄁𑄇𑄧𑄁𑄃𑄧𑄂𑄇𑄧𑄂𑄇𑄴
Burmese ကအာကာ    ကိကီကုကူ  ကေအဲကဲကော  ကော် ကၖကၗကၘကၙအံကံအးကးက်
Khmer[lower-alpha 4] អាកា    កិកីកុកូ  កេកៃ  កោកៅ ក្ឫក្ឬក្ឭក្ឮអំកំអះកះក៑
Thai[lower-alpha 3] อ (อะ)ก (กะ)อากาแอแก(ออ)(กอ)อิกิอีกีอุกุอูกู(เอะ)(เกะ)เอเกไอ,ใอไก,ใก(โอะ)(โกะ)โอโกเอาเกา กฺฤฤๅกฺฤๅกฺฦฦๅกฺฦๅอํกํอะ (อะฮฺ)กะ (กะฮฺ)กฺ (ก/ก์)
Lao[lower-alpha 3] ອະກະອາກາແອແກ(ອອ)(ກອ)ອິກິອີກີອຸກຸອູກູ(ແອະ)(ແກະ)ເອເກໄອ,ໃອໄກ,ໃກ(ໂອະ)(ໂກະ)ໂອໂກເອົາ,ອາວເກົາ,ກາວ         ອํກํອະກະ
Cham ꨀꨩꨆꨩ    ꨆꨪꨁꨩꨆꨫꨆꨭꨂꨩꨆꨭꨩ  ꨆꨯꨮꨆꨰ  ꨆꨯꨀꨯꨱꨆꨯꨱ ꨣꨮꨆꨴꨮꨣꨮꨩꨆꨴꨮꨩꨤꨮꨆꨵꨮꨤꨮꨩꨆꨵꨮꨩꨀꩌꨆꩌꨀꩍꨆꩍ
Kawi 𑼄 𑼒 𑼅 𑼒𑼴 𑼆 𑼒𑼶 𑼇 𑼒𑼷 𑼈 𑼒𑼸 𑼉 𑼒𑼹 𑼎 𑼒𑼾 𑼏 𑼒𑼿 𑼐 𑼒𑼾𑼴 𑼐𑼴 𑼒𑼿𑼴 𑼄𑽀 𑼒𑽀 𑼊 𑼒𑼺 𑼊𑼴 𑼒𑼺𑼴 𑼌 𑼒𑽂𑼌 𑼍 𑼒𑽂𑼭𑽀𑼴 𑼄𑼁 𑼒𑼁 𑼄𑼃 𑼒𑼃 𑼒𑽁
Balinese ᬓᬵ    ᬓᬶᬓᬷᬓᬸᬓᬹᬓᬾ  ᬓᬿᬓᭀ  ᬓᭁ ᬅᭂ ᬓᭂᬓᬺᬓᬻᬓᬼᬓᬽᬅᬂᬓᬂᬅᬄᬓᬄᬓ᭄
Javanese ꦄꦴꦏꦴ    ꦏꦶꦏꦷꦏꦸꦈꦴꦏꦹꦏꦺ  ꦏꦻꦏꦺꦴ  ꦎꦴꦏꦻꦴ ꦄꦼ ꦏꦼꦏꦽꦉꦴꦏꦽꦴꦏ꧀ꦊꦏ꧀ꦋꦄꦁꦏꦁꦄꦃꦏꦃꦏ꧀
Sundanese   ᮊᮤ  ᮊᮥ  ᮊᮦ    ᮊᮧ     ᮊᮨ[lower-alpha 5]ᮊ᮪ᮻ[lower-alpha 5]  [lower-alpha 5]ᮊ᮪ᮼ[lower-alpha 5]  ᮃᮀᮊᮀᮃᮂᮊᮂᮊ᮪
Lontara     ᨕᨗᨀᨗ  ᨕᨘᨀᨘ  ᨕᨙᨀᨙ    ᨕᨚᨀᨚ     ᨕᨛ ᨀᨛ             
Makasar 𑻱 𑻠𑻱𑻳𑻠𑻳𑻱𑻴𑻠𑻴𑻱𑻵𑻠𑻵𑻱𑻶𑻠𑻶
Rejang   ꥆꥎꤰꥎꥆꥍꤰꥍꥆꥇꤰꥇ  ꥆꥈꤰꥈ  ꥆꥉꤰꥉ  ꥆꥊꤰꥊꥆꥋꤰꥋ  ꥆꥌꤰꥌ         ꥆꥏꤰꥏꥆꥒꤰꥒꤰ꥓
Batak (Toba)       ᯂᯪ  ᯂᯮ   ᯂᯩ     ᯂᯬ             ᯀᯰᯂᯰᯀᯱᯂᯱᯂ᯲
Baybayin       ᜃᜒ  ᜃᜓ  ᜃᜒ    ᜃᜓ                 ᜃ᜔
Buhid       ᝃᝒ  ᝃᝓ                            
Hanunuo       ᜣᜲ  ᜣᜳ                           ᜣ᜴
Tagbanwa       ᝣᝲ  ᝣᝳ                            
ISOakaāêôikiīukuūekeēaikaiokoōaukau ə kr̥r̥̄kr̥̄kl̥l̥̄kl̥̄kṁkḥk
aāêôiīuūeēaioōau ər̥̄l̥̄

Notes

  1. Letters for r̥̄, , l̥̄ and a few others are obsolete or very rarely used.
  2. includes supplementary vowels not in contemporary use
  3. Tibetan, Thai and Lao scripts do not have independent vowel forms. For syllables starting with a vowel sound, a "zero" consonant (ཨ, อ or ອ respectively) is used to represent the glottal stop /ʔ/.
  4. When used to write their own languages, Khmer can have either an a or an o as the inherent vowel, following the rules of its orthography.
  5. Letters used in Old Sundanese. They are now obsolete.

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic0123456789
Brahmi numbers 𑁒𑁓𑁔𑁕𑁖𑁗𑁘𑁙𑁚
Brahmi digits 𑁦𑁧𑁨𑁩𑁪𑁫𑁬𑁭𑁮𑁯
Assamese
Bengali
Tirhuta 𑓐𑓑𑓒𑓓𑓔𑓕𑓖𑓗𑓘𑓙
Odia
Devanagari
Gujarati
Modi 𑙐‎𑙑‎𑙒𑙓‎𑙔‎𑙕𑙖‎𑙗𑙘‎𑙙
Sharada 𑇐𑇑𑇒𑇓𑇔𑇕𑇖𑇗𑇘𑇙
Takri 𑛀𑛁𑛂𑛃𑛄𑛅𑛆𑛇𑛈𑛉
Gurmukhi
Khudabadi 𑋰𑋱𑋲𑋳𑋴𑋵𑋶𑋷𑋸𑋹
Meitei (Manipuri)
Pracalit 𑑐‎𑑑‎𑑒‎𑑓‎𑑔‎𑑕‎𑑖‎𑑗‎𑑘‎𑑙
Tibetan
Mongolian[lower-alpha 1]
Lepcha
Limbu
Sinhala astrological numbers
Sinhala archaic numbers 𑇡𑇢𑇣𑇤𑇥𑇦𑇧𑇨𑇩
Tamil
Telugu
Kannada
Malayalam
Saurashtra
Ahom 𑜰𑜱𑜲𑜳𑜴𑜵𑜶𑜷𑜸𑜹
Chakma 𑄶𑄷𑄸𑄹𑄺𑄻𑄼𑄽𑄾𑄿
Burmese
Shan
Khmer
Thai
Lao
Cham
Tai Tham[lower-alpha 2]
Tai Tham Astrological Numbers[lower-alpha 3]
New Tai Lue
Balinese
Javanese
Sundanese
Hindu-Arabic0123456789

Notes

  1. Mongolian numerals are derived from Tibetan numerals and used in conjunction with the Mongolian and Clear script
  2. for liturgical use
  3. for everyday use

List of Brahmic scripts

Historical

The Brahmi script was already divided into regional variants at the time of the earliest surviving epigraphy around the 3rd century BC. Cursives of the Brahmi script began to diversify further from around the 5th century AD and continued to give rise to new scripts throughout the Middle Ages. The main division in antiquity was between northern and southern Brahmi. In the northern group, the Gupta script was very influential, and in the southern group the Vatteluttu and Kadamba/Pallava scripts with the spread of Buddhism sent Brahmic scripts throughout Southeast Asia.

Early Brahmic scripts
IASTAshokaGirnarChandra
-gupta
GujaratAllahabadNarbadaKistna
a
ā
i
ī
u
ū
e
ai
o
au
k
kh
g
gh
c
ch
j
jh
ñ
ṭh
ḍh
t
th
d
dh
n
p
ph
b
bh
m
y
r
l
v
ś
s
h

Northern Brahmic

A map of Indo-Aryan languages using their respective Brahmic family scripts (except dark blue colored Khowar, Pashai, Kohistani, and Urdu, not marked here, which use Arabic-derived scripts).
A map of Dravidian languages using their respective Brahmic family scripts (except Brahui, which uses an Arabic-derived script).

Southern Brahmic

Unicode

As of Unicode version 15.0, the following Brahmic scripts have been encoded:

script derivation Period of derivation usage notes ISO 15924 Unicode range(s) sample
Ahom Burmese[6] 13th century Extinct Ahom language Ahom U+11700–U+1174F 𑜒𑜠𑜑𑜨𑜉
Balinese Kawi 11th century Balinese language Bali U+1B00–U+1B7F ᬅᬓ᭄ᬲᬭᬩᬮᬶ
Batak Pallava 14th century Batak languages Batk U+1BC0–U+1BFF ᯘᯮᯒᯖ᯲ ᯅᯖᯂ᯲
Baybayin Kawi 14th century Tagalog, other Philippine languages Tglg U+1700–U+171F ᜊᜌ᜔ᜊᜌᜒᜈ᜔
Bengali-Assamese (Eastern Nagari) Siddhaṃ 11th century Angika, Assamese language (Assamese script variant), Bengali language (Bengali script variant), Bishnupriya, Maithili, Meitei language (constitutionally termed as "Manipuri")[7] Beng U+0980–U+09FF
  • অসমীয়া লিপি
  • বাংলা লিপি
Bhaiksuki Gupta 11th century Was used around the turn of the first millennium for writing Sanskrit Bhks U+11C00–U+11C6F 𑰥𑰹𑰎𑰿𑰬𑰲𑰎𑰱
Buhid Kawi 14th century Buhid language Buhd U+1740–U+175F ᝊᝓᝑᝒᝇ
Mon-Burmese Pallava 11th century Burmese language, Mon language, numerous modifications for other languages including Chakma, Eastern and Western Pwo Karen, Geba Karen, Kayah, Rumai Palaung, S'gaw Karen, Shan Mymr U+1000–U+109F, U+A9E0–U+A9FF, U+AA60–U+AA7F မြန်မာအက္ခရာ
Chakma Burmese 8th century Chakma language Cakm U+11100–U+1114F 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦
Cham Pallava 8th century Cham language Cham U+AA00–U+AA5F ꨌꩌ
Devanagari Nagari 13th century Several Indo-Aryan languages (Konkani, Marathi, Hindi, Sanskrit, Nepali, Bhili, Sindhi, Gujarati etc), Sino-Tibetan languages (Bodo, Nepal Bhasa, Sherpa etc.), Mundari (Austroasiatic language) and others. Deva U+0900–U+097F, U+A8E0–U+A8FF, U+11B00–U+11B5F देवनागरी
Dhives Akuru Gupta Before 6th-8th century Was used to write the Maldivian language up until the 20th century.[8] Diak U+11900–U+1195F 𑤞𑥂𑤧𑤭𑥂
Dogra Takri Was used to write Dogri. Dogra script is closely related to Takri.[9] Dogr U+11800–U+1184F 𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠬
Grantha Pallava 6th century Restricted use in traditional Vedic schools to write Sanskrit. Was widely used by Tamil speakers for Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam. Gran U+11300–U+1137F 𑌗𑍍𑌰𑌨𑍍𑌥
Gujarati Nagari 17th century Gujarati language, Kutchi language Gujr U+0A80–U+0AFF ગુજરાતી લિપિ
Gunjala Gondi 16th century Used for writing the Adilabad dialect of the Gondi language.[10] Gong U+11D60–U+11DAF 𑵶𑶍𑶕𑶀𑵵𑶊 𑵶𑶓𑶕𑶂𑶋
Gurmukhi Sharada 16th century Punjabi language Guru U+0A00–U+0A7F ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ
Hanunó'o Kawi 14th century Hanuno'o language Hano U+1720–U+173F ᜱᜨᜳᜨᜳᜢ
Javanese Kawi 16th century Javanese language, Sundanese language, Madurese language Java U+A980–U+A9DF ꦄꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮ
Kaithi Nagari 16th century Historically used for writing legal, administrative, and private records. Kthi U+11080–U+110CF 𑂍𑂶𑂟𑂲
Kannada Telugu-Kannada 9th century Kannada, Konkani, Tulu, Badaga, Kodava, Beary, others Knda U+0C80–U+0CFF ಕನ್ನಡ ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ
Kawi Pallava 8th century Kawi was found primarily in Java and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia between the 8th century and the 16th century.[11] Kawi U+11F00–U+11F5F 𑼒𑼮𑼶
Khmer Pallava 11th century Khmer language Khmr U+1780–U+17FF, U+19E0–U+19FF អក្សរខ្មែរ
Khojki Landa 16th century Some use by Ismaili communities. Was used by the Khoja community for Muslim religious literature. Khoj U+11200–U+1124F 𑈉𑈲𑈐𑈈𑈮
Khudawadi Landa 16th century Was used by Sindhi communities for correspondence and business records. Sind U+112B0–U+112FF 𑊻𑋩𑋣𑋏𑋠𑋔𑋠𑋏𑋢
Lao Khmer 14th century Lao language, others Laoo U+0E80–U+0EFF ອັກສອນລາວ
Lepcha Tibetan 8th century Lepcha language Lepc U+1C00–U+1C4F ᰛᰩᰴ
Limbu Lepcha 9th century Limbu language Limb U+1900–U+194F ᤛᤡᤖᤡᤈᤨᤅ
Lontara Kawi 17th century Buginese language, others Bugi U+1A00–U+1A1F ᨒᨚᨈᨑ
Mahajani Landa 16th century Historically used in northern India for writing accounts and financial records. Mahj U+11150–U+1117F 𑅬𑅱𑅛𑅧𑅑‎
Makasar Kawi 17th century Was used in South Sulawesi, Indonesia for writing the Makassarese language.[12] Makasar script is also known as "Old Makassarese" or "Makassarese bird script" in English-language scholarly works.[13] Maka U+11EE0–U+11EFF 𑻪𑻢𑻪𑻢
Malayalam Grantha 12th century Malayalam Mlym U+0D00–U+0D7F മലയാളലിപി
Marchen Tibetan 7th century Was used in the Tibetan Bön tradition to write the extinct Zhang-Zhung language Marc U+11C70–U+11CBF 𑱳𑲁𑱽𑱾𑲌𑱵𑲋𑲱𑱴𑱶𑲱𑲅𑲊𑱱
Meetei Mayek Tibetan 6th century[14] officially used for Meitei language (constitutionally termed as "Manipuri") in accordance to "The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021"[15] Mtei U+AAE0–U+AAFF, U+ABC0–U+ABFF ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ
Modi Nāgarī 17th century Was used to write the Marathi language Modi U+11600–U+1165F 𑘦𑘻𑘚𑘲
Multani Landa Was used to write the Multani language Mult U+11280–U+112AF 𑊠𑊣𑊖𑊚
Nandinagari Nāgarī 7th century Historically used to write Sanskrit in southern India Nand U+119A0–U+119FF 𑧁𑧞𑦿𑧒𑧁𑧑𑦰𑧈𑧓
New Tai Lue Tai Tham 1950s Tai Lü language Talu U+1980–U+19DF ᦟᦲᧅᦎᦷᦺᦑ
Odia Siddhaṃ 13th century Odia language Orya U+0B00–U+0B7F ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଅକ୍ଷର
'Phags-Pa Tibetan 13th century Historically used during the Mongol Yuan dynasty. Phag U+A840–U+A87F ꡖꡍꡂꡛ ꡌ
Prachalit (Newa) Nepal Has been used for writing the Sanskrit, Nepali, Hindi, Bengali, and Maithili languages Newa U+11400–U+1147F 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐮𑐶𑐟
Rejang Kawi 18th century Rejang language, mostly obsolete Rjng U+A930–U+A95F ꥆꤰ꥓ꤼꤽ ꤽꥍꤺꥏ
Saurashtra Grantha 20th century Saurashtra language, mostly obsolete Saur U+A880–U+A8DF ꢱꣃꢬꢵꢰ꣄ꢜ꣄ꢬꢵ
Sharada Gupta 8th century Was used for writing Sanskrit and Kashmiri Shrd U+11180–U+111DF 𑆯𑆳𑆫𑆢𑆳
Siddham Gupta 7th century Was used for writing Sanskrit Sidd U+11580–U+115FF 𑖭𑖰𑖟𑖿𑖠𑖽
Sinhala Brahmi[16] 4th century[17] Sinhala language Sinh U+0D80–U+0DFF, U+111E0–U+111FF ශුද්ධ සිංහල
Sundanese Kawi 14th century Sundanese language Sund U+1B80–U+1BBF, U+1CC0–U+1CCF ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ
Sylheti Nagari Nagari 16th century Historically used for writing the Sylheti language Sylo U+A800–U+A82F ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ
Tagbanwa Kawi 14th century Various languages of Palawan, nearly extinct Tagb U+1760–U+177F ᝦᝪᝨᝯ
Tai Le Mon 13th century Tai Nüa language Tale U+1950–U+197F ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ
Tai Tham Mon 13th century Northern Thai language, Tai Lü language, Khün language Lana U+1A20–U+1AAF ᨲᩫ᩠ᩅᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ
Tai Viet Thai 16th century Tai Dam language Tavt U+AA80–U+AADF ꪼꪕꪒꪾ
Takri Sharada 16th century Was used for writing Chambeali, and other languages Takr U+11680–U+116CF 𑚔𑚭𑚊𑚤𑚯
Tamil Pallava 2nd century Tamil language Taml U+0B80–U+0BFF, U+11FC0–U+11FFF தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி
Telugu Telugu-Kannada 5th century Telugu language Telu U+0C00–U+0C7F తెలుగు లిపి
Thai Khmer 13th century Thai language Thai U+0E00–U+0E7F อักษรไทย
Tibetan Gupta 8th century Classical Tibetan, Dzongkha, Ladakhi language Tibt U+0F00–U+0FFF བོད་ཡིག་
Tirhuta Siddham 13th century Historically used for the Maithili language Tirh U+11480–U+114DF 𑒞𑒱𑒩𑒯𑒳𑒞𑒰

See also

References

  1. Frellesvig, Bjarke (2010). A History of the Japanese Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 177–178. ISBN 978-0-521-65320-6.
  2. Coningham, R. A. E.; Allchin, F. R.; Batt, C. M.; Lucy, D. (April 1996). "Passage to India? Anuradhapura and the Early Use of the Brahmi Script". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 6 (1): 73–97. doi:10.1017/S0959774300001608. S2CID 161465267.
  3. Court, C. (1996). Introduction. In P. T. Daniels & W. Bright (Eds.) The World's Writing Systems (pp. 443). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. Court, C. (1996). The spread of Brahmi Script into Southeast Asia. In P. T. Daniels & W. Bright (Eds.) The World's Writing Systems (pp. 445–449). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. Sproat, Richard (20 July 2006). "Brahmi-derived scripts, script layout, and segmental awareness". Written Language and Literacy. 9 (1): 45–66. doi:10.1075/wll.9.1.05spr. ISSN 1387-6732.
  6. Terwiel; Khamdaengyodtai (2003). Shan Manuscripts, Part 1. p. 13.
  7. "GAZETTE TITLE: The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021". manipurgovtpress.nic.in.
  8. Pandey, Anshuman (23 January 2018). "L2/18-016R: Proposal to encode Dives Akuru in Unicode" (PDF).
  9. Pandey, Anshuman (4 November 2015). "L2/15-234R: Proposal to encode the Dogra script" (PDF).
  10. "Chapter 13: South and Central Asia-II" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0. Mountain View, California: Unicode, Inc. June 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1.
  11. Aditya Bayu Perdana and Ilham Nurwansah 2020. Proposal to encode Kawi
  12. "Chapter 17: Indonesia and Oceania" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0. Mountain View, California: Unicode, Inc. June 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1.
  13. Pandey, Anshuman (2 November 2015). "L2/15-233: Proposal to encode the Makasar script in Unicode" (PDF).
  14. Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 142. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1. The coins of Urakonthauba (568-653) and Ayangba (821-910) in the Mutua Museum, Imphal bear evidence of early existence of old Manipuri alphabet.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  15. "GAZETTE TITLE: The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021". manipurgovtpress.nic.in.
  16. Daniels (1996), p. 379.
  17. Diringer, David (1948). Alphabet a key to the history of mankind. p. 389.
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