1978 Pacific typhoon season

The 1978 Pacific typhoon season was a very active season that produced 31 tropical storms, 16 typhoons and one intense typhoon. It has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1978, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

1978 Pacific typhoon season
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJanuary 6, 1978
Last system dissipatedDecember 19, 1978
Strongest storm
  Maximum winds220 km/h (140 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure878 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions63
Total storms30
Super typhoons1 (unofficial)
Total fatalities>371
Total damage> $100 million (1978 USD)
Related articles

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the international date line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see 1978 Pacific hurricane season. Tropical Storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin have the "W" suffix added to their number. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

Seasonal summary

Typhoon Rita (1978)

33 tropical depressions formed this year in the Western Pacific, of which 29 became tropical storms. 15 storms reached typhoon intensity, of which 1 reached super typhoon strength. Many of the storms either remained at sea or failed to do any damage.


Severe Tropical Storm Nadine

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJanuary 6 – January 13
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min) 970 hPa (mbar)

Nadine stayed at sea and was the first severe tropical storm of the season. It lived at least 1 week.

Typhoon Olive (Atang)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationApril 15 – April 26
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min) 955 hPa (mbar)

In the Philippines, Typhoon Olive (Atang) killed 3 people and left 3,500 homeless.[1] A lengthened ex-”FS” ship of Compania Maritima was caught in it, the MV Leyte. She was wrecked in the southwestern portion of Sibuyan Island trying to reach shelter. She was then on a Manila-Cebu voyage.[2]

Tropical Storm Polly (Bising)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJune 13 – June 20
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min) 985 hPa (mbar)

Polly was the first of three short-lived June systems.

Tropical Storm Rose (Klaring)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJune 21 – June 24
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

Rose was the second of three weak June systems.

Tropical Storm Shirley (Deling)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJune 26 – June 30
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min) 992 hPa (mbar)

Shirley hit Vietnam as a tropical storm.

Typhoon Trix

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 11 – July 23
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min) 965 hPa (mbar)

Trix did a loop.

Typhoon Virginia

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 22 – August 2
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min) 975 hPa (mbar)

Virginia stayed largely at sea.

Typhoon Wendy (Emang)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 22 – August 3
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min) 960 hPa (mbar)

Wendy ultimately hit Japan.

Severe Tropical Storm Agnes

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 24 – July 30
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min) 980 hPa (mbar)

Agnes formed on July 24, made a complete loop, and struck China on July 29 with winds of 55 mph after peaking at 65 mph.[3] It dissipated the 30th. In Hong Kong Tropical Storm Agnes killed 3 people.[4]

Tropical Storm Bonnie

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 8 – August 12
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min) 985 hPa (mbar)

Bonnie hit Vietnam.

Typhoon Carmen (Iliang)

Very strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 10 – August 20
Peak intensity165 km/h (105 mph) (10-min) 970 hPa (mbar)

Carmen was short-lived.

Tropical Storm Della (Heling)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 10 – August 13
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min) 985 hPa (mbar)

Della landed in Taiwan and China.

Tropical Depression Loleng

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
DurationAugust 13 – August 17
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 1000 hPa (mbar)

Only recognized by PAGASA.

Tropical Storm 13W

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 14 – August 20
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min) 999 hPa (mbar)

13W was weak but hit Japan.

Typhoon Elaine (Miding)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 18 – August 28
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min) 965 hPa (mbar)

Elaine struck the Northern Philippines and the Chinese province of Guangdong.

Typhoon Faye

Very strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 25 – September 7
Peak intensity165 km/h (105 mph) (10-min) 935 hPa (mbar)

Faye stayed at sea.

Tropical Storm Gloria (Norming)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 28 – August 31
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min) 992 hPa (mbar)

Gloria stayed at sea.

Tropical Storm Hester

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 28 – September 1
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

Hester stayed away from land.

Typhoon Irma (Ruping)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 9 – September 15
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min) 970 hPa (mbar)

Irma, the eighth typhoon of the 1978 season, developed in the monsoon trough southeast of Taiwan.[5] It made landfall in Honshu, Japan. With winds of up to 120 km/h, Typhoon Irma killed at least 6 people and made about 3,000 homeless. Four people were missing and about 100 were injured by floods and landslides in southwestern Japan.[6] It destroyed or damaged 1,597 homes and left 6,266 homes flooded.[7] Irma smashed windows, overturned cars, and capsized several fishing boats. Several athletes at the Japan-China Friendship Track and Field Meet in Kitakyushu were injured when a freak gust blew them ten feet in the air. A Liberian-registered tanker was swept from its moorings off the port of Kure and drifted for nearly 5 kilometers before running aground off a small island in the Inland Sea.[6] Irma remained a typhoon for only 12 hours becoming the shortest-lived typhoon of the season.[5]

Typhoon Judy

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 9 – September 17
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min) 950 hPa (mbar)

Judy did not impact land.

Severe Tropical Storm Kit (Uding)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 20 – September 26
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

Kit hit Vietnam and The Philippines.

Typhoon Lola (Weling)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 20 – October 2
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min) 965 hPa (mbar)

Lola hit China and the Philippines.

Typhoon Mamie

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 29 – October 4
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min) 960 hPa (mbar)

Mamie recurved out to sea.

Severe Tropical Storm Nina (Yaning)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 6 – October 16
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min) 975 hPa (mbar)

According to the official reports, 59 people died and more than 500,000 were in evacuation centers in the Philippines.[8]

Typhoon Ora (Aning)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 8 – October 15
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min) 940 hPa (mbar)

Ora brushed Taiwan.

Tropical Depression 25W

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 8 – October 12
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 999 hPa (mbar)

25W did not affect land.

Tropical Depression 26W (Bidang)

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 10 – October 16
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 1002 hPa (mbar)

26W followed 25W.

Typhoon Phyllis

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 13 – October 22
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min) 955 hPa (mbar)

Phyllis recurved from Japan.

Typhoon Rita (Kading)

Violent typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 15 – October 29
Peak intensity220 km/h (140 mph) (10-min) 878 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Depression 28 developed October 15. Three and a half days later, it strengthened into a tropical storm. Rita became a typhoon late on October 19. Rita reached Category 5 status on October 23, reaching a minimum central pressure of 878 millibars on October 25, only 8 milibars higher than Typhoon Tip's record set in 1979. After spending over three consecutive days at that intensity, Rita weakened to a Category 4 and smashed ashore on Luzon. Rita stayed a typhoon during its entire passage over the Philippines and emerged into the South China Sea as a minimal typhoon. Rita then decayed slowly and dissipated as a depression near the coast of Vietnam. The typhoon caused considerable damage and loss of life in the Philippines, though exact numbers are unknown.

Tropical Storm Twenty-seven

Tropical storm (JMA)
DurationOctober 30 – November 3
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min) 994 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm 27 was weak and short-lived.

Severe Tropical Storm Tess

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 31 – November 6
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min) 975 hPa (mbar)

A tropical depression developed on October 31. The depression was upgraded to a tropical storm on November 2. Tess continued to intensify and reached its peak intensity as a 70 mph (110 km/h) storm; just short of typhoon status. The storm became extratropical on November 7.

Tropical Depression 30W (Delang)

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 15 – November 20
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 1002 hPa (mbar)

30W came close to land.

Typhoon Viola (Esang)

Violent typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 16 – November 24
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min) 910 hPa (mbar)

Increased convective activity in the monsoon trough was first noticed on satellite data on November 14 about 690 mi (1110 km) southeast of Truk. On November 16, the disturbance was upgraded to Tropical Depression 33. Based on an improved satellite signature, TD 33 was upgraded to Tropical Storm Viola at 1200 UTC November 17.[3] Viola continued to intensify as the storm moved on a northwestward track.[9] Late on November 19 reconnaissance aircraft confirmed that Viola's surface pressure had fallen to 977 mb; and, that an eye was beginning to form. Early on November 20, Viola was upgraded to a typhoon. Viola then started to rapidly intensify and reached peak intensity on November 21 with winds of 145 mph (230 km/h). Viola recurved away from Luzon on November 22.[3] By the next day, the storm had already weakened to a category 1 and further weakened to a tropical storm. Viola dissipated on November 24.[9]

Severe Tropical Storm Winnie

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 25 – November 30
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min) 980 hPa (mbar)

A tropical depression developed on November 25. It started to intensify while moving on a north-northwestward track. By November 28, it was upgraded to a tropical storm and was named Winnie. On the 29th, Winnie reached its peak intensity as severe tropical storm with (10-min) winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). Winnie became extratropical early on November 30.

Tropical Depression Garding

Tropical depression (JMA)
DurationDecember 13 – December 19
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 1004 hPa (mbar)

The last system of the season, Tropical Depression 63W(Garding) was named by PAGASA.

Storm names

During the season 28 named tropical cyclones developed in the Western Pacific and were named by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, when it was determined that they had become tropical storms. These names were contributed to a revised list from late 1950. However the JTWC changed their naming scheme by the next year, now including both female and male names.


One name, Susan, developed over the Central Pacific and was named from this list. The storm never became a part of the West Pacific basin.


Auxiliary list

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration uses its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones in their area of responsibility. PAGASA assigns names to tropical depressions that form within their area of responsibility and any tropical cyclone that might move into their area of responsibility. Should the list of names for a given year prove to be insufficient, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first 6 of which are published each year before the season starts. Names not retired from this list will be used again in the 1982 season. This is the same list used for the 1974 season. PAGASA uses its own naming scheme that starts in the Filipino alphabet, with names of Filipino female names ending with "ng" (A, B, K, D, etc.). Names that were not assigned/going to use are marked in gray.


Due to extreme damages and death toll caused by Typhoon Rita (Kading), PAGASA retired the name Kading in its auxiliary list. The name replaced was Katring.

Season effects

This table will list all the storms that developed in the northwestern Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line and north of the equator during 1978. It will include their intensity, duration, name, areas affected, deaths, missing persons (in parentheses), and damage totals. Classification and intensity values will be based on estimations conducted by the JMA. All damage figures will be in 1978 USD. Damages and deaths from a storm will include when the storm was a precursor wave or an extratropical low.

Name Dates Peak intensity Areas affected Damage
Deaths Refs
Category Wind speed Pressure
NadineJanuary 6 – 13Severe tropical storm100 km/h (65 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Marshall Islands None None
Olive (Atang)April 15 – May 1Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Palau, Philippines, Taiwan Unknown3
TDJune 7Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Philippines None None
TDJune 10Tropical depressionNot specified1008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Philippines None None
TDJune 12 – 13Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Philippines None None
Polly (Bising)June 14 – 20Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Ryukyu Islands, Japan None None
Rose (Klaring)June 21 – 25Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan None None
Shirley (Deling)June 28 – July 2Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia Unknown None
TDJuly 7 – 11Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Japan None None
TrixJuly 11 – 24Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Ryukyu Islands, China Unknown Unknown
TDJuly 16Tropical depressionNot specified1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)None None None
Wendy (Emang)July 22 – August 3Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)Ryukyu Islands, Japan None None
VirginiaJuly 22 – August 3Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Japan NoneNone
AgnesJuly 22 – 31Severe tropical storm100 km/h (65 mph)980 hPa (29.09 inHg)South China None3
TDJuly 31Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)None None None
TDAugust 4 – 5Tropical depressionNot specified1002 hPa (29.65 inHg)Taiwan None None
GadingAugust 4 – 8Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Taiwan None None
BonnieAugust 9 – 13Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)South China, Vietnam None None
Carmen (Iliang)August 9 – 20Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Ryukyu Islands, East China, Korea Unknown None
Della (Heling)August 9 – 13Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China None None
LolengAugust 13 – 17Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Philippines, South China None None
TDAugust 14Tropical depressionNot specified1002 hPa (29.65 inHg)Taiwan None None
13WAugust 18 – 20Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)998 hPa (29.47 inHg)Japan None None
TDAugust 18 – 19Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Palau None None
TDAugust 20Tropical depressionNot specified1002 hPa (29.65 inHg)Taiwan None None
Elaine (Miding)August 21 – 29Typhoon120 km/h (75 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Philippines, South China Unknown Unknown
TDAugust 22 – 24Tropical depressionNot specified1008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Korean Peninsula None None
TDAugust 26Tropical depressionNot specified1008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Ryukyu Islands None None
FayeAugust 27 – September 10Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Mariana Islands, Taiwan None None
Gloria (Norming)August 27 – 31Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)Ryukyu Islands None None
HesterAugust 28 – September 1Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Japan None None
OyangAugust 29 – 30Tropical depression45 km/h (30 mph)Not specifiedPhilippines None None
TDAugust 31 – September 2Tropical depressionNot specified1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)None None None
TDSeptember 2 – 7Tropical depressionNot specified1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan None None
Irma (Ruping)September 9 – 15Typhoon120 km/h (75 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, Japan None6
PasingSeptember 9 – 15Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Vietnam None None
JudySeptember 9 – 17Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)None None None
TDSeptember 10 – 11Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)Taiwan None None
SusangSeptember 13 – 19Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Palau, Philippines, Vietnam None None
TDSeptember 17Tropical depressionNot specified1008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Palau None None
Kit (Uding)September 20 – 28Severe tropical storm95 km/h (60 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Philippines, South China, Vietnam Unknown Unknown
TeringSeptember 21 – 22Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)998 hPa (29.47 inHg)Philippines None None
TDSeptember 21 − 22Tropical depressionNot specified1008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Ryukyu Islands None None
Lola (Weling)September 24 – October 5Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Philippines, South China Unknown Unknown
MamieSeptember 30 – October 5Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)None None None
TDOctober 5Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)None None None
Nina (Yaning)October 5 – 17Severe tropical storm110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Philippines, South China, Vietnam Unknown59
Ora (Aning)October 8 – 15Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands None None
25WOctober 11 – 14Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)None None None
26W (Bidang)October 11 – 17Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Caroline Islands, Philippines None None
PhyllisOctober 15 – 23Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)None None None
Rita (Kading)October 17 – 30Typhoon220 km/h (140 mph)880 hPa (25.98 inHg)Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Philippines$100 million>300
Twenty-sevenOctober 29 – November 3Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)994 hPa (29.35 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam None None
TessOctober 31 – November 7Severe tropical storm110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Philippines, South China, Vietnam None None
TDNovember 9 – 11Tropical depressionNot specified1008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Vietnam None None
TDNovember 10 – 12Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Philippines None None
TDNovember 15 – 16Tropical depressionNot specified1008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Vietnam None None
30W (Delang)November 16 – 20Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Philippines None None
Viola (Esang)November 17 – 24Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)910 hPa (26.97 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
TDNovember 25 – December 1Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Malaysia None None
WinnieNovember 25 – 30Severe tropical storm100 km/h (65 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Mariana Islands None None
TDDecember 4Tropical depressionNot specified1008 hPa (29.77 inHg)None None None
GardingDecember 13 – 19Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Philippines Unknown None
Season aggregates
63 systemsJanuary 6 – December 19, 1978220 km/h (140 mph)880 hPa (25.98 inHg)>$100 million>371

See also

  • Pacific typhoon season
  • 1978 Pacific hurricane season
  • 1978 Atlantic hurricane season
  • 1978 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
  • Australian region cyclone seasons: 1978–79 1979–80
  • South Pacific cyclone seasons: 1978–79 1979–80
  • South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seasons: 1978–79 1979–80


  1. "Typhoon". The Canberra Times. April 27, 1978. Retrieved October 23, 2016 via Trove.
  2. "Typhoon "Atang" | Philippine Ship Spotters Society". psssonline.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  3. 1978 ATCR TABLE OF CONTENTS Archived 2011-06-06 at the Wayback Machine
  4. "Historical Information". Archived from the original on 2015-05-16. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
  5. Morford, Dean R.; Lavin, James K. (January 1, 1995). "1978 Annual Typhoon Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 30, 2017. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  6. "Typhoon Irma leaves 3,000 homeless". The Canberra Times. September 18, 1978. Retrieved September 22, 2016 via Trove.
  7. "Typhoon brushes Japan; 6 die (September 16, 1978)". Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  8. "59 flood deaths". The Canberra Times. October 13, 1978. Retrieved October 23, 2016 via Trove.
  9. "Typhoon #31 (16-24 NOV 1978)". Unisys Weather. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
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