Boat lift

A boat lift, ship lift, or lift lock is a machine for transporting boats between water at two different elevations, and is an alternative to the canal lock.

It may be vertically moving, like the Anderton boat lift in England, rotational, like the Falkirk Wheel in Scotland, or operate on an inclined plane, like the Ronquières inclined plane in Belgium.

History

A precursor to the canal boat lift, able to move full-sized canal boats, was the tub boat lift used in mining, able to raise and lower the 2.5 ton tub boats then in use. An experimental system was in use on the Churprinz mining canal in Halsbrücke near Dresden. It lifted boats 7 m (23 ft) using a moveable hoist rather than caissons. The lift operated between 1789 and 1868,[1] and for a period of time after its opening engineer James Green reporting that five had been built between 1796 and 1830. He credited the invention to Dr James Anderson of Edinburgh.[2]

The idea of a boat lift for canals can be traced back to a design based on balanced water-filled caissons in Erasmus Darwin's Commonplace Book (pp. 58–59) dated 1777–1778[3]

In 1796 an experimental balance lock was designed by James Fussell and constructed at Mells on the Dorset and Somerset Canal, though this project was never completed.[2] A similar design was used for lifts on the tub boat section of the Grand Western Canal entered into operation in 1835 becoming the first non-experimental boat lifts in Britain[4] and pre-dating the Anderton Boat Lift by 40 years.

In 1904 the Peterborough Lift Lock designed by Richard Birdsall Rogers opened in Canada. This 19.8-metre (65 ft) high lift system is operated by gravity alone, with the upper bay of the two bay system loaded with an additional 30 cm (12 in) of water as to give it greater weight.

Before the construction of the Three Gorges Dam Ship Lift, the highest boat lift, with a 73.15-metre (240.0 ft) height difference and European Class IV (1350 tonne) capacity, was the Strépy-Thieu boat lift in Belgium opened in 2002.

The ship lift at the Three Gorges Dam, completed in January 2016, is 113 m (371 ft) high and able to lift vessels of up to 3,000 tons displacement.

The boat lift at Longtan is reported to be even higher in total with a maximum vertical lift of 179 m (587 ft) in two stages when completed.[5]

Selected lift locks

Notable lift locks — ordered by size
NameLocationOpened TypeDisplacementDimensionsVertical liftCycle timeNotes
Goupitan shipliftGuizhou, China2021[6]  ? 280 by 35 by 5 metres
919 by 115 by 16 feet
199 metres
653 feet
 ?Tallest boat lift in the world.
Three Gorges Dam ship liftYichang, Hubei, China2016 3000 tons 280 by 35 by 5 metres
919 by 115 by 16 feet
113 metres
371 feet
30–40 minutes
Krasnoyarsk Dam ship liftDivnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia1982 Inclined plane1500 tons 90 m × 18 m × 2.2 m
295 ft × 59 ft × 7 ft
104 m
341 ft
90 minutes
Ronquières inclined plane liftBraine-le-Comte, Hainaut, Belgium1968 Inclined plane1350 tons 91 m × 12 m × 3.7 m
299 ft × 39 ft × 12 ft
67.73 m
222 ft
22 minutes[7]
Strépy-Thieu boat liftLe Rœulx, Hainaut, Belgium2002 Vertical caisson1350 tons 112 m × 12 m × 3.35 m
367 ft × 39 ft × 11 ft
73.15 m
240 ft
7 minutesTallest boat lift in Europe.
Scharnebeck twin ship liftLüneburg, Lower Saxony, Germany1974 Vertical caisson1350 tons 105.4 m × 15.8 m × 3.4 m
346 ft × 52 ft × 11 ft
38 m
125 ft
3 minutes
Niederfinow boat liftBrandenburg, Germany1934 Vertical caisson 85 m × 12 m × 2.5 m
279 ft × 39 ft × 8 ft
36 m
118 ft
20 minutes
Peterborough lift lockOntario, Canada1904 Vertical caisson1300 tons 42.7 m × 10.1 m × 2.1 m
140 ft × 33 ft × 7 ft
19.8 m
65 ft
10 minutes
Kirkfield Lift LockOntario, Canada1907 Vertical caisson1300 tons 42.7 m × 10.1 m × 2.1 m
140 ft × 33 ft × 7 ft
14.9 m
49 ft
10 minutes
Rothensee boat liftSaxony-Anhalt, Germany1938 Vertical caisson1000 tons 85 m × 12.2 m
279 ft × 40 ft
16 m
52 ft
20 minutes
Falkirk WheelFalkirk, Scotland, United Kingdom2002 Rotating caisson600 tons 21.33 m × 6 m × 1.37 m
70 ft × 20 ft × 4 ft
24 m
79 fts
4 minutesThe only rotating boat lift in the world.
Henrichenburg boat liftNorth Rhine-Westphalia, Germany1962 Vertical caisson600 tons 67 m × 8.2 m × 2 m
220 ft × 27 ft × 7 ft
14 m
46 ft
25 minutes
Danjiangkou DamHubei, China1973 450 tons
Geheyan Dam ship liftHubei, China1987 300 tons
Longtan Dam ship liftHechi, Guangxi Autonmous Region, China2009 250 tons 40 m × 10.8 m × 1.8 m
131 ft × 35 ft × 6 ft
68.5 m
225 ft
Claimed to be the "fastest ship-lift in the world".
Canal du Centre boat liftsHainaut, Belgium1888–1917 Vertical caisson360 tons/350 tons 40.1 m × 5.06 m × 2 m
132 ft × 17 ft × 7 ft
16.93–15.4 m
56–51 ft
Three lifts each 16.93 m high plus one 15.4 m high.
Fontinettes boat liftArques, Pas-de-Calais, France1881–88 Vertical caisson300 tons 39 m × 5.2 m × 2 m
128 ft × 17 ft × 7 ft
13.13 m
43 ft
5 minutesReplaced by a single lock in 1967.
Anderton boat liftCheshire, England, United Kingdom1875 Vertical caisson250 tons 22.9 m × 4.7 m × 2.9 m
75 ft × 15 ft × 10 ft
15.25 m
50 ft
Montech water slope Montech, Tarn-et-Garonne, France 1974 Water slope 443 m × 13.3 m × 6 m
1,453 ft × 44 ft × 20 ft
13.3 m
44 ft
6 minutes Oldest water slope.
Fonserannes Water Slope Hérault, France 1980–83 Water slope 272 m × 13.6 m
892 ft × 45 ft
13.6 m
45 ft
Big Chute Marine Railway Ontario, Canada 1917–78 Patent slip 30.4 m × 18 m × 7.9 m
100 ft × 59 ft × 26 ft
18 m
59 ft

See also

References

  1. Charles Hadfield World Canals: Inland Navigation Past and Present, p. 71, ISBN 0-7153-8555-0
  2. The Canals of Southwest England Charles Hadfield, p. 104, ISBN 0-7153-8645-X
  3. "revolutionaryplayers.org.uk". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  4. The Canals of Southwest England Charles Hadfield, p. 109, ISBN 0-7153-8645-X
  5. "Long Tan Hydroelectric Dam". 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
  6. "View of Goupitan hydropower station in Yuqing County, Guizhou - Xinhua | English.news.cn". Archived from the original on July 5, 2020.
  7. "The inclined plane of Ronquières". Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2016.

Further reading

  • Tew, David (1984). Canal Inclines and Lifts. Sutton Books. ISBN 0-86299-031-9.
  • Uhlemann, Hans-Joachim (2002). Canal lifts and inclines of the world (English Translation ed.). Internat. ISBN 0-9543181-1-0.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.