1993 Toronto Blue Jays season

The 1993 Toronto Blue Jays season was the franchise's 17th season of Major League Baseball. It resulted in the Blue Jays finishing first in the American League East with a record of 95 wins and 67 losses.[1] They were shut out only once (on June 30th, by Fernando Valenzuela) in 162 regular-season games. The Blue Jays would repeat as World Champions and become the first back-to-back champions since the 19771978 New York Yankees. The American League Championship Series would see the Blue Jays play the Chicago White Sox. After defeating the White Sox in six games, the Blue Jays would beat the Philadelphia Phillies in the World Series, also in six games. The team would not qualify for the postseason again until the 2015 season.

1993 Toronto Blue Jays
1993 American League East Division Champion
1993 American League Champion
1993 World Series Champion
Major League affiliations
Record95–67 (.586)
Divisional place1st
Other information
Owner(s)Labatt Breweries,
Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Paul Beeston (CEO)
General manager(s)Pat Gillick
Manager(s)Cito Gaston
Local televisionCFTO-TV 9/CBLT–TV 5
(Don Chevrier, Tom Hutton, Brian Williams, Fergie Olver, Jim Hughson)
The Sports Network
(Jim Hughson, Buck Martinez)
Local radioCJCL–AM 1430
(Tom Cheek, Jerry Howarth)
< Previous season     Next season >

This season marked the first time that a manager from the Blue Jays would manage the American League in the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. It was the 64th Mid-Summer Classic and was played on July 13 at Camden Yards in Baltimore with Cito Gaston leading the American League squad. John Olerud, Roberto Alomar, Joe Carter, and Paul Molitor were all starters for the American League. Pat Hentgen, Duane Ward and Devon White were named as reserves to the American League team. In the game, the American League defeated the National League by a score of 9–3. White, Alomar, Molitor, Carter and Olerud, batting first through fifth for most games, proved to be very strong offensively, and were nicknamed WAMCO.[2] When Rickey Henderson joined the Jays on July 31, and was placed as the leadoff hitter, the nickname (now for the first six in the batting order) was then able to be spelled HWAMCO or HWACOM.


  • October 26, 1992: Mike Maksudian was selected off waivers by the Minnesota Twins from the Toronto Blue Jays.[3]
  • November 17, 1992: Dave Weathers was drafted by the Florida Marlins from the Toronto Blue Jays as the 29th pick in the 1992 expansion draft.[4]
  • November 27, 1992: Darnell Coles was signed as a free agent with the Toronto Blue Jays.[5]
  • December 7, 1992: Paul Molitor was signed as a free agent with the Toronto Blue Jays.[6]
  • December 7, 1992: Billy Taylor was drafted by the Toronto Blue Jays from the Atlanta Braves in the 1992 rule 5 draft.[7]
  • December 8, 1992: Dave Stewart was signed as a free agent with the Toronto Blue Jays.[8]
  • December 8, 1992: Kelly Gruber was traded by the Toronto Blue Jays with cash to the California Angels for Luis Sojo.[9]
  • December 8, 1992: Danny Cox was signed as a free agent with the Toronto Blue Jays.[10]
  • January 6, 1993: Mark Eichhorn was signed as a free agent with the Toronto Blue Jays. [11]
  • January 15, 1993: Dick Schofield was signed as a free agent with the Toronto Blue Jays.[12]
  • March 30, 1993: The Toronto Blue Jays traded Derek Bell to the San Diego Padres in exchange for Darrin Jackson.
  • March 30, 1993: The Toronto Blue Jays released David Wells.

Spring training

The Toronto Blue Jays spent their 17th spring training at Dunedin, Florida, while playing their home exhibition games at Dunedin Stadium at Grant Field for the 4th Spring training season.

Regular season

Season standings

AL East W L Pct. GB Home Road
Toronto Blue Jays 9567 0.586 48–33 47–34
New York Yankees 8874 0.543 7 50–31 38–43
Baltimore Orioles 8577 0.525 10 48–33 37–44
Detroit Tigers 8577 0.525 10 44–37 41–40
Boston Red Sox 8082 0.494 15 43–38 37–44
Cleveland Indians 7686 0.469 19 46–35 30–51
Milwaukee Brewers 6993 0.426 26 38–43 31–50

Record vs. opponents

Record Games Left
AL East
Baltimore Orioles4–24–38–5
Boston Red Sox6–14–210–3
Cleveland Indians4–25–29–4
Detroit Tigers4–33–37–6
Milwaukee Brewers3–45–18–5
New York Yankees4–24–38–5
AL West
California Angels5–13–38–4
Chicago White Sox3–33–36–6
Kansas City Royals3–31–54–8
Minnesota Twins5–15–110–2
Oakland Athletics2–45–17–5
Seattle Mariners3–32–45–7
Texas Rangers2–43–35–7
Grand Totals48–3347–3495–67
Month Games Won Lost Pct.

Baltimore 6–77–54–88–55–87–58–58–46–710–27–54–85–8
Boston 7–67–57–55–86–75–75–87–56–79–37–56–63–10
California 5–75–77–65–74–86–77–54–96–66–76–76–74–8
Chicago 8–45–76–79–37–56–79–310–34–87–69–48–56–6
Cleveland 5–88–57–53–96–77–58–54–86–78–43–97–54–9
Detroit 8–57–68–45–77–65–78–56–64–98–47–56–66–7
Kansas City 5–77–57–67–65–77–55–77–66–66–77–67–68–4
Milwaukee 5–88–55–73–95–85–87–57–54–97–54–84–85–8
Minnesota 4–85–79–43–108–46–66–75–74–88–54–97–62–10
New York 7–67–66–68–47–69–46–69–48–46–67–53–95–8
Oakland 2–103–97–66–74–84–87–65–75–86–69–45–85–7
Seattle 5–75–77–64–99–35–76–78–49–45–74–98–57–5
Texas 8–46–67–65–85–76–66–78–46–79–38–55–87–5
Toronto 8–510–38–46–69–47–64–88–510–28–57–55–75–7


1993 Toronto Blue Jays
Pitchers Catchers



Other batters



  •  3 Bob Bailor (first base)
  • 42 Galen Cisco (pitching)
  •  7 Rich Hacker (third base)
  • 39 Larry Hisle (hitting)
  • 45 Nick Leyva (third base)
  •  8 John Sullivan (bullpen)
  • 18 Gene Tenace (bench)


  • April 3, 1993: Billy Taylor was returned (earlier draft pick) by the Toronto Blue Jays to the Atlanta Braves.[7]
  • April 13, 1993: Willie Canate was purchased by the Toronto Blue Jays from the Cincinnati Reds.[13]
  • April 15, 1993: Ken Dayley was released by the Toronto Blue Jays.[14]
  • April 25, 1993: Scott Bailes was signed as a free agent with the Toronto Blue Jays.[15]
  • June 3, 1993: Chris Carpenter was drafted by the Toronto Blue Jays in the 1st round (15th pick) of the 1993 amateur draft. Player signed August 10, 1993.[16]
  • June 11, 1993: Tony Fernandez was traded by the New York Mets to the Toronto Blue Jays for Darrin Jackson.[17]
  • June 17, 1993: Doug Linton was selected off waivers by the California Angels from the Toronto Blue Jays.[18]
  • July 31, 1993: Rickey Henderson was traded by the Oakland Athletics to the Toronto Blue Jays for a player to be named later and Steve Karsay. The Toronto Blue Jays sent Jose Herrera (August 6, 1993) to the Oakland Athletics to complete the trade.
  • August 12, 1993: Randy St. Claire was signed as a free agent with the Toronto Blue Jays.[19]

Game log

Blue Jays win Blue Jays loss Game postponed
1993 Game Log: 95–67 (Home: 48–33; Road: 47–34)[20]
April: 13–10 (Home: 9–4; Road: 4–6)
1April 6@ Mariners1–8Johnson (1–0)Morris (0–1)Kingdome56,1200–1L1
2April 7@ Mariners2–0Leiter (1–0)Bosio (0–1)Ward (1)Kingdome27,8371–1W1
3April 9Indians13–10Eichhorn (1–0)Power (0–1)Ward (2)SkyDome50,5332–1W2
4April 10Indians5–4Stottlemyre (1–0)Nagy (0–2)Ward (3)SkyDome50,4923–1W3
5April 11Indians6–10Clark (1–0)Morris (0–2)Lilliquist (2)SkyDome47,1943–2L1
6April 13Mariners6–5Cox (1–0)Leary (0–1)Ward (4)SkyDome42,2304–2W1
7April 14Mariners9–10 (10)DeLucia (1–0)Hentgen (0–1)Charlton (1)SkyDome43,05443L1
8April 15Mariners3–1Stottlemyre (2–0)Cummings (0–2)Ward (5)SkyDome46,2725–3W1
9April 16@ Indians1–13Nagy (1–2)Morris (0–3)Cleveland Stadium17,4285–4L1
10April 17@ Indians8–1Hentgen (1–1)Clark (1–1)Cleveland Stadium21,7556–4W1
11April 18@ Indians5–6Mutis (1–1)Leiter (1–1)Lilliquist (3)Cleveland Stadium24,3686–5L1
12April 19@ Indians7–1Guzmán (1–0)Bielecki (1–2)Cleveland Stadium11,7507–5W1
13April 20@ Royals2–8Appier (1–2)Stottlemyre (2–1)Royals Stadium14,9857–6L1
14April 21@ Royals5–6Montgomery (1–0)Timlin (0–1)Royals Stadium15,6937–7L2
15April 22@ Royals6–3Hentgen (2–1)Cone (0–4)Royals Stadium19,3698–7W1
16April 23White Sox4–5McCaskill (1–2)Leiter (1–2)Hernández (3)SkyDome50,4948–8L1
17April 24White Sox10–4Guzmán (2–0)Bolton (0–3)SkyDome50,5189–8W1
18April 25White Sox1–0Stottlemyre (3–1)Fernandez (2–2)Ward (6)SkyDome50,43010–8W2
19April 26Rangers8–6Morris (1–3)Lefferts (1–4)Ward (7)SkyDome47,36811–8W3
20April 27Rangers4–3Hentgen (3–1)Nen (0–1)Ward (8)SkyDome49,02112–8W4
21April 28Royals3–5Gardner (2–1)Brow (0–1)Montgomery (6)SkyDome49,07312–9L1
22April 29Royals8–0Guzmán (3–0)Pichardo (1–1)SkyDome49,11413–9W1
23April 30@ White Sox2–10Fernandez (3–2)Stottlemyre (3–2)Comiskey Park29,49713–10L1
May: 16–12 (Home: 7–6; Road: 9–6)
24May 1@ White Sox2–8Álvarez (2–0)Morris (1–4)Comiskey Park35,37813–11L2
25May 2@ White Sox6–1Hentgen (4–1)McDowell (5–1)Cox (1)Comiskey Park25,71514–11W1
26May 4@ Rangers2–3Bohanon (1–0)Ward (0–1)Henke (5)Arlington Stadium20,35414–12L1
27May 5@ Rangers1–7Rogers (3–1)Stottlemyre (3–3)Arlington Stadium16,15914–13L2
28May 6Orioles10–8Cox (2–0)McDonald (2–3)Ward (9)SkyDome50,50515–13W1
29May 7Orioles3–2Eichhorn (2–0)Frohwirth (1–2)SkyDome50,4981613W2
30May 8Orioles3–6Sutcliffe (32)Linton (0–1)Frohwirth (2)SkyDome50,50716–14L1
31May 9Orioles3–4Williamson (1–1)Ward (0–2)Olson (6)SkyDome50,47316–15L2
32May 11Tigers7–12Gullickson (1–0)Stottlemyre (3–4)SkyDome50,49316–16L3
33May 12Tigers8–13Krueger (3–1)Hentgen (4–2)Henneman (7)SkyDome50,48816–17L4
34May 13Tigers6–5Castillo (1–0)MacDonald (3–1)SkyDome50,50717–17W1
35May 14@ Yankees8–6Ward (1–2)Monteleone (3–3)Yankee Stadium27,73318–17W2
36May 15@ Yankees3–4Pérez (2–2)Leiter (1–3)Farr (8)Yankee Stadium31,37218–18L1
37May 16@ Yankees12–6Stottlemyre (4–4)Witt (2–1)Yankee Stadium31,58319–18W1
38May 17@ Red Sox9–3Hentgen (5–2)Clemens (5–3)Fenway Park30,05720–18W2
--May 18@ Red SoxPostponed (rain) Rescheduled for May 20
39May 19@ Red Sox5–10Darwin (4–4)Stewart (0–1)Fenway Park27,46520–19L1
40May 20@ Red Sox4–3Cox (3–0)Quantrill (2–3)Ward (10)Fenway Park18,21921–19W1
41May 21Twins11–2Morris (2–4)Deshaies (5–3)SkyDome50,48022–19W2
42May 22Twins7–0Cox (4–0)Tapani (2–5)SkyDome50,51023–19W3
43May 23Twins2–1Hentgen (6–2)Erickson (2–6)Ward (11)SkyDome50,49924–19W4
44May 24Brewers4–1Stewart (1–1)Boddicker (3–3)Ward (12)SkyDome50,49425–19W5
45May 25Brewers4–2Guzmán (4–0)Wegman (3–7)Ward (13)SkyDome50,50426–19W6
46May 26Brewers1–8Navarro (3–3)Morris (2–5)SkyDome50,48326–20L1
47May 27Brewers3–9Bones (2–2)Leiter (1–4)SkyDome50,48726–21L2
48May 28@ Athletics2–3Witt (5–2)Cox (4–1)Honeycutt (1)Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum30,35126–22L3
49May 29@ Athletics5–3Stewart (2–1)Welch (4–4)Ward (14)Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum30,46727–22W1
50May 30@ Athletics1311Cox (5–1)Mohler (0–1)Ward (15)Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum28,16728–22W2
51May 31@ Angels10–5Morris (3–5)Farrell (2–6)Anaheim Stadium30,62029–22W3
June: 19–9 (Home: 10–3; Road: 9–6)
52June 1@ Angels8–0Leiter (2–4)Sanderson (7–3)Anaheim Stadium18,19830–22W4
53June 2@ Angels7–6Hentgen (7–2)Valera (3–4)Ward (16)Anaheim Stadium24,36031–22W5
54June 4Athletics4–3 (12)Williams (1–0)Gossage (3–2)SkyDome50,50732–22W6
55June 5Athletics9–5Guzmán (5–0)Hillegas (2–5)SkyDome50,51433–22W7
56June 6Athletics3–10Darling (1–3)Morris (3–6)SkyDome50,50533–23L1
57June 7Angels4–2Leiter (3–4)Sanderson (7–4)Ward (17)SkyDome49,17734–23W1
58June 8Angels14–6Williams (2–0)Valera (3–5)SkyDome49,11235–23W2
59June 9Angels4–6Langston (7–1)Stewart (2–2)Frey (6)SkyDome50,50335–24L1
60June 10@ Tigers3–5Doherty (6–2)Guzmán (5–1)MacDonald (3)Tiger Stadium27,55135–25L2
61June 11@ Tigers1–6Gullickson (4–2)Morris (3–7)Tiger Stadium39,65435–26L3
62June 12@ Tigers1–12Moore (4–3)Leiter (3–5)Tiger Stadium47,08635–27L4
63June 13@ Tigers13–4Hentgen (8–2)Leiter (6–2)Tiger Stadium44,03236–27W1
64June 14@ Twins3–4Casian (1–0)Cox (5–2)Willis (1)Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome27,88736–28L1
65June 15@ Twins6–3Guzmán (6–1)Tapani (3–7)Ward (18)Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome31,7593728W1
66June 16@ Twins4–0Morris (4–7)Erickson (3–7)Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome30,32638–28W2
67June 17Red Sox7–0Leiter (4–5)Quantrill (2–5)SkyDome50,52839–28W3
68June 18Red Sox11–2Hentgen (9–2)Clemens (7–6)SkyDome50,50940–28W4
69June 19Red Sox9–4Stewart (3–2)Darwin (5–7)SkyDome50,51041–28W5
70June 20Red Sox3–2 (12)Timlin (1–1)Russell (0–1)SkyDome50,52042–28W6
71June 22Yankees5–4Williams (3–0)Howe (2–2)Ward (19)SkyDome50,51343–28W7
72June 23Yankees3–4Key (9–2)Stottlemyre (4–5)Farr (18)SkyDome50,52043–29L1
73June 24Yankees7–2Hentgen (10–2)Kamieniecki (2–2)SkyDome50,51644–29W1
74June 25@ Brewers5–6Fetters (1–0)Cox (5–3)County Stadium39,30844–30L1
75June 26@ Brewers3–2Guzmán (7–1)Eldred (9–8)Ward (20)County Stadium45,17345–30W1
76June 27@ Brewers5–4Morris (5–7)Wegman (4–13)Ward (21)County Stadium45,58046–30W2
77June 28@ Orioles7–2Stottlemyre (5–5)Sutcliffe (8–3)Leiter (1)Oriole Park at Camden Yards46,60647–30W3
78June 29@ Orioles2–1Hentgen (11–2)McDonald (4–7)Ward (22)Oriole Park at Camden Yards46,40848–30W4
79June 30@ Orioles0–6Valenzuela (3–7)Stewart (3–3)Oriole Park at Camden Yards46,40948–31L1
July: 13–15 (Home: 7–9; Road: 6–6)
80July 2@ Royals2–3Gubicza (1–6)Cox (5–4)Kauffman Stadium23,83248–32L2
81July 3@ Royals2–3Cone (6–8)Morris (5–8)Montgomery (24)Kauffman Stadium28,06048–33L3
82July 4@ Royals1–3Haney (5–1)Stottlemyre (5–6)Montgomery (25)Kauffman Stadium40,32948–34L4
83July 5White Sox3–4Álvarez (8–4)Hentgen (11–3)Hernández (16)SkyDome50,50848–35L5
84July 6White Sox5–1Stewart (4–3)McDowell (12–6)SkyDome50,50549–35W1
85July 7White Sox2–5Fernandez (10–4)Guzmán (7–2)Hernández (17)SkyDome50,51749–36L1
86July 8Rangers1–6Rogers (6–6)Morris (5–9)SkyDome50,52549–37L2
87July 9Rangers2–4Pavlik (5–4)Stottlemyre (5–7)Henke (16)SkyDome50,50649–38L3
88July 10Rangers7–10Lefferts (2–7)Hentgen (11–4)Henke (17)SkyDome50,50849–39L4
89July 11Rangers6–11Leibrandt (9–4)Stewart (4–4)SkyDome50,51649–40L5
July 13N.L. @ A.L.
All-Star Game (AL wins—)
9–3McDowell (CWS)Burkett (SF)Oriole Park at Camden Yards48,147Baltimore, Maryland
90July 15Royals7–2Leiter (5–5)Burgos (0–1)SkyDome50,50350–40W1
91July 16Royals3–7Haney (6–2)Morris (5–10)Montgomery (26)SkyDome50,53150–41L1
92July 17Royals4–5Gubicza (3–6)Cox (5–5)Montgomery (27)SkyDome50,51250–42L2
93July 18Royals4–3Hentgen (12–4)Pichardo (4–6)SkyDome50,52451–42W1
94July 19@ White Sox15–7Stewart (5–4)Bolton (1–6)Comiskey Park40,12752–42W1
95July 20@ White Sox1–2Fernandez (12–4)Guzmán (7–3)Comiskey Park30,45452–43L1
96July 21@ White Sox4–1Leiter (6–5)Álvarez (8–6)Ward (23)Comiskey Park30,90053–43W1
97July 22@ Rangers8–7Timlin (2–1)Carpenter (0–1)Ward (24)Arlington Stadium38,19854–43W2
98July 23@ Rangers5–6Lefferts (3–7)Hentgen (12–5)Henke (21)Arlington Stadium38,12454–44L1
99July 24@ Rangers5–1Stewart (6–4)Leibrandt (9–6)Ward (25)Arlington Stadium38,45755–44W1
100July 25@ Rangers9–7Timlin (3–1)Henke (4–3)Ward (26)Arlington Stadium40,27756–44W2
101July 27Orioles6–5Ward (2–2)Poole (1–1)SkyDome50,51357–44W3
102July 28Orioles5–4 (10)Castillo (2–0)Williamson (5–2)SkyDome50,52358–44W4
103July 29Tigers7–4Castillo (3–0)Bolton (1–4)Ward (27)SkyDome50,52859–44W5
104July 30Tigers5–8Moore (7–5)Stewart (6–5)Henneman (17)SkyDome50,51159–45L1
105July 31Tigers3–1Timlin (4–1)Wells (10–7)Ward (28)SkyDome50,53260–45W1
August: 13–10 (Home: 7–6; Road: 6–4)
106August 1Tigers2–1Morris (6–10)Henneman (2–2)SkyDome50,52261–45W2
107August 2@ Yankees4–0Stottlemyre (6–7)Abbott (8–9)Cox (2)Yankee Stadium43,30462–45W3
108August 3@ Yankees8–6Hentgen (13–5)Muñoz (2–2)Leiter (2)Yankee Stadium48,03163–45W4
109August 4@ Yankees2–6Kamieniecki (7–3)Stewart (6–6)Yankee Stadium48,25063–46L1
110August 5@ Yankees4–5Key (13–4)Leiter (6–6)Yankee Stadium52,49363–47L2
111August 6Brewers11–10 (11)Leiter (7–6)Henry (2–4)SkyDome50,51764–47W1
112August 7Brewers1–7Miranda (1–2)Stottlemyre (6–8)SkyDome50,50664–48L1
113August 8Brewers2–5Bones (7–8)Hentgen (13–6)SkyDome50,51064–49L2
114August 10Twins6–3Stewart (7–6)Erickson (6–14)Ward (29)SkyDome50,53065–49W1
115August 11Twins4–2Guzmán (8–3)Deshaies (11–10)Ward (30)SkyDome50,52566–49W2
116August 12Twins2–9Tapani (7–11)Morris (6–11)SkyDome50,52766–50L1
117August 13@ Red Sox3–5Darwin (12–8)Stottlemyre (6–9)Russell (32)Fenway Park34,27666–51L2
118August 14@ Red Sox5–2Hentgen (14–6)Dopson (7–8)Ward (31)Fenway Park33,92467–51W1
119August 15@ Red Sox9–1Stewart (8–6)Clemens (9–10)Fenway Park33,38068–51W2
120August 16@ Indians4–1Guzmán (9–3)Ojeda (0–1)Ward (32)Cleveland Stadium25,54669–51W3
121August 17@ Indians6–4Morris (7–11)Kramer (5–3)Ward (33)Cleveland Stadium40,25370–51W4
122August 18@ Indians7–6 (11)Cox (6–5)Lilliquist (2–2)Ward (34)Cleveland Stadium24,00371–51W5
123August 20Mariners1–4Johnson (13–8)Hentgen (14–7)SkyDome50,52771–52L1
124August 21Mariners2–5Fleming (9–2)Stewart (8–7)Power (5)SkyDome50,51971–53L2
125August 22Mariners12–7Guzmán (10–3)Ontiveros (0–1)SkyDome50,51172–53W1
126August 23Indians8–9Hernandez (4–2)Eichhorn (2–1)DiPoto (4)SkyDome50,51872–54L1
127August 24Indians8–6Stottlemyre (7–9)Tavárez (2–2)Ward (35)SkyDome50,51173–54W1
128August 25Indians10–7Hentgen (15–7)Mesa (9–10)Ward (36)SkyDome50,52574–54W2
129August 26@ Mariners3–6Johnson (14–8)Stewart (8–8)Power (6)Kingdome28,46374–55L1
130August 27@ Mariners6–7Nelson (4–3)Williams (3–1)Plantenberg (1)Kingdome31,77174–56L2
131August 28@ Mariners1–2Bosio (7–7)Cox (6–6)Power (7)Kingdome56,07674–57L3
132August 29@ Mariners6–2Stottlemyre (8–9)Hanson (10–11)Kingdome34,59375–57W1
133August 30@ Athletics4–2Hentgen (16–7)Darling (5–7)Ward (37)Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum24,37176–57W2
134August 31@ Athletics3–2 (10)Cox (7–6)Eckersley (2–2)Ward (38)Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum21,33477–57W3
September: 17–8 (Home: 7–5; Road: 10–3)
135September 1@ Athletics8–3Guzmán (11–3)Mohler (1–6)Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum24,25178–57W4
136September 3@ Angels1–4Langston (15–6)Morris (7–12)Grahe (7)Anaheim Stadium23,83478–58L1
137September 4@ Angels2–4Magrane (1–1)Stottlemyre (8–10)Frey (12)Anaheim Stadium21,53078–59L2
138September 5@ Angels1–5Leftwich (2–4)Hentgen (16–8)Anaheim Stadium19,65378–60L3
139September 7Athletics7–11 (11)Honeycutt (1–4)Castillo (3–1)SkyDome50,51578–61L4
140September 8Athletics1–2Witt (10–12)Ward (2–3)Eckersley (30)SkyDome50,32978–62L5
141September 9Athletics4–7Smithberg (1–0)Castillo (3–2)Eckersley (31)SkyDome50,51878–63L6
142September 10Angels10–4Stottlemyre (9–10)Leftwich (2–5)SkyDome50,52279–63W1
143September 11Angels9–5Hentgen (17–8)Hathaway (4–3)SkyDome50,52980–63W2
144September 12Angels4–1Stewart (9–8)Finley (14–12)Ward (39)SkyDome50,52381–63W3
145September 14@ Tigers9–5Guzmán (12–3)Davis (2–7)Tiger Stadium23,67482–63W4
146September 15@ Tigers14–8Stottlemyre (10–10)Moore (12–9)Ward (40)Tiger Stadium24,52683–63W5
147September 17@ Twins4–2Hentgen (18–8)Tapani (9–15)Ward (41)Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome24,11384–63W6
148September 18@ Twins5–1Stewart (10–8)Erickson (8–19)Timlin (1)Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome26,41585–63W7
149September 19@ Twins10–0Guzmán (13–3)Trombley (5–5)Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome23,77586–63W8
150September 21Red Sox5–0Stottlemyre (11–10)Clemens (11–14)SkyDome50,52487–63W9
151September 22Red Sox5–7 (10)Ryan (6–2)Timlin (4–2)SkyDome50,53287–64L1
152September 23Red Sox5–1Stewart (11–8)Minchey (1–1)SkyDome50,52888–64W1
153September 24Yankees7–3Guzmán (14–3)Key (17–6)SkyDome50,51789–64W2
154September 25Yankees3–1Leiter (8–6)Tanana (0–2)Ward (42)SkyDome50,52790–64W3
155September 26Yankees3–7Abbott (11–13)Stottlemyre (11–11)SkyDome50,51890–65L1
156September 27@ Brewers2–0Hentgen (19–8)Eldred (16–16)Ward (43)County Stadium14,93191–65W1
157September 28@ Brewers6–4Stewart (12–8)Maysey (1–;2)Ward (44)County Stadium13,18292–65W2
158September 29@ Brewers9–6Eichhorn (3–1)Orosco (3–5)Ward (45)County Stadium13,50893–65W3
159September 30@ Orioles6–2Leiter (9–6)Rhodes (5–6)Oriole Park at Camden Yards45,65394–65W4
October: 1–2 (Home: 0–0; Road: 1–2)
160October 1@ Orioles2–7Valenzuela (8–10)Stottlemyre (11–12)Oriole Park at Camden Yards45,88194–66L1
161October 2@ Orioles4–8Sutcliffe (10–10)Hentgen (19–9)Mills (4)Oriole Park at Camden Yards46,09494–67L2
162October 3@ Orioles11–6Brow (1–1)McDonald (13–14)Oriole Park at Camden Yards45,91395–67W1

Player stats

= Indicates team leader

Starters by position

Note: Pos = Position; G = Games played; AB = At bats; H = Hits; Avg. = Batting average; HR = Home runs; RBI = Runs batted in

Pos Player G AB H Avg. HR RBI
CPat Borders138488124.254955
1BJohn Olerud158551200.36324107
2BRoberto Alomar153589192.3261793
3BEd Sprague150546142.2601273
SSTony Fernández94353108.306450
LFRickey Henderson4416335.215412
CFDevon White146598163.2731552
RFJoe Carter155603153.25433121
DHPaul Molitor160636211.33222111


  • October 3, 1993: On the last day of the regular season, Roberto Alomar raised his batting average to .326, moving from fourth to third in the American League batting race; with John Olerud (.363) and Paul Molitor (.332) already first and second, respectively, this marked the first time in 100 years that the top three hitters in the league were from the same team;[22][23]

Other batters

Note: G = Games played; AB = At bats; H = Hits; Avg. = Batting average; HR = Home runs; RBI = Runs batted in

Player G AB H Avg. HR RBI
Darnell Coles6419449.253426
Darrin Jackson4617638.216519
Turner Ward7216732.192428
Dick Schofield3611021.19105
Randy Knorr3910125.248420
Alfredo Griffin469520.21103
Rob Butler174813.27102
Willie Cañate384710.21313
Luis Sojo19478.17006
Domingo Cedeno15468.17407
Domingo Martinez8144.28613
Shawn Green360.00000
Carlos Delgado210.00000

Starting pitchers

Note: G = Games pitched; IP = Innings pitched; W = Wins; L = Losses; ERA = Earned run average; SO = Strikeouts

Player G IP W L ERA SO
Juan Guzmán332211433.99194
Pat Hentgen34216+131993.87122
Todd Stottlemyre30176+2311124.8498
Dave Stewart261621284.4496
Jack Morris27152+237126.19103


Other pitchers

Note: G = Games pitched; IP = Innings pitched; W = Wins; L = Losses; ERA = Earned run average; SO = Strikeouts

Player G IP W L ERA SO
Al Leiter34105964.1166
Woody Williams3037314.3824
Scott Brow618116.007
Doug Linton411016.554
Huck Flener66+23004.052
Ken Dayley223000.002


Relief pitchers

Note; G = Games pitched; IP = Innings pitched; W = Wins; L = Losses; SV = Saves; ERA = Earned run average; SO = Strikeouts

Duane Ward7171+2323452.1397
Danny Cox4483+237623.1287
Mark Eichhorn5472+233102.7247
Mike Timlin5455+234214.6949
Tony Castillo5150+233203.3828


American League Championship Series

Game 1

October 5, Comiskey Park

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Toronto 000 230 200 7171
Chicago 000 300 00X 361
W: Juan Guzmán (1–0)  L: Jack McDowell (0–1)  
HRs: TOR Paul Molitor (1)

The ALCS opened at Comiskey Park with a battle of aces, as Toronto threw Juan Guzmán against Chicago's Jack McDowell, the eventual 1993 American League Cy Young Award winner. The game was scoreless until the top of the fourth, when Jays third baseman Ed Sprague stroked a triple to right field that scored John Olerud and Paul Molitor. The White Sox took a 3–2 lead in the bottom of the fourth with RBI base hits by Ozzie Guillén and Tim Raines, but Toronto stormed back in its half of the fifth with a two-run double by Olerud and a run-scoring single by Molitor. The Jays' designated hitter added a two-run homer in the seventh that finally chased McDowell, and the Chicago batters could muster nothing more against Toronto's bullpen as the Jays took the game 7–3 and a 1–0 lead in the series.

Game 2

October 6, Comiskey Park

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Toronto 100 200 000 380
Chicago 100 000 000 172
W: Dave Stewart (1–0)  L: Alex Fernandez (0–1)  SV: Duane Ward (1)
HRs: None

In Game 2, the Jays' Dave Stewart faced off against the Sox' Alex Fernandez. Toronto struck in the first when Rickey Henderson reached on an error by Dan Pasqua and later scored on a fielder's choice by Roberto Alomar, but the Pale Hose tied the game in the bottom of the inning when Stewart walked the bases loaded and then unleashed a wild pitch, scoring Raines. The contest remained knotted at one-all until the top of the fourth, when the Jays touched Fernandez for two runs via singles by Tony Fernández and Pat Borders. As in the first game, the ChiSox could not solve Toronto's relievers, and Duane Ward (who had notched a league-leading 45 saves during the regular season) secured his first playoff save as the Jays took a 2–0 lead in the series with a 3–1 victory.

Game 3

October 8, SkyDome

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 005 100 000 6120
Toronto 001 000 000 171
W: Wilson Álvarez (1–0)  L: Pat Hentgen (0–1)  
HRs: None

The series shifted north of the border for Game 3, featuring Chicago's Wilson Álvarez taking on Toronto's Pat Hentgen. The two starters traded zeroes until the South Siders erupted with a five-run third, including a pair of two-run singles by Ellis Burks and Lance Johnson. The Blue Jays got a run in the bottom half of the frame when Henderson doubled, stole third, and scored on a Devon White single, but Hentgen was pulled in the fourth after giving up back-to-back base hits. His replacement on the mound, Danny Cox, gave up another run when a Robin Ventura sacrifice fly plated Guillén. This was more than enough for Alvarez, who went the distance as the Pale Hose cut Toronto's series lead to 2–1.

Game 4

October 9, SkyDome

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 020 003 101 7110
Toronto 003 001 000 490
W: Tim Belcher (1–0)  L: Todd Stottlemyre (0–1)  SV: Roberto Hernández (1)
HRs: CHI Frank Thomas (1), Lance Johnson (1)

In the fourth game, the ChiSox sent Jason Bere to the hill against the Jays' Todd Stottlemyre. The South Siders took a 2–0 lead in the top of the second thanks to a home run by Johnson, but Toronto came back in the third with an RBI double from Alomar and a two-run single by Joe Carter, after which Pale Hose skipper Gene Lamont yanked Bere and replaced him with Tim Belcher. Chicago reclaimed its two-run advantage in the sixth when Frank Thomas tattooed a solo homer and Johnson tripled to center, scoring Burks and Bo Jackson. In the bottom of the inning, another RBI double from Alomar cut the lead to one, but the White Sox again restored their two-run lead in the seventh with a groundout from Joey Cora that scored Guillén and then extended it to three runs in the ninth with a single by Ventura. Roberto Hernández shut the door on the Jays in the bottom half of the inning, and the series was tied at two games apiece.

Game 5

October 10, SkyDome

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 000 010 002 351
Toronto 111 100 10X 5140
W: Juan Guzmán (2–0)  L: Jack McDowell (0–2)  
HRs: CHI Ellis Burks (1), Robin Ventura (1)

Game 5 was a rematch of Game 1, with McDowell facing Guzmán. In the first, Henderson doubled to left and then tried to steal third, but McDowell's throwing error resulted in Henderson coming home for a 1–0 Toronto lead. The Jays tacked on single runs in the second, third, and fourth, but Burks broke the shutout in the Chicago fifth with a solo home run. In the seventh, Scott Radinsky and Hernández came in to stop the bleeding for the ChiSox, but they combined to give up another run. In the ninth, Ward entered to close out the game and Ventura greeted him with a two-run shot, but he maintained his composure and struck out Jackson to give Toronto a 3–2 ALCS lead.

Game 6

October 12, Comiskey Park

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Toronto 020 100 003 6100
Chicago 002 000 001 353
W: Dave Stewart (2–0)  L: Alex Fernandez (0–2)  SV: Duane Ward (2)
HRs: TOR Devon White (1); CHI Warren Newson (1)

The series returned to the Windy City for Game 6, as Stewart again faced Fernandez. In the top of the second, Borders ripped a two-run single that gave the Jays the lead, but the Pale Hose tied it in the third with a bases-loaded walk by Thomas and a fielder's choice from Ventura. In the fourth, Toronto took the lead back when Molitor reached on an error by Ventura and came home on a fielder's choice by Borders. The game stayed that way until the ninth, when White homered and Molitor cracked a two-run triple to right, giving the Jays a 6–2 lead. ChiSox reserve outfielder Warren Newson tagged Ward for a solo homer in the ninth, but the Jays closer recovered and induced a flyout from Raines, sealing the game 6–3 and Toronto's second American League pennant in a row.

World Series

Game 1

October 16, 1993, at the SkyDome in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

The series' first game sent two staff aces -- Curt Schilling for Philadelphia and Juan Guzman for Toronto—against one another. The result was less than a pitcher's duel, however, as both teams scored early and often.

The deciding plays came in the middle innings. With Toronto behind 4–3 in the 5th inning, Devon White hit a solo home run to tie the game. The next inning, John Olerud hit a solo home run of his own to put Toronto on top. Toronto added three insurance runs in the bottom of the 7th and held on to win 8–5. Al Leiter pitched 223 innings—in relief of a sporadic Juan Guzman, who walked four in just five innings—for his first World Series win. John Kruk had three hits for Philadelphia.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Philadelphia 201 010 001 5111
Toronto 021 011 30X 8103
W: Al Leiter (1–0)   L: Curt Schilling (0–1)  S: Duane Ward (1)
HR TOR: Devon White (1), John Olerud (1)

Game 2

October 17, 1993, at SkyDome in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

In the second game of the series, Dave Stewart was on the mound for Toronto and Terry Mulholland started for Philadelphia. Philadelphia jumped out to an early lead: in the third inning, Jim Eisenreich followed John Kruk and Dave Hollins RBI singles with a three-run home run to deep right-centre. Toronto got on the scoreboard in the fourth inning courtesy of a Joe Carter two-run home run to left (his second most important home run of the series by a wide margin), but the Jays were unable to mount a significant offensive push later in the game. Philadelphia held on to win 6–4. Terry Mulholland pitched 523 innings, allowing 3 earned runs, for the win.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Philadelphia 005 000 100 6120
Toronto 000 201 010 480
W: Terry Mulholland (1–0)   L: Dave Stewart (0–1)  S: Mitch Williams (1)
HR: PHI Jim Eisenreich (1), Lenny Dykstra (1)  TOR Joe Carter (1)

Game 3

October 19, 1993, at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia

For Toronto, Pat Hentgen faced off against Philadelphia starter Danny Jackson in Game 3. Hentgen pitched a strong 6 innings, allowing just 1 run, and the Toronto offense took care of the rest. Toronto won 10–3.

Toronto manager Cito Gaston was faced with an unusual and difficult decision prior to game time. As the series switched the National League ballpark, Gaston was forced to sit one player from his regular line-up as the designated hitter (DH) would not be allowed to play. As regular DH Paul Molitor had been a hot hand in the line-up, Gaston elected to sit firstbaseman John Olerud and place Molitor at first base. The decision was potentially controversial as Olerud led the American League in batting during the year with a .363 average and Molitor was the less sure-handed fielder. Molitor, however, put these concerns to rest, going 3 for 4, hitting a home run in the 3rd inning, and driving in 3 runs.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Toronto 301 001 302 10131
Philadelphia 000 010 101 390
W: Pat Hentgen (1–0)   L: Danny Jackson (0–1)  
HR: TOR Paul Molitor (1)  PHI Milt Thompson (1)

Game 4

October 20, 1993, at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia

In the fourth game of the series, Todd Stottlemyre started for Toronto while Tommy Greene started for Philadelphia. The starters are notable because neither lasted three innings.

In one of the more unusual plays in World Series history, Todd Stottlemyre, trying to go first to third on a Roberto Alomar single in the 2nd inning, did a bellyflop diving into third base, where he was called out. Todd's awkward dive resulted in an abrasion on his chin and appeared to shake him up in the next inning, during which he surrendered a Lenny Dykstra two-run home run. Stottlemyre was pulled after the second inning, having already given up six runs. (Tommy Greene fared little better, being pulled after giving up seven runs in 213 innings.)

Philadelphia took a commanding 12–7 lead in the 5th inning, courtesy of two-run home runs from Darren Daulton and Dykstra, and a run-scoring double from Milt Thompson.

Toronto fought back from a 14–9 deficit in the 8th inning, scoring six runs on run scoring hits from Paul Molitor, Tony Fernández, Rickey Henderson, and Devon White. Duane Ward pitched the final 113 innings, preserving the 15–14 victory. Three new World Series records included the longest game at four hours fourteen minutes (4:14), most runs by both clubs with twenty-nine (29), and runs scored by a losing team with fourteen (14).

Also, Charlie Williams became the first African American to serve as the home plate umpire for a World Series game.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Toronto 304 002 060 15180
Philadelphia 420 151 100 14140
W: Tony Castillo (1–0)   L: Mitch Williams (0–1)  S: Duane Ward (2)
HR: PHI Lenny Dykstra 2 (3), Darren Daulton (1)

Game 5

October 21, 1993, at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia

The offenses were due for an off-day, and it came in Game 5 courtesy of a Curt Schilling (Philadelphia) and Juan Guzman (Toronto) pitching duel. Schilling shut down the previously unstoppable Toronto offense, limiting the team to just five hits and no runs. Guzman pitched well in a losing effort, allowing only two runs and five hits in seven innings of work.

The two runs scored as a result of scrappy play from the Philadelphia offense. In the first inning, Lenny Dykstra walked, stole second, moved to third on a Pat Borders throwing error, and scored on a John Kruk ground out. In the second inning, Darren Daulton opened with a double, took third on a ground out, and scored on a Kevin Stocker single.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Toronto 000 000 000 051
Philadelphia 110 000 00X 251
W: Curt Schilling (1–1)   L: Juan Guzman (1–1)  

Game 6

October 23, 1993, at SkyDome in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

The sixth game in the series was a rematch between Game 2 starters Terry Mulholland and Dave Stewart, who would have similar results. Toronto opened up the scoring in the bottom of the first with a run-scoring Paul Molitor triple, Joe Carter sacrifice fly, and Roberto Alomar RBI single. Molitor added a solo home run in the 5th inning, bringing the score to 5–1 for Toronto.

In the 7th inning, Philadelphia fought back with five runs to take a 6–5 lead. Lenny Dykstra hit a three-run home run, Dave Hollins had an RBI single and Pete Incaviglia hit a sacrifice fly. The inning brought an end to Dave Stewart's night, leaving the game with 6 innings pitched and 4 runs given up.

Philadelphia closer Mitch Williams came on to the pitch the bottom of the 9th with Philadelphia clinging to a 6–5 lead. After beginning the inning by walking Rickey Henderson, Williams tried to counter Henderson's speed by pitching out of a slide-step style of pitching delivery. Prior to Game 6 of the 1993 World Series, Williams never used the slide-step delivery in his career. This may have cut back on the velocity of the hard throwing Williams. The walk to Henderson was followed by a Devon White fly out and a single by Paul Molitor. Joe Carter came up next and, on a two strike pitch, he hit an inside pitch just over the left field fence for a three-run walk-off home run, giving the Blue Jays a come-from-behind 8–6 victory, and the World Series crown. This was the last major North American professional sports championship won by a Canadian-based team until 2019, when the Toronto Raptors, a team that was formed in 1995, defeated the two-time defending champion Golden State Warriors in a six-game NBA Finals.

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Philadelphia 000 100 500 670
Toronto 300 110 003 8102
W: Duane Ward (1–0)   L: Mitch Williams (0–2)  
HR: PHI Lenny Dykstra (4)  TOR Paul Molitor (2), Joe Carter (2)

Postseason Game Log

Blue Jays win Blue Jays loss Game postponed
1993 Playoff Game Log
1October 5@ White Sox7–3Guzman (1–0)McDowell (0–1)Comiskey Park46,2461–0W1
2October 6@ White Sox3–1Stewart (1–0)Fernandez (0–1)Ward (1)Comiskey Park46,1012–0W2
3October 8White Sox1–6Álvarez (1–0)Hentgen (0–1)SkyDome51,7832–1L1
4October 9White Sox4–7Belcher (1–0)Stottlemyre (0–1)Hernández (1)SkyDome51,8892–2L2
5October 10White Sox5–3Guzman (2–0)McDowell (0–2)SkyDome51,3753–2W1
6October 12@ White Sox6–3Stewart (2–0)Fernandez (0–2)Ward (2)Comiskey Park45,5274–2W2
1October 16Phillies8–5Leiter (1–0)Schilling (0–1)Ward (1)SkyDome52,0111–0W1
2October 17Phillies4–6Mulholland (1–0)Stewart (0–1)Williams (1)SkyDome52,0621–1L1
3October 19@ Phillies10–3Hentgen (1–0)Jackson (0–1)Veterans Stadium62,6892–1W1
4October 20@ Phillies15–14Castillo (1–0)Williams (0–1)Ward (2)Veterans Stadium62,7313–1W2
5October 21@ Phillies0–2Schilling (1–1)Guzman (0–1)Veterans Stadium62,7063–2L1
6October 23Phillies8–6Ward (1–0)Williams (0–2)SkyDome52,1954–2W1

Awards and honors


Regular Season
Roberto AlomarGold Glove AwardNovember 1993
Paul MolitorBabe Ruth AwardNovember 1993
Player of the Month AwardMay 1993
Silver Slugger AwardNovember 1993
John OlerudAL Player of the WeekMay 31June 6, 1993
AL Player of the MonthApril 1993
AL Player of the MonthJune 1993
AL Batting Champion, .363 Batting averageOctober 1993
Hutch Award[24]November 1993
Devon WhiteGold Glove AwardNovember 1993
Dave StewartALCS MVPOctober 1993
Paul MolitorWorld Series MVPOctober 1993
  • The 1993 Toronto Blue Jays received the 1994 Outstanding Team ESPY Award.
  • The 1993 Toronto Blue Jays were inducted into the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame in 2002.[25]

64th MLB All-Star Game


Pos # Player League AB H RBI
2B12Roberto AlomarAmerican League
1B 9John OlerudAmerican League


Pos # Player League AB H RBI
RF29Joe CarterAmerican League
OF25Devon WhiteAmerican League211

Designated Hitter

# Player League AB H RBI
19Paul MolitorAmerican League


# Player League IP SO
41Pat HentgenAmerican LeagueDid not pitch
31Duane WardAmerican League12


# Manager League Position
43Cito GastonAmerican LeagueManager[26]


# Coach League Position
42Galen CiscoAmerican LeaguePitching
 8John SullivanAmerican LeagueBullpen
18Gene TenaceAmerican LeagueBench

Farm system

Level Team League Manager
AAA Syracuse Chiefs International League Nick Leyva and Bob Didier
AA Knoxville Smokies Southern League Garth Iorg
A Dunedin Blue Jays Florida State League Dennis Holmberg
A Hagerstown Suns South Atlantic League Jim Nettles
A-Short Season St. Catharines Blue Jays New York–Penn League J. J. Cannon
Rookie GCL Blue Jays Gulf Coast League Héctor Torres
Rookie Medicine Hat Blue Jays Pioneer League Omar Malavé



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  2. "Remembering the Blue Jays Glory Years and WAMCO". Bleacher Report. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  3. "Mike Maksudian Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  4. "David Weathers Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  5. Darnell Coles Statistics Baseball-Reference.com
  6. Paul Molitor Statistics Baseball-Reference.com
  7. "Billy Taylor Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  8. Dave Stewart Statistics Baseball-Reference.com
  9. Kelly Gruber Statistics Baseball-Reference.com
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  11. "Mark Eichhorn: Career Statistics". Baseball Reference. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
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  13. "Willie Canate Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  14. "Ken Dayley Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  15. "Scott Bailes Stats".
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  17. "Tony Fernandez Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  18. "Doug Linton Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  19. "Randy St. Claire Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  20. "1993 Toronto Blue Jays Schedule and Results". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
  21. "1993 Toronto Blue Jays Statistics - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  22. Blue Jays Timeline BlueJays.com. Accessed on July 27, 2012.
  23. 1893 National League Batting Leaders Baseball-Reference.com. Accessed on July 27, 2012.
  24. "Hutch Award". www.baseball-almanac.com.
  25. "1993 Toronto Blue Jays". oshof.ca. Archived from the original on December 28, 2014. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  26. "Blue Jays All-Stars". Toronto Blue Jays.
  27. Johnson, Lloyd, and Wolff, Miles, ed., The Encyclopedia of Minor League Baseball, 2nd and 3rd editions. Durham, North Carolina: Baseball America, 1997 and 2007
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