1976 Pacific typhoon season

The 1976 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1976, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

1976 Pacific typhoon season
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJanuary 27, 1976
Last system dissipatedDecember 30, 1976
Strongest storm
NameLouise
  Maximum winds260 km/h (160 mph)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure895 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions51
Total storms25
Typhoons15
Super typhoons4 (unofficial)
Total fatalities>650
Total damage> $1.162 billion (1976 USD)
Related articles

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the international date line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see 1976 Pacific hurricane season. Tropical Storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin have the "W" suffix added to their number. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

Systems

Typhoon FranTyphoon Pamela (1976)Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale

25 tropical storms formed this year in the Western Pacific. 14 storms reached typhoon intensity, of which 4 reached super typhoon strength.[1]

Typhoon Kathy

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJanuary 26 – February 2
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (1-min) 965 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Kathy was a Category 1 typhoon that stayed at sea for its whole life.

Tropical Depression Asiang

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
 
DurationJanuary 26 – February 1
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

Asiang was a Tropical Depression. It was named by PAGASA.

Tropical Depression Biring

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
 
DurationFebruary 8 – February 11
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

Biring was also named by PAGASA.

Tropical Storm Lorna

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationFebruary 25 – March 3
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min) 998 hPa (mbar)

Lorna did not affect land.

Typhoon Marie (Konsing)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationApril 1 – April 16
Peak intensity215 km/h (130 mph) (1-min) 930 hPa (mbar)

This category 4 typhoon affected the Philippines; but mostly stayed out to sea. Marie did not reach super typhoon status; but recorded a strong pressure of 930 millibars. Marie was the first category 4 of the season.

Severe Tropical Storm Nancy

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationApril 24 – May 3
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (1-min) 985 hPa (mbar)

Nancy stayed at sea.

Typhoon Olga (Didang)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationMay 10 – May 28
Peak intensity185 km/h (115 mph) (1-min) 940 hPa (mbar)

The monsoon trough spawned a tropical depression east of the Philippines on May 10. It tracked generally westward, reaching tropical storm status on the 13th while remaining poorly organized. On the 14th Olga relocated to the southeast, and regained tropical storm strength after weakening. The storm headed to the northwest, and looped in response to the approach of a long wave trough. After returning to a westward movement Olga, despite unfavorable wind shear, strengthened to a typhoon on the 20th. It rapidly intensified that night, and hit eastern Luzon early on the 21st as a 115 mph (185 km/h) typhoon. It drifted across the island, and turned northward in the South China Sea. Olga moved rapidly to the northeast, and on the 28th Olga was absorbed by a subtropical disturbance. Olga brought torrential flooding, at some points as much as 50 inches (1,300 mm) of rain. Because of this, 374 people were killed and thousands were left homeless. Olga also destroyed many of the sets used during the filming of Apocalypse Now.

Super Typhoon Pamela

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationMay 14 – May 29
Peak intensity240 km/h (150 mph) (1-min) 920 hPa (mbar)

The near equatorial trough produced a tropical depression on May 14 north of Chuuk. It moved southwestward, becoming a tropical storm on the 15th. Pamela slowly looped to the northwest, and reached typhoon status on the 16th. On the 18th and 19th, Pamela rapidly intensified to a 150 mph (240 km/h) super typhoon, and slowly weakened as it continued its northwest movement. On May 21 the typhoon crossed Guam with sustained winds of 140 mph (230 km/h). After slowly crossing the island, Pamela turned to the north, and weakened until becoming extratropical on the 26th. Pamela was the strongest typhoon to hit Guam since Super Typhoon Karen in 1962. Though Karen was much stronger, Pamela's slow crossing caused much more damage, amounting to $500 million (1976 USD, $1.7 billion 2005 USD). Well-executed warnings allowed for only one death in Guam. Before Typhoon Pamela hit Guam, ten people died in a landslide in Truk (Chuuk) from its heavy rains.

Tropical Depression Gloring

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
 
DurationJune 15 – June 18
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

Named by PAGASA

Typhoon Ruby (Huaning)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJune 20 – July 5
Peak intensity220 km/h (140 mph) (1-min) 935 hPa (mbar)

The monsoon trough spawned Tropical Depression 7W on June 20. It headed westward, slowly organizing into a tropical storm on the 23rd. Ruby turned to the northwest, and reached typhoon strength just before hitting Luzon on the 25th. It crossed the island, weakening to a tropical storm before turning to the northeast in the South China Sea. Ruby again became a typhoon on the 28th, and on July 2, the typhoon reached a peak of 140 mph (230 km/h) winds while south of Japan. The typhoon turned to the east, and became extratropical on the 3rd. 16 people were killed from the typhoon.

Typhoon Sally (Isang)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJune 24 – July 5
Peak intensity215 km/h (130 mph) (1-min) 925 hPa (mbar)

Sally did not threaten land.

Super Typhoon Therese

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 8 – July 21
Peak intensity250 km/h (155 mph) (1-min) 905 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Therese, which developed on July 8, explosively deepened on the 12th and 13th to a 155 mph (249 km/h) super typhoon. Therese weakened as it continued to the northwest, and struck southwest Japan on the 19th as a tropical storm. It looped to the west, and dissipated on the 21st. Therese caused heavy flooding, killing 3 people and causing millions in damage.

Severe Tropical Storm Violet (Lusing)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 20 – July 27
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (1-min) 985 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Violet struck Hong Kong and Hainan Island killing 2 people.[2]

Severe Tropical Storm Wilda

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 17 – July 24
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min) 985 hPa (mbar)

Wilda hit Japan.

Typhoon Anita (Maring)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 20 – July 27
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (1-min) 980 hPa (mbar)

Anita hit Japan.

Typhoon Billie (Nitang)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationJuly 31 – August 12
Peak intensity230 km/h (145 mph) (1-min) 915 hPa (mbar)

When 105 mph (169 km/h) Typhoon Billie hit eastern Taiwan and China, it caused heavy flooding and wind damage, amounting to 4 casualties (with 8 missing and 41 drownings) and $2.6 million in damage (1976 USD).

Severe Tropical Storm Clara

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 2 – August 8
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min) 985 hPa (mbar)

Clara hit China.

Tropical Storm Dot (Osang)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 17 – August 24
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (1-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

Dot hit China and Japan.

Tropical Storm Ellen (Paring)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationAugust 20 – August 25
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min) 992 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Ellen struck Hong Kong killing 27 people and left 3 missing.[2]

Super Typhoon Fran (Reming)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 2 – September 15
Peak intensity240 km/h (150 mph) (1-min) 910 hPa (mbar)

An area of disturbed weather organized into Tropical Depression 17W on September 2. It tracked northwestward, becoming a tropical storm on the 4th and a typhoon on the 6th. Fran rapidly intensified to a 150 mph (240 km/h) super typhoon on the 7th, and weakened as it turned northward. After stalling and drifting to the west, Fran continued its northward movement, hit southwestern Japan on the 12th, and became extratropical in the Sea of Japan on the 13th. The storm caused heavy flooding and wind damage, causing 133 fatalities (with 32 missing) and $572 million in damage (1976 USD, $1.9 billion in 2005 USD), the worst Japanese typhoon in over 10 years.

Tropical Storm Georgia

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 8 – September 16
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

Georgia moved north away from land.

Typhoon Hope

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 13 – September 19
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (1-min) 965 hPa (mbar)

Hope did not come near land.

Tropical Depression Seniang

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
 
DurationSeptember 13 – September 14
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

Seniang was short-lived.

Typhoon Iris (Toyang)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 14 – September 29
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (1-min) 975 hPa (mbar)

Iris meandered over the South China Sea and struck South China.

Typhoon Joan

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationSeptember 18 – September 25
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (1-min) 965 hPa (mbar)

Joan recurved east of Japan.

Typhoon Louise (Welpring)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5-equivalent super typhoon (SSHWS)
 
DurationOctober 27 – November 9
Peak intensity260 km/h (160 mph) (1-min) 895 hPa (mbar)

Louise was the strongest typhoon of the season, becoming a Super Typhoon, bringing minor impacts to the Philippines and Japan.

Typhoon Marge (Yoning)

Typhoon (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationNovember 4 – November 12
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (1-min) 975 hPa (mbar)

Marge was a strong tropical storm.

Severe Tropical Storm Nora (Aring)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationDecember 1 – December 8
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min) 990 hPa (mbar)

Nora brushed the Philippines.

Tropical Storm Opal (Basiang)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
 
DurationDecember 8 – December 10
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min) 995 hPa (mbar)

Opal was a minimal tropical storm.

Tropical Depression Kayang

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
 
DurationDecember 29 – December 30
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

The depression lasted a day.

Storm names

Western North Pacific tropical cyclones were named by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The first storm of 1976 was named Kathy and the final one was named Opal.

  • Agnes
  • Bonnie
  • Carmen
  • Della
  • Elaine
  • Faye
  • Gloria
  • Hester
  • Irma
  • Judy
  • Kit
  • Lola
  • Mamie
  • Nina
  • Ora
  • Phyllis
  • Rita
  • Susan
  • Tess
  • Viola
  • Winnie
  • Alice
  • Betty
  • Cora
  • Doris
  • Elsie
  • Flossie
  • Grace
  • Helen
  • Ida
  • June
  • Kathy 1W
  • Lorna 2W
  • Marie 3W
  • Nancy 4W
  • Olga 5W
  • Pamela 6W
  • Ruby 7W
  • Sally 8W
  • Therese 9W
  • Violet 10W
  • Wilda 11W
  • Anita 12W
  • Billie 13W
  • Clara 14W
  • Dot 15W
  • Ellen 16W
  • Fran 17W
  • Georgia 18W
  • Hope 19W
  • Iris 20W
  • Joan 21W
  • Kate 22C
  • Louise 23W
  • Marge 24W
  • Nora 25W
  • Opal 26W
  • Patsy
  • Ruth
  • Sarah
  • Thelma
  • Vera
  • Wanda
  • Amy
  • Babe
  • Carla
  • Dinah
  • Emma
  • Freda
  • Gilda
  • Harriet
  • Ivy
  • Jean
  • Kim
  • Lucy
  • Mary
  • Nadine
  • Olive
  • Polly
  • Rose
  • Shirley
  • Trix
  • Virginia
  • Wendy

One Central Pacific system developed, Hurricane Kate. The policy at the time was to use Western Pacific names the Central Pacific.

Philippines

AsiangBiringKonsingDidangEdeng
GloringHuaningIsangLusingMaring
NitangOsangParingRemingSeniang
ToyangUnsangWelpringYoning
Auxiliary list
Aring
BasiangKayangDorang (unused)Enang (unused)Grasing (unused)

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration uses its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones in their area of responsibility. PAGASA assigns names to tropical depressions that form within their area of responsibility and any tropical cyclone that might move into their area of responsibility. Should the list of names for a given year prove to be insufficient, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first 6 of which are published each year before the season starts. Names not retired from this list will be used again in the 1980 season. This is the same list used for the 1972 season. PAGASA uses its own naming scheme that starts in the Filipino alphabet, with names of Filipino female names ending with "ng" (A, B, K, D, etc.). Names that were not assigned/going to use are marked in gray.

Season effects

This table will list all the storms that developed in the northwestern Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line and north of the equator during 1976. It will include their intensity, duration, name, areas affected, deaths, missing persons (in parentheses), and damage totals. Classification and intensity values will be based on estimations conducted by the JMA, however due to lack of information around this time sustained winds were recorded by the JTWC. All damage figures will be in 1976 USD. Damages and deaths from a storm will include when the storm was a precursor wave or an extratropical low.

Name Dates Peak intensity Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Category Wind speed Pressure
KathyJanuary 27 – February 2Typhoon155 km/h (100 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
AsiangJanuary 28 – February 1Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)Philippines None None
TDFebruary 1 – 5Tropical depressionNot specified1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Mariana Islands None None
BiringFebruary 8 – 11Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1010 hPa (29.83 inHg)Philippines None None
LornaFebruary 27 – March 1Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)998 hPa (28.47 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
Marie (Konsing)April 2 – 14Typhoon215 km/h (130 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Palau None None
NancyApril 25 – May 2Severe tropical storm 100 km/h (65 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)None None None
Olga (Didang)May 11 – 27Typhoon185 km/h (115 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Philippines, Ryukyu Islands Unknown374
PamelaMay 14 – 27Typhoon240 km/h (150 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands$500 million11
TDMay 14 – 15Tropical depressionNot specified1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)Palau None None
GloringJune 14 – 21Tropical depression55 km/h (35 mph)1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)Philippines, Ryukyu Islands None None
TDJune 16Tropical depressionNot specified1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)None None None
Ruby (Huaning)June 21 – July 4Typhoon220 km/h (140 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands Unknown16
TDJune 21 – 22Tropical depressionNot specified1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)South China None None
SallyJune 23 – July 3Typhoon215 km/h (130 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
ThereseJuly 9 – 21Typhoon250 km/h (155 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan Unknown3
TDJuly 17 – 18Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
TDJuly 18 – 21Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)None None None
Violet (Lusing)July 19 – 27Severe tropical storm 100 km/h (65 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)South China None0 2
WildaJuly 21 – 24Severe tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Japan None None
Anita (Maring)July 21 – 27Typhoon120 km/h (75 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Japan Unknown None
TDJuly 24Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)None None None
TDJuly 26 – 27Tropical depressionNot specified1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)None None None
TDJuly 30 – August 2Tropical depressionNot specified1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)Ryukyu Islands None None
TDJuly 30 – August 1Tropical depressionNot specified1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan None None
Billie (Nitang)August 1 – 12Typhoon120 km/h (75 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, East China$2.6 million48
TDAugust 1 – 2Tropical depressionNot specified1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)None None None
ClaraAugust 2 – 7Severe tropical storm 75 km/h (45 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)South China Unknown Unknown
TDAugust 2 – 3Tropical depressionNot specified1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)South China None None
Dot (Oyang)August 17 – 23Tropical storm95 km/h (60 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Japan, East China, South Korea None None
Ellen (Paring)August 20 – 25Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)992 hPa (28.29 inHg)Philippines, South China Unknown27
TDAugust 31 – September 2Tropical depressionNot specified1012 hPa (29.89 inHg)None None None
FranSeptember 3 – 14Typhoon240 km/h (150 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan$660 million169
GeorgiaSeptember 8 – 16Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
TDSeptember 9Tropical depressionNot specified1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)None None None
Iris (Toyang)September 13 – October 1Typhoon140 km/h (85 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Philippines, South China Unknown Unknown
HopeSeptember 13 – 18Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)None None None
SeniangSeptember 13 – 14Tropical depression45 km/h (30 mph)1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)None None None
TDSeptember 17 – 18Tropical depressionNot specified1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Mariana Islands None None
JoanSeptember 18 – 24Typhoon130 km/h (89 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)None None None
TDSeptember 19Tropical depressionNot specified1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)None None None
TDSeptember 26Tropical depressionNot specified1008 hPa (29.77 inHg)Ryukyu Islands None None
TDSeptember 29 – October 1Tropical depressionNot specified1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)None None None
UndangSeptember 29 – October 2Tropical depression45 km/h (30 mph)1002 hPa (29.53 inHg)Ryukyu Islands None None
Louise (Welpring)October 28 – November 8Typhoon260 km/h (160 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)Caroline Islands, Philippines None None
Marge (Yoning)November 4 – 11Typhoon110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Caroline Islands, Ryukyu Islands None None
TDNovember 21Tropical depressionNot specified1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
TDNovember 28 − 30Tropical depressionNot specified1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)Philippines None None
Nora (Aring)December 2 – 7Severe tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Philippines Unknown Unknown
Opal (Barang)December 7 – 10Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)996 hPa (29.41 inHg)Caroline Islands None None
KayangDecember 28 – 30Tropical depression45 km/h (30 mph)1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Philippines Unknown Unknown
Season aggregates
51 systemsJanuary 27 – December 30, 1976260 km/h (160 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)>$1.16 billion>650

See also

  • Pacific typhoon season
  • 1976 Pacific hurricane season
  • 1976 Atlantic hurricane season
  • 1976 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
  • Australian region cyclone seasons: 1975–76 1976–77
  • South Pacific cyclone seasons: 1975–76 1976–77
  • South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seasons: 1975–76 1976–77

References

  1. "1976 ATCR TABLE OF CONTENTS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-19. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
  2. "Historical Information". Archived from the original on 2015-05-16. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
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