1977 Pacific typhoon season

The 1977 Pacific typhoon season was one of the least active Pacific typhoon seasons on record, with only 19 tropical storms forming. It was also the second of three known typhoon seasons during the satellite era (since 1960) to not produce a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon, sandwiched between the 1974 and 2017 seasons. The season's first storm, Severe Tropical Storm Patsy, formed on March 23 and the last, Typhoon Mary, dissipated on January 2, 1978. With Mary spanning two calendar years, it became the fourth typhoon to do so since 1945. Since then, two other typhoons have achieved this feat.

1977 Pacific typhoon season
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJanuary 10, 1977
Last system dissipatedJanuary 3, 1978
Strongest storm
NameBabe
  Maximum winds205 km/h (125 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure905 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions54
Total storms21
Typhoons11
Super typhoons3 (unofficial)
Total fatalities>235
Total damage> $23 million (1977 USD)
Related articles

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the International Date Line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see 1977 Pacific hurricane season. Tropical Storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin have the "W" suffix added to their number. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

Season summary

Typhoon Babe (1977)

Systems

A total of 54 tropical depressions were recognized by the various warning agencies this year in the Western Pacific, of which 20 became tropical storms. Eleven storms reached typhoon intensity, of which three reached super typhoon strength.[1]

Tropical Depression Atring

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
 
DurationJanuary 10 – January 13
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

Named by PAGASA.

Severe Tropical Storm Patsy

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationMarch 23 – March 31
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

Patsy stayed clear from land.

Tropical Depression 02W (Bining)

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
 
DurationMay 26 – May 27
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min) 1000 hPa (mbar)

2W was short-lived.

Severe Tropical Storm Ruth (Kuring)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationJune 14 – June 17
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min) 975 hPa (mbar)

Ruth hit China.

Tropical Depression 04W (Daling)

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 5 – July 6
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min) 995 hPa (mbar)

4W hit South China.

Typhoon Sarah (Elang)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 16 – July 21
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min) 970 hPa (mbar)

Sarah struck China.

Typhoon Thelma (Goring)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 21 – July 26
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min) 950 hPa (mbar)

A tropical disturbance east of the Philippines organized into a tropical depression on July 21. It moved to the northwest, strengthening into a tropical storm later that day and into a typhoon on the 22nd. After passing northern Luzon and dropping heavy rains, Thelma turned to the north, where it reached a peak intensity of 95 mph winds. The typhoon hit southern Taiwan on the 25th, crossed the island, and dissipated over southeastern China on the 26th. Though not a particularly strong storm, Thelma brought strong wind gusts and heavy rain, claiming more than 30 lives and bringing damage and destruction not seen to the island for over 80 years.

Typhoon Vera (Huling)

Violent typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 28 – August 1
Peak intensity205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min) 925 hPa (mbar)

Just 6 days after Thelma hit Taiwan, another typhoon was brewing to its east. Typhoon Vera, which developed on July 28, hit eastern Taiwan on the 31st as a 125 mph typhoon. It continued westward, and dissipated over southeastern China. The storm caused 25 additional fatalities to the island, with vast amounts of crop and property damage occurring.

Tropical Storm Wanda

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 31 – August 4
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min) 985 hPa (mbar)

Wanda stayed at sea.

Severe Tropical Storm Amy (Ibiang)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 20 – August 23
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min) 985 hPa (mbar)

Amy hit Taiwan.

JMA Tropical Storm Eight

Tropical storm (JMA)
 
DurationAugust 21 – August 22
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min) 988 hPa (mbar)

This storm was short-lived.

Super Typhoon Babe (Miling)

Violent typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 2 – September 12
Peak intensity205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min) 905 hPa (mbar)

Developing as a tropical depression on September 2, Babe initially tracked west-northwestward as it intensified. On September 5, an abrupt shift in steering currents caused the system to turn north-northwestward. Over the following two days, Babe quickly intensified, ultimately attaining its peak intensity early on September 8 with winds of 240 km/h (150 mph) and a barometric pressure of 905 mbar (hPa; 26.72 inHg). Not long after reaching this strength, another shift in the steering patterns caused the typhoon to execute a prolonged counter-clockwise arc, causing it to track through the Ryukyu Islands, as it interacted with a low pressure originating from the Korean Peninsula. During this time, the system gradually weakened and eventually it made landfall near Shanghai, China on September 11 as a minimal typhoon before dissipating inland the following day.[2][3]

Passing through the Ryukyu Islands as a powerful typhoon, Babe caused considerable damage in the region. More than 1,000 homes were destroyed and nearly 7,000 more were damaged or flooded. One person was killed on Amami Ōshima and 77 others were injured throughout the country.[4] Total losses reached ¥6.1 billion (US$23 million).[5] Offshore, over 100 vessels were affected by the storm, including a Panamanian freighter where 13 people lost their lives.[2] In China, more than 24,000 homes were destroyed and nine people were killed.[6]

Tropical Storm Carla (Luming)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 3 – September 5
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

Carla hit Vietnam.

Typhoon Dinah (Openg)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 14 – September 23
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min) 965 hPa (mbar)

The monsoon trough spawned a tropical storm on September 14 northeast of the northern Philippines. The previous typhoon brought the trough more northward, hence the unusually high latitude for a monsoon storm. Strong high pressure to Dinah's northwest forced the storm to the southwest, where it crossed northern Luzon on the 15th and 16th. Weak steering currents in the South China Sea allowed Dinah to drift, first then to the northeast then back to the west-southwest. Generally favorable conditions allowed Dinah to reach typhoon strength on the 19th, but a developing tropical storm to its northeast caused it to weaken. The building of the subtropical ridge forced Dinah to the southwest, where it hit southern Vietnam on the 23rd as a tropical depression. The remnants turned northward, crossed the Gulf of Tonkin, and dissipated over China on the 27th.

Dinah brought heavy rain and flooding to Luzon that killed 54 people and left 11 others missing.[7]

Tropical Depression Narsing

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 11 – September 13
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

The depression lasted two days.

Severe Tropical Storm Emma

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 15 – September 20
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min) 965 hPa (mbar)

Emma recurved from Japan.

Severe Tropical Storm Freda (Pining)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 23 – September 25
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min) 980 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Freda struck Hong Kong killing one person.[8]

Typhoon Gilda

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationOctober 3 – October 10
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min) 965 hPa (mbar)

Gilda recurved from Japan.

JMA Tropical Storm Fifteen

Tropical storm (JMA)
 
DurationOctober 11 – October 14
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

Existed way off Japan.

Tropical Depression Rubing

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
 
DurationOctober 14 – October 16
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

The depression was short-lived.

Tropical Storm Harriet (Saling)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationOctober 16 – October 20
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min) 980 hPa (mbar)

Harriet stayed at sea.

Typhoon Ivy

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationOctober 21 – October 27
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min) 940 hPa (mbar)

Ivy also stayed at sea.

Typhoon Jean

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationOctober 28 – November 3
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min) 970 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Jean was a tropical depression. It quickly became a tropical storm and on October 31, became a typhoon.

Tropical Depression Tasing

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
 
DurationNovember 3 – November 5
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

This depression was short-lived.

Typhoon Kim (Unding)

Violent typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationNovember 6 – November 17
Peak intensity205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min) 920 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Kim was a 150 mph super typhoon that hit the northern Philippines on November 13. The typhoon's heavy rains caused flash flooding that left 55 people dead with widespread damage. A further 47 people died when the upper floors of a hotel caught fire during the storm.

Typhoon Lucy (Walding)

Violent typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationNovember 28 – December 7
Peak intensity205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min) 920 hPa (mbar)

Lucy recurved from The Philippines.

Typhoon Mary (Yeyeng)

Very strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationDecember 20, 1977 – January 3, 1978
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min) 945 hPa (mbar)

Mary moved through the Marshall Islands.

Storm names

Western North Pacific tropical cyclones were named by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The first storm of 1977 was named Patsy and the final one was named Mary.

  • Agnes
  • Bonnie
  • Carmen
  • Della
  • Elaine
  • Faye
  • Gloria
  • Hester
  • Irma
  • Judy
  • Kit
  • Lola
  • Mamie
  • Nina
  • Owen
  • Phyllis
  • Rita
  • Susan
  • Tess
  • Viola
  • Winnie
  • Alice
  • Betty
  • Cora
  • Doris
  • Elsie
  • Flossie
  • Grace
  • Helen
  • Ida
  • June
  • Kathy
  • Lorna
  • Marie
  • Nancy
  • Olga
  • Pamela
  • Ruby
  • Sally
  • Therese
  • Violet
  • Wilda
  • Anita
  • Billie
  • Clara
  • Dot
  • Ellen
  • Fran
  • Georgia
  • Hope
  • Iris
  • Joan
  • Kate
  • Louise
  • Marge
  • Nora
  • Oral
  • Patsy 1W
  • Ruth 3W
  • Sarah 5W
  • Thelma 6W
  • Vera 7W
  • Wanda 8W
  • Amy 9W
  • Babe 10W
  • Carla 11W
  • Dinah 12W
  • Emma 13W
  • Freda 14W
  • Gilda 15W
  • Harriet 16W
  • Ivy 17W
  • Jean 18W
  • Kim 19W
  • Lucy 20W
  • Mary 21W
  • Nadine
  • Olive
  • Polly
  • Rose
  • Shirley
  • Trix
  • Virginia
  • Wendy

Philippines

AtringBiningKuringDalingElang
GoringHulingIbiangLumingMiling
NarsingOpengPiningRubingSaling
TasingUndingWaldingYeyeng
Auxiliary list
Anding (unused)
Binang (unused)Kadiang (unused)Dinang (unused)Epang (unused)Gundang (unused)

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration uses its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones in their area of responsibility. PAGASA assigns names to tropical depressions that form within their area of responsibility and any tropical cyclone that might move into their area of responsibility. Should the list of names for a given year prove to be insufficient, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first 6 of which are published each year before the season starts. Names not retired from this list will be used again in the 1981 season. This is the same list used for the 1973 season. PAGASA uses its own naming scheme that starts in the Filipino alphabet, with names of Filipino female names ending with "ng" (A, B, K, D, etc.). Names that were not assigned/going to use are marked in gray.

Retirement

Due to its impacts in the Philippines, PAGASA later retired the name Unding and was replaced by Unsing for the 1981 season. However, the name Unding would later be reused in the 2004 season, only for it to be re-retired by PAGASA due to its effects in Luzon.

Season effects

This table will list all the storms that developed in the northwestern Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line and north of the equator during 1977. It will include their intensity, duration, name, areas affected, deaths, missing persons (in parentheses), and damage totals. Classification and intensity values will be based on estimations conducted by the JMA. All damage figures will be in 1977 USD. Damages and deaths from a storm will include when the storm was a precursor wave or an extratropical low.

Name Dates Peak intensity Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Category Wind speed Pressure
AtringJanuary 10–15Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Philippines Unknown None
PatsyMarch 27–31Severe tropical storm95 km/h (60 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Marshall Islands None None
02W (Bining)May 25–27Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)None None None
TDMay 28–30Tropical depressionNot specified1,006 hPa (29.71 inHg)Mariana Islands None None
TDJune 12Tropical depressionNot specified1,008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Philippines None None
Ruth (Kuring)June 13–17Severe tropical storm110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Philippines, China, Taiwan Unknown Unknown
TDJune 26–27Tropical depressionNot specified1,007 hPa (29.74 inHg)None None None
04W (Daling)July 3–6Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)994 hPa (29.35 inHg)South China None None
TDJuly 4Tropical depressionNot specified1,008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Philippines None None
Sarah (Elang)July 14–22Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)Palau, Philippines, South China, Vietnam Unknown Unknown
TDJuly 14–15Tropical depressionNot specified1,006 hPa (29.71 inHg)Philippines None None
TDJuly 14–18Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
Thelma (Goring)July 19–27Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China Unknown30
Vera (Huling)July 25 – August 2Typhoon205 km/h (125 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, China Unknown25
WandaJuly 30 – August 7Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)None None None
TDJuly 30Tropical depressionNot specified1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)None None None
TDAugust 10Tropical depressionNot specified996 hPa (29.41 inHg)None None None
TDAugust 12Tropical depressionNot specified998 hPa (29.47 inHg)Mariana Islands None None
TDAugust 13–18Tropical depressionNot specified996 hPa (29.41 inHg)Japan None None
TDAugust 14–18Tropical depressionNot specified994 hPa (29.35 inHg)None None None
TDAugust 14–15Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)None None None
Amy (Ibiang)August 16–25Severe tropical storm110 km/h (70 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, Japan Unknown Unknown
TDAugust 17–20Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)None None None
TDAugust 20–21Tropical depressionNot specified996 hPa (29.41 inHg)Ryukyu Islands None None
EightAugust 21–22Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)988 hPa (29.18 inHg)Japan None None
TDAugust 21Tropical depressionNot specified996 hPa (29.41 inHg)Japan None None
TDAugust 27–28Tropical depressionNot specified1,000 hPa (29.53 inHg)None None None
Carla (Luming)August 31 – September 6Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Laos Unknown None
Babe (Miling)August 31 – September 12Typhoon205 km/h (125 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)Caroline Islands, Ryukyu Islands, East China$23 million23
TDSeptember 7–9Tropical depressionNot specified996 hPa (29.41 inHg)Japan None None
TDSeptember 8Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Vietnam None None
TDSeptember 10Tropical depressionNot specified1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
Dinah (Openg)September 11–26Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia Unknown54
TDSeptember 11–12Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)None None None
TDSeptember 11–12Tropical depressionNot specified1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
EmmaSeptember 12–21Severe tropical storm110 km/h (70 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan None None
NarsingSeptember 12–13Tropical depression45 km/h (30 mph)1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)Philippines None None
Freda (Pining)September 21–25Severe tropical storm100 km/h (60 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Philippines, South China None1
TDSeptember 26–29Tropical depressionNot specified1,008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Ryukyu Islands None None
TDSeptember 29Tropical depressionNot specified1,008 hPa (29.77 inHg)None None None
GildaOctober 3–9Typhoon120 km/h (75 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)None None Nonr
TDOctober 8Tropical depressionNot specified1,008 hPa (29.77 inHg)None None None
FifteenOctober 11–13Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Japan None None
RubingOctober 11–15Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Mariana Islands None None
Harriet (Saling)October 14–20Severe tropical storm100 km/h (60 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)None None None
IvyOctober 18–27Typhoon150 km/h (95 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Mariana Islands None None
JeanOctober 28 – November 5Typhoon120 km/h (75 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)None None None
TDOctober 30–31Tropical depressionNot specified1,008 hPa (29.77 inHg)None None None
TasingNovember 3–5Tropical depression45 km/h (30 mph)1,008 hPa (29.77 inHg)None Unknown Unknown
Kim (Unding)November 4–17Typhoon120 km/h (75 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)Mariana Islands, Philippines Unknown102
TDNovember 15–17Tropical depressionNot specified1,006 hPa (29.71 inHg)None None None
TDNovember 24Tropical depressionNot specified1,010 hPa (29.83 inHg)Philippines None None
Lucy (Walding)November 28 – December 9Typhoon205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
Mary (Yeyeng)December 18, 1977 – January 3, 1978Typhoon155 km/h (95 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)Marshall Islands, Caroline Islands, Philippines Unknown Unknown
Season aggregates
54 systemsJanuary 10, 1977 – January 3 1978205 km/h (125 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)>$23 million>235

See also

References

  1. 1977 ATCR TABLE OF CONTENTS Archived 2011-06-06 at the Wayback Machine
  2. "Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: Typhoon Babe" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. United States Navy. 1978. pp. 27–29. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 25, 2018. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  3. "1977 Babe (1977243N05156)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  4. "Typhoon Rakes Japan". The Spokesman-Review. Tokyo, Japan. Associated Press. September 11, 1977. p. A5. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  5. "台風197709号 (Babe) [沖永良部台風] – 災害情報". Digital Typhoon (in Japanese). National Institute of Informatics. 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  6. Yongqiang Zong and Xiqing Chen (March 1999). "Typhoon Hazards in the Shanghai Area". Disasters. 23 (1): 66–80. doi:10.1111/1467-7717.00105. PMID 10204288. (subscription required)
  7. "Destructive Typhoons 1970-2003". National Disaster Coordinating Council. November 9, 2004. Archived from the original on November 9, 2004. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  8. "Historical Information". Archived from the original on 2015-05-16. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
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